The Alleynian 711 2023

Alleynian the Summer 2023 No.711




Staff editor Jo Akrill


Student editors Zaki Kabir Daniel Kamaluddin Francis McCabe Alexander Poli Student team Alex Gerasimchuk Oliver Green Alexandre Gruffat Sujaan Singh Kochhar



Alleynian the REFLECTIONS

Alex Levitt Kit Parsons Ahimsa Ravi Jack Sadayo Nicholas Wales Zakariah Zahid


WELLBEING [ 51–53 ]

Student photographer Dorian Todd-Miller

MUSIC [ 54–59 ] ART [ 60–85 ]

Assistant staff editors (pages 64–171) Nina Firkin Elliot Read Staff section editors Art: Mary Jo Doherty and Georgia Mackie Drama: Kathryn Norton-Smith Music: Lesley Larkum Sport: Phil Greenaway Valete: Fiona Angel and Roz Bettridge

DRAMA & DANCE [ 86–107 ]

SPORTS [ 108–125 ] TRIPS [ 126–137 ]

Photography The Alleynian features photographs by students, staff and professional photographers. We would like to thank all those whose photographs appear in this edition. Drama photography is by Hugo Phillpot ( Me & My Girl ), Eva Kraljevic, and Eddie Loodmer-Elliott.

FREE LEARNING [ 138–149 ]

Front cover image: Manipulations V2, by Henry Hurd Back cover image: Manipulations V3, by Henry Hurd

Design and layout Paula Larsson


Proof-reader and subeditor Frances Button

CCF & DofE [ 164–169 ] THE UNION [ 170–173 ] VALETE [ 174–200 ]

Printing Empress Litho

The Alleynian team would like to thank all those staff and students who have made it such a pleasure to put together this edition. Special thanks go to Joseph Spence, Jane Scott, Deborah Field, Charlotte Judet, Calista Lucy and Freddie Witts, and to Helen McErlain and Harriet Brook (whose beautiful coronation-themed cake is pictured here), as well as to all of our incredibly kind, patient and helpful colleagues working in IT support. We would also like to express our warm appreciation towards all those who have contributed text and images to this Alleynian : thank you for working so hard to meet our demanding deadlines!



Researching his family’s history has been fascinating and moving in equal measure, says Alex Levitt (Year 12)

The editorship of this Alleynian has been shared by four Year 12 students, each of them having written for the publication for many years. Here, they present their thoughts about the experience, and about the magazine itself EDITORS’ INTRODUCTION left to right: Staff editor Jo Akrill; Daniel Kamaluddin; Francis McCabe; Alexander Poli; Zaki Kabir

O ver the past year, I have devoted considerable time to researching my family history. Prompted by the death of my great-aunt and the clearing out of her house, my research has primarily focused on the family of my maternal grandfather, her brother. It has involved both online research and a study of the photo- graphs and documents which we found in my great-aunt’s house. Family research is a hugely rewarding activity and one I would recommend to all. Here, I hope to provide some advice to other students on how to proceed, as well as recounting some details of what I have found. The help of older relations, some of whom may have done their own research – the fruits of which they may be able to impart to you – is invaluable. It is definitely worth asking for information, adding to what you know already. As students at Dulwich College, we have the advantage of access to the website Ancestry, which many of us will already have used during the Year 9 Great War Project. It is accessible through the Libraries section of MyDulwich. You must log in first at school, although after that, the website can be accessed from anywhere. One thing it can help you with is finding the addresses of ancestors: for example, you could start by searching for a great-grand- parent. The search results may include census records, and by clicking on one of these, you can find an address quickly. Then, you can do a wider online search for this address and, if you are in luck, past (or present) sales par- ticulars and photographs should be within reach. It can be interesting to compare these with old family photographs, if you have access to these. While investigating the houses in which one set of my great-grandparents lived, I found many interesting things. I discovered one house – for sale at present – fairly easily.

A After such an overwhelming three years, during which time social isolation was an often unwelcome feature of our lives, we were delighted when Ms Akrill appointed us last September as editors of this year’s Alleynian . While each of us was eager to influence the publication in our own way, any fears we might have had about internal disagreements proved unfounded. Indeed, thanks to our individual yet complementary approaches, I believe the publication has become a truly special work. Much as the tributaries of a river wend their individual ways across a limestone plateau, we all drew the best out of both the Alleynian and our- selves, and are overjoyed to share this celebration of what we, as a school, can create. We hope that you see a little of yourselves reflected in this year’s magazine. Alexander Poli We have developed our articles with the theme of reflec- tions in mind, considering how the myriad meanings of that word might feed not just into school life, but also into the turbulences of the socio-political landscape of the year 2022–23. Starting with reflections on family history, we pro- ceed with articles on communities and on issues of interest both within the school and outside: we consider movements built from the ground up to protect the interests of workers; we look at issues which affect young people and those in the world of work; and we even reflect on national attitudes towards the most royal of families. As this year’s editors, we have aimed to capture a glimpse of how events have affected us and our peers, and to share with our readership the ways in which we have reflected on them. Zaki Kabir W


On an individual level, each one of us lives in a world of reflections. Every morning we see ourselves, bleary-eyed, cast in glass before us. We go to school and work, and meet people, and encounter ideas that in some way corre- spond to our inner lives. Our digital lives and our percep- tions of others online are defined by recorded reflections of our past selves. But reflections show not just the physical outer life; we reflect on ourselves, the people around us and our values. In reflecting, we probe beyond the surface level. Reflections are a two-dimensional glimpse into our terrifyingly complex three-dimensional world. And they al- low us, like no other tool, to understand the world around us, or as the Bard put it, to hold up a ‘mirror to nature’. Daniel Kamaluddin The Alleynian strives to strike a balance between serving as a chronicle of our College and maintaining a critical outlook on the political, social, economic and personal environ- ments around us. At its best, it enables us both to recount the events of the previous years, in all their disastrous brevity, and to reflect upon our inner selves, which were perhaps most affected by being locked down during the pandemic. As the lasting effects of lockdown continue to dissolve, we emerge with transformed, explorative prac- tices, into a new period of history, altering our behaviours with one another, whilst still discovering fresh complexities within ourselves. Francis McCabe

However, there were some difficulties in tracing the other houses they lived in. The first two houses they owned have been demolished. To find the first, I looked at the 1901 census and the National Library of Scotland’s histor- ic maps database (which covers the whole of the UK), and eventually I found an old photograph of it online. For the second and fourth houses, however, the human tendency to rename made things more difficult. The road on which the second one was situated turned out to have been renamed, although I found it using the National Library of Scotland resource. The fourth house, which still exists, was particularly complicated to find as my great-grand- parents, who had owned it as a second home for some years before moving there permanently, somewhat bi- zarrely changed its name to the name of their main home. Since then, however, its name has reverted to what it was previously. I must stress that this activity was not simple; my discoveries were the result of thoughts and research in spare moments over a period of several months.






One of the most interesting and sobering things I found was a collection of letters on the Commonwealth War Graves Commission website, which were exchanged be- tween my great-grandfather and the authorities involved in the location and burial of the Great War dead. Included was a transcription of a short letter (which had somehow been lost in transit) which

It is very possible that distant – or not so distant – rela- tives will have created family trees on Ancestry; these are helpful for finding a multitude of records about individ- uals, as well as for going far further back in your family. There is a caveat: some users are more skilled than others in creating these accurately, although on the whole, it is a very useful feature.

my great-uncle had attempt- ed to send to his father, my great-grandfather, short- ly before he died: ‘Dear Father, I am still living but have one lung pierced as well as the right leg and one shoulder. Please try to find me. Edwin.’ Tragically, he had been shot down over

In addition, there are sev- eral other online resources which you can use to gain more detailed knowledge of your ancestors. For exam- ple, the British Newspaper Archive – which is, unfortu- nately, not provided by the College – can be of use for reading both letters to news-

Perhaps as a result of being deeply involved in the early motor industry, he felt some degree of entitlement to drive at well over twice the national speed limit of 20 mph

Belgium on 10 November 1918. He was rescued by some locals, but died – aged 19 – either on 12 or 13 November, having been transferred to a German military hospital. I hope that I have provided useful advice and interesting anecdotes, and that I have inspired some readers of the Alleynian to carry out their own research. What you will find will surely interest you. Best of luck! ◎

papers written by ancestors as well as, possibly, articles featuring them. You may be surprised by the extent to which your ancestors feature, especially in local newspa- pers. Of some amusement to me and my family were the accounts of my great-grandfather’s speeding offences ¬– in both cars and motorcycles – which from 1908 started to appear in local newspapers. An engineer, industrialist and racing driver, he designed the centre-lock wire wheel and, furthermore, was a director and from 1923 chairman of Rudge-Whitworth, a motorcycle manufacturer. He was also a director of the car manufacturer Lanchester. Per- haps as a result of being deeply involved in the early mo- tor industry, he felt some degree of entitlement to drive at well over twice the (admittedly widely flouted) national speed limit of 20 mph; on one occasion, an eyewitness said in court that he ‘flashed by like a rocket’.

It is very possible that distant – or not so distant – relatives will have created family trees on Ancestry

An eyewitness said in court that he ‘flashed by like a rocket’






became the first ever Soil Association organic Christmas tree farm in the UK, and regularly run educational and charitable events. Finally, in my business capacity, I helped to pioneer the modern Wellbeing at Work movement, using the holistic principles of Wing Tsun to create a kinder, yet more effective way of looking at business for CEOs and senior leaders. Nurturing this innovative spirit and freedom from limitation has been a strong part of Dulwich history AR: You began to teach martial arts whilst still a student at Dulwich College. How was your experience and phi- losophy of martial arts influenced by the College? JH: Learning at Dulwich taught me to focus on what was important to me. I learned that you can’t expect others to understand or to know what your purpose in life is. That is for you to know. It taught me to be creative with my time, and to learn what rules I had to follow and what rules I had to break. I was training 30 hours a week during the last two years of my schooling, so I had to find a way to make that work for me. It gave me an appreciation of both the benefits and the limitations of structures and institu- tions, and taught me that what may seem hard at the time can provide the building blocks of some of the greatest things you can do. Above all, I learned how important it is never to outsource your personal authority to anyone else. At the same time, I realised that we all need the right support structure around us to be successful, happy and harmonious. Finally, Dulwich taught me the importance of asking questions, rather than blindly following. AR: You have come back many times to teach martial arts to students at this school. In what ways have you seen that it has changed? JH: Dulwich has undoubtedly become kinder since I left, moving to a pastoral care system from a much harsher and more uncaring system, which I’ve seen reflected in the students in the last 20 years. However, there is one side which I feel Dulwich has neglected, which is the nurturing of mavericks. Nobody positively changed the world by following other people’s rules, ways and meth- ods. Nurturing this innovative spirit and freedom from limitation has been a strong part of Dulwich history, and we are at risk of losing it. Kindness doesn’t have to mean complete compliance. Be more maverick. ◎

no longer find yourself held back by previous experi- ences. We all have our own unique gifts, strengths and skills. The importance in life is to understand, find and live yours. If you can find something you are passionate about, and you can combine that with dedication, focus and good structure, what you can achieve is limitless. Too often we take on the ideas and the limits of others. Also, in life and business one of the core competitive advan- tages is the ability to learn fast. Aim for good grades, but know that they are no measure of your life success, nor should they hold you back. Use them as a stepping stone to create the life you want to live – not the life others think you should. Understand that the current state of play in education, no matter how well-intentioned, is never going to give you the knowledge you need to be successful. AR: In 2019, you released a book by the name of Winning Not Fighting. What is this about? JH: The overarching concept of this book is that we need to reclaim the way we live and succeed in life. The conventional method of gaining ‘success’ is not working for us: despite living longer, we are getting sicker and more unhappy as a society. One example of this is that we have adopted military metaphors when talking about life (think ‘choose your battles’, ‘destroy the competi- tion’ and ‘smash your targets’). This is neither accurate (business and life are not war), nor is it helpful. It sets up a stressful, combative experience of life. Our book documents how we used the principles of Wing Tsun Kung Fu to help Leon Restaurants (a healthy fast-food chain) go through a process of change to become a more holistic and successful business, with the chain growing from 17 to 71 restaurants and the value of the business multiplying by a factor of 10, to £100 million, within seven years. AR: You have multiple business endeavours outside your career in martial arts. Would you mind explaining what these are, and the philosophy behind some of them? JH: Everything in my life has the single motive of mak- ing a positive difference to the world around me. My martial arts schools (Kwoon) are focused on empower- ment development, and the ability to see, understand and remove the limitations that stop us from being the best expressions of ourselves. Similarly, my Christmas tree business, Magic of Foresters, is about empowering people to have a better relationship with nature, show- ing that there is a more sustainable way of growing. We

Ahimsa Ravi (Year 12) interviews Julian Hitch OA about the ancient martial art of Wing Tsun, and its influence on his life and work

than saying you are not good enough as you are now, an all too common narrative, Wing Tsun teaches that all you need to do is understand and use what you already have. AR: What is the philosophy behind this martial art, and how is it still relevant today? JH: Firstly, it gives you the ability to challenge thoughts and narratives, providing a safe space to ask the all-im- portant question, ‘are your thoughts your own?’ Just because something is a prevailing thought, adopted by a vocal majority, that doesn’t make it right. Critical think- ing, together with the ability to combine intuition with the courage to ask questions, allows you to experience a special kind of freedom. Wing Tsun teaches you to see beyond your own limited personality and perceptions and to notice when you are being controlled by shame or fear – as well as teaching you how to let go of these emotions. Secondly, it shows you how to look for positive solutions and connections, allowing you to understand how even stressful situations can be a gift and an oppor- tunity for you to develop (even if it doesn’t feel like it in the moment). Finally, it gives you the tools to be suc- cessful in whatever you do in life. When you know more about yourself, about how to connect with others and about how society works, as well as having the skills and knowledge to capitalise on these, you can experience a level of success enjoyed by few. AR: The theme of this year’s Alleynian is ‘reflections’. How does what you teach help your students to reflect on the past, and to embrace the future? JH: Wing Tsun helps everyone to gain the ability to understand and broaden their own perceptions, thoughts and behaviours. When you understand that ‘thoughts are not reality’ you get a new lease of life. Combine this with understanding your own unconscious drivers, and you We all need the right support structure around us to be successful, happy and harmonious

AHIMSA RAVI: You are currently a teacher of Wing Tsun martial arts. What is this, and what is its history?

JULIAN HITCH: The aim of Wing Tsun is to create freedom and to transform the lives of those who practise it. It provides practical tools, methodologies and models as to how we can all create a kinder, more successful

society. Historically, Wing Tsun Kung Fu is an unusual art; it dates back to 495 AD in China, and is the only martial art with women as creators (it is named after one of them). This means its approach to life and to conflict is different from most other martial arts. Rather than a ‘might is right’ approach, as was favoured in the West, it took a far more harmonious approach, looking to see how it was possible to create harmony rather than conflict. And if conflict does happen, it teaches you to focus on winning, rather than being in a protracted situation that drains your energy, time and resources and, ultimately, stops you winning. Physically, Wing Tsun gives you the skills to defend yourself (something it is very good at – we teach it to Special Forces Units amongst others). But this is almost a by-product rather than its central aim, which is to create enlightenment through physical movements. The self-defence aspect is used to help you face your primal fears and then be able to move through these to create a different reality for yourself. If you take the model of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Wing Tsun enables you to move from survival all the way to self-actualisation. Wing Tsun teaches that ‘when you train the hands you train the brain’, meaning that the wisdoms you learn are not something you have to remember; they become embodied within you. A second, similarly empowering message is that ‘you have everything you need within you’. So rather






Alexandre Gruffat (Year 12) considers the highs and lows of last year’s World Cup, during which football found itself at the centre of more than one political controversy

A s Morocco’s Youssef En-Nesyri pitched the ball into Portugal’s goal, sealing his team’s place in the semi-finals, you could almost hear the famous words of Peter Drury, speaking in 2010: ‘Goal for South Africa. Goal for all Africa.’ Sofiane Boufal danced on the pitch with his mother, celebrating the history that he and his teammates had just made: Morocco was now the first African nation to reach the semi-final stages of Sofiane Boufal danced on the pitch with his mother, celebrating the history that he and his teammates had just made a World Cup. In the history of the event, up until this moment, 85 of the 88 teams reaching the semi-finals had been from Europe or South America. Morocco had finally broken the deadlock. Magic System’s words hit home as fans in Abu Dhabi sang ‘Magic in the Air’. The Moroccan flag flew high in skies from Ivory Coast to Palestine, whilst high-profile figures including the prime minister of Libya and the leaders of the UAE praised the Moroccan effort. Even ordinary Algerians, for whom politics has no role in football, celebrated their neighbour’s victory. The Algeri- an government, on the other hand, took a different stance: their decision not to acknowledge Morocco’s victory on national TV showed how relations remain sour. Football and politics are inseparable. Longstanding his- torical issues include match-fixing and bribery, and since the turn of the 21st century, there has been in addition a proliferation of events leading to controversy. In 2002, for example, the decision to allow Japan and Korea to jointly host the 2002 tournament during monsoon sea-

son was widely questioned. Other issues included fans having to traverse the Korea Strait as they travelled from one stadium to another, and fans from Europe having to watch matches in the morning, as they were played in the evening. Furthermore, when the host countries were announced, Japan had yet to qualify for the World Cup, leading to speculation as to whether it had paid to co-host the tournament. The parallels with the 2022 World Cup are clear. In addition FIFA and Qatar have had to wrestle with issues such as the treatment of migrant workers and questions of freedom of expression. With 90% of its labour force coming from overseas, Qatar has the highest ratio of migrant workers to citizens in the world, the majority of them hailing from India, Bangladesh and the Philippines. Amnesty International first shed light on the exploitation of migrant workers in 2013, and has since worked alongside groups like the ILO (International Labour Organisation) to enact reforms. But an asymmetry is clear: organisations have strived to enact and enforce regulation whereas Qatar has seemed reluctant to intro-

of Qatar by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain and Egypt was put on hold, as maritime and airspace borders reo- pened. In one TikTok, American, Iranian and Saudi fans could be seen dancing together, and following the Saudi team’s triumph over Argentina, the Saudi flag was project- ed onto Qatari high-rises – all despite the considerable geopolitical tensions. The event was one of opportunity: fans were able to make the most out of closely located stadiums, with some attending more than 40 games, and

ployees. Complaints are met with threats of preventing the individual from ever leaving the country; contracts outlin- ing lower pay are signed in foreign languages; recruitment fees, meant to be paid by the employer, are imposed on the worker instead, costing individuals as much as US$4300, and leaving them with onerous debt. The second issue is freedom of expression. Gianni Infanti- no, president of FIFA, assured fans of many things before the ball got rolling, declaring that ‘everyone is welcome’ and that ‘politics should stay out of foot-

for two English fans a moment of serendipitous good fortune was enjoyed when they were invited back to a sheikh’s son’s palace whilst on the search for beer. It was also a tournament of landmarks: Stéphanie Frappart became the first woman to ref- eree a men’s World Cup match, despite Qatar’s refusal to sup- port women’s rights; Morocco undertook a journey which proved inspirational for Africa

ball’. Yet just hours before England were scheduled to play Iran, FIFA warned the Three Lions that wear- ing the ‘OneLove’ armband would be yellow-carded. In addition, US journalist Grant Wahl was detained for wear- ing a T-shirt featuring a rain- bow, and a protestor waving the peace flag and wearing a

The issue of human rights in the peninsula has undoubtedly been spot-lit, but whether there will be reform in the wake of the World Cup remains to be seen

duce and uphold reform. Although the kafala system, whereby a worker is sponsored by an employer, has in theory been abolished by Qatar, a lack of enforcement by Qatari officials means that workers still endure its effects. As the state traditionally provided employers with the means to recruit a worker, finance their travel and provide housing, those same employers were also given control of the workers’ legal status, determining when they could change jobs or leave the coun- try. Restriction, coercion and deception are all interlinked, and result from the power imbalance between employers and em-

and the Middle East; we witnessed the greatest final of all time, where one of the most controversial topics (who is football’s GOAT, or ‘greatest of all time’) was put to rest; and a record 172 goals were scored. It would be as wrong to focus solely on the flaws of the tournament as it would be to appreciate only the tourna- ment’s milestones, and so let us do both, acknowledging the tournament’s shortcomings, whilst appreciating the chance it gave us to witness football being played in its purest form and experiencing all that comes with it – emo- tion, history and humanity. ◎

T-shirt declaring ‘Save Ukraine’ and ‘Respect for Iranian Woman’ lost his permit to stay in Qatar. As a result, the issue of human rights in the peninsula has undoubtedly been spot-lit, but whether there will be reform in the wake of the World Cup remains to be seen. However, the positives cannot be overlooked. The World Cup was a time to brush off diplomatic tensions. In the words of US Secretary of State Antony Blinken: ‘One of the most powerful things about football, about soccer, is its potential to bring the world together.’ The 2017 boycott






In 2022, the Queen became the first British monarch to achieve a Platinum Jubilee, after reigning for 70 years. She was visibly ailing, and while celebrations did take place, including a pageant, a concert and a flypast, she was mostly absent. The key theme was ‘thank you, ma’am’, rather than the joyful theme of ten years earlier. At Dulwich College, the jubilee was commem- orated on Founder’s Day, with the orchestra playing

Writing just before the coronation of Charles III, Nicholas Wales (Year 12) takes a look at the royal celebrations of the past, with a little help from the College Archives

R oyal jubilees are relatively rare events. The first British one was celebrated in 1809, and there have been only seven since then. They have mostly been joyous occasions, allowing many to celebrate the monarch, the country and the community. Dulwich Col- lege has played its part, over the years, in changing ways. In 1809 George III began his fiftieth year on the throne, and a jubilee was announced to ‘excite a spirit of loyal enthusiasm’. 650 locations, in England alone, marked this first jubilee. It seems likely that Dulwich College will have

central London, which included the observation that ‘the enthusiasm displayed baffles description’. Ten years later, when Queen Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubilee, the euphoria reached a level that would cause any republican today to shudder. 50,000 troops took part in the biggest procession seen in London at that time and thousands packed the streets of London, cheer- ing and singing the national anthem as Victoria drove past. Again, Dulwich College actively embraced these celebra- tions, this time with a jubilee procession; in addition, the Dulwich Corps travelled to Windsor for inspection by the Queen. On Founder’s Day, the Master led three cheers for the Queen, and announced three days’ more holiday. By 1935, George V had reigned for 25 years, and the government decided to celebrate his Silver Jubilee. The king drove through London and appeared on the balcony to cheering crowds. When he drove through the poorer parts of London, he received the most ecstatic welcome, with bunting, singing, flag-waving and cheering. Following his death a year later, the Alleynian ’s editorial described the jubilee year as ‘that final reward for long and untiring service’ adding that it ‘proved beyond doubt the loyalty, affection and high esteem’ which theBritish people felt for King George. Even months later, the memory of the jubilee and its intense emotions remained strong. During the long reign of Queen Elizabeth II, half of all the royal jubilees ever held were celebrated. Her Silver Jubilee in 1977 involved a tour of the Commonwealth, the lighting of beacons, a thanksgiving service with huge crowds lining the streets of London, and a balcony ap- pearance. The Alleynian records an art exhibition as being ‘a fitting tribute to jubilee year’ and describes the arrival

Crown Imperial: a Coro- nation March. DUCKS and the Junior School had picnics, while the Wode- house Library launched The Big Jubilee Read, featuring books from across the Commonwealth. But within the Alleynian in 2022, there was no mention of the jubilee, and 33% of all people who replied to a survey which I sent out to the Middle and Upper School said that they had not celebrated. While the regard for the monarchy remained high – 59 out of 109 gave it six or more out of ten in my survey – there was no evidence of the widespread elation shown a decade before. When Queen Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubilee, the euphoria reached a level that would cause any republican today to shudder Over time, the focus of royal jubilees has changed from being a celebration of British imperial power to being more of a celebration of the community, with a philan- thropic mood. Support for the monarchy remains strong and shows no signs of collapse. But the poignancy of last year’s jubilee, and the recognition that, in some ways, it anticipated our farewell to the Queen, gave it less of a joyful tone than previous ones. At the time of writing, we are preparing for May’s coronation, and it remains to be seen whether the same joy that was felt at the jubilees of years past will be the keynote to this royal celebration. ◎

of a Silver Jubilee taxicab at a College fête. Her Golden Jubilee in 2002 featured a concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace and the Queen riding in the Gold State Coach to a thanksgiving service. That year’s Alleynian noted that ‘jubilee spirit’ overtook everyone from the golf team to Barry Graham, noting the latter’s ‘jubilee excuses’ for ‘each of the tunes’ at the Founder’s Day concert, on which occasion many ‘dedicated Jubileers stood and sang’. Union jacks were festooned across the school. In 2012, Elizabeth became only the second monarch ever to celebrate a Diamond Jubilee. Even some republicans took part in the widespread celebrations, which included a pageant down the Thames, a flypast, a concert and a thanksgiving service. Harry Millan, arguing for a republic in the Alleynian , praised the Queen for serving ‘magnif- icently’ and called for us to elect ‘the experienced, able and dutiful Queen’. The Alleynian declared that ‘with the summer of 2012 carrying the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee and the Olympics’, it was time to ‘celebrate achievement and reflect on our own progress’. Both the Olympics and the jubilee came together to create a general celebratory attitude within the country.

Royal jubilees are relatively rare events; the first British one was celebrated in 1809

celebrated, although the Register Books, Exceat Books and governor meeting minutes from the time do not in fact record anything related to the jubilee. By the time of the next jubilee, in 1887, the school had moved to its current location and had a new record for major events – the Alleynian . Victoria had reigned for fifty years, and there were major Golden Jubilee celebrations, including greetings from heads of state, bonfires across Britain and a large procession of imperial troops in Lon- don. In May 1887, the Alleynian published a letter from Oxford describing the ‘jubilee mania’ across the country, and asking how the school would celebrate. The entire editorial of the following month’s issue was devoted to the Golden Jubilee, describing how ‘everything is in a state of jubilee’ and noting that the school had tried its best ‘to commemorate the Jubilee Year of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen.’ There followed a long poem in praise of the Queen, and an article describing celebrations in

In May 1887, the Alleynian published a letter describing the ‘jubilee mania’ across the country






profiting from cheap trade (all this time China has been buying oil at US $20 below Brent crude); secondly, that China is now capable of making other nations rich, without the help of the West (as is shown by Russia’s ever-increasing current account); and thirdly, and perhaps most crucially, that China is developing its own financial framework, as shown by the use of its CIPS system to trade with Russia in lieu of SWIFT, from which the majority of Russian banks were cut off. This presents a stronger China to the world, showing that it enjoys most of the economic perks that the US previously monopolised, such as the ability to make or break economies with its trade. A more indirect and perhaps much more important impact is the drifting away of the developing world from the US sphere of influence. Sanctions introduced a supply-side shortage of fuel in the world, making energy more expensive for businesses. The resulting increase in production costs most affected the developing world, which could no longer afford food (40% of the CPI in sub-Sa- haran Africa is now made up of food) owing to current account deficits, thus considerably worsening quality of life for the average citizen. High food prices are directly linked to political instability, and in the eyes of the already western-scep- tic populations, they are evidence of the failings of American-led globalisation. A perfect storm has been created: we should listen to the public outcry, in much of the world’s population, that the system has left them behind; we should note the willingness of the US to seize a large proportion of a country’s wealth; and we should see on the horizon an alternative system led by China, with human rights abuses increasingly overlooked. The brave new world may not yet be here, but it is certainly coming. ◎

Alex Gerasimchuk (Year 12) argues that, far from being at the end of history, we are currently moving towards a new era of global power relations

I n 1992, the political philosopher Francis Fukuyama published a book titled The End of History and the Last Man in which he argued that history is a progression from one political epoch to another, and that we have reached the end stop on this dismal trainline with the uni- versalisation of western liberal democracy and globalised, western-dominated markets. Writing in 2023, it seems to me that Fukuyama was wrong: this is not the end point, but rather the birth of a brave new world, which is divided rather than united. As outlined by Fukuyama, the world currently operates under a system of dollar imperialism, which has afforded the United States a unique position in the global financial system. Given that the world reserve currency is the US dollar, countries are compelled to keep large quantities of the dollar on hand for international trade (denominated in dollars). As a result, 60% of the world’s foreign currency reserves are held in dollars. This wealth is stored as US treasury bonds, as they give the most security against vol- atility and are therefore the safest proverbial basket within which countries can keep their financial eggs. This system gives the United States extraordinary political and economic power. It means that the US government can take out huge amounts of sovereign debt, on a scale unavailable to any other country. The political benefits, however, are even greater: the US is able unilaterally to turn any nation into a pauper state at the drop of a hat, A perfect storm has been created: we should listen to the public outcry, in much of the world’s population, that the system has left them behind

both directly, by seizing its dollar assets (which likely make up the majority of a country’s wealth), and indirect- ly, by excluding them from the dollar market and instruct- ing all US allies and subordinates (anyone with a shred of globalisation in their economy) to exclude them as well. This system is known as ‘dollar diplomacy’, as well as ‘dollar imperialism’ by those who are more critical, and it may be coming to an end. The beginning of the end of US global economic and therefore political hegemony was brought forth by the failure of the sanctions against Russia to deliver the an- ticipated knockout blow. As a result, some countries with China is now capable of making other nations rich, without the help of the West questionable systems of government and poor human rights’ records reconsidered the benefits of being subordi- nate to the US. An early direct impact of the failed sanctions was to high- light China as a potential competitor to the US as a ‘moth- er country’, in a financial sense. The US has been unique (since the collapse of the USSR) in possessing the ability to prop up a regime through trade, or to provide access to the financial institutions of the global economy. However, recent events show that China is now able to provide that service as well. The sanctions led to the development of Sino-Russian relations; two-thirds of Russian oil previously delivered to the West is now flowing to China, and gas deliveries there have increased by 60%. This showed the world three things: firstly, that the US doesn’t hold the monopoly on

Artwork by Alexander De Almeida (Year 11)





A LOST GENERATION? THOUGHTS FROM THE EYE OF THE STORM Daniel Kamaluddin (Year 12) reflects on being a member of Gen Z: a generation whose coming of age coincides with troubled times

A mong the many strange experiences I have had in recent years, few stand out more in my memory than a rock concert at which I watched a fully grown man drop and do 20 press-ups before a great bee- hive grid of screens blazing with images of current and former prime ministers. He then proceeded to devour a raw steak, before clambering inside one of those tele- screens in front of a cheering crowd of 20,000. Experi- ences of this sort have caused me to wonder what the essential approach of my generation is. Perhaps I will find it easier to gauge the nature of my generation once our culture has been condensed into neat ‘Greatest Hits’ playlists and history textbook highlights It is hard to get a perspective on such things when you’re in the eye of the storm. Perhaps I will find it easier to gauge the nature of my generation with the benefit of hindsight, once our culture has been condensed into neat ‘Greatest Hits’ playlists and history textbook highlights. I sense that it is also difficult to see the picture clearly when dealing with one’s own subjective feelings – like trying to nail down a cloud to a pinboard. Then there is the challenge of trying to distinguish between what might be my generation’s genuinely new perspective, prompted by unprecedented dangers and anxieties, and my own natural teenage desire to challenge the received wisdom of previous generations. Lastly, there is the temptation to take one’s own experiences and then claim that they are the experiences of a whole generation.

If you asked someone to describe my generation, now in our teens, many words beginning with ‘dis’ might spring to mind. Disillusionment. Disenchantment. Discontent. In many ways this is not new. Dissatisfaction with so- cial orthodoxy is a staple of the teenage experience. A little research reveals similar anxieties voiced by earlier generations, not least in the popular culture of the 1990s (think The Verve’s Urban Hymns and Radiohead’s OK Computer ). In the early decades of the 20th century, modernists like T.S. Eliot and Virginia Woolf voiced their concerns about the disconnection of modern life. How- ever, this perennial anxiety, perhaps felt most strongly by young people, is even more pronounced in the current generation. We are faced with the palpable uncertainties of the future: climate change, spiralling wealth inequality, and political extremism which threatens to destabilise democracy itself. Moreover, children grow up into a world where youth culture is incredibly fragmented, offering a plethora of different options for self-identification. Myriad individual sub-cultures and outlooks are offered up, fed by the finely tuned algorithms of social media, each with their own unique references, often incomprehensible to the uninitiated. This is in many ways wonderful, as it al- lows each young individual great freedom to develop their interests. However, it also leads to increasingly polarised world views. Perhaps, I reflect, the prevailing mood of this genera- tion is one of uncertainty. In the last century, it might be argued, every grand attempt to carve up the world into neat categories failed: religion went into decline; Marxism collapsed into catastrophe; the Keynesian promise fell short; and neoliberalism tore the heart out of community after community in search of prosperity. I think there is a

an office, doing a job that bores you numb, in order to pay your mortgage and save up for the few breaks that offer only passing respite. Why would we want a life spent, essentially, in the future, treading a path that feels uniform and uninviting? In the words of Richard Ashcroft, lead singer of The Verve, ‘you’re a slave to money then you die’. Perhaps this is the reason for the burgeoning ‘quiet quitting’ movement, where people only work as much as they must, prioritising instead their own interests.

great deal of honesty in uncertainty. Ideology is a sort of mask we affix to pre-determine our response; we become so enveloped in maintaining our views that nuance and complication are effaced. With the decline of grand nar- ratives, we might usefully re-focus on those things which are of fundamental value: our relationships with others, and our connection with the planet. We would do well to recognise the plurality of experience, while admitting the limitations of our individual perspectives. Teenagers have always questioned that which their par- ents take for granted, but I think my generation is particu- larly discontented with the status quo. There is a feeling that there must be something more to life than climbing up corporate ladders, whiling away your precious hours in

Teenagers have always questioned that which their parents take for granted






At the most disturbing extreme is the intensely misogynis- tic and terrifyingly influential Andrew Tate, while, further from the fringe, figures like Jordan Peterson are also concerned with the condition of young men. In my view, while Peterson and so many others focus on what they see as the male need for power and strength, they overlook one of the great problems that, in my view, men face: the lack of emotional freedom. When we constantly ask who is dominant, rather than focusing on personal connection and empathy, personal relationships are, I believe, in danger of being poisoned. The problem of loneliness is not exclusive to men. Given that we are social creatures, it is no wonder that the mod- ern loneliness epidemic has such a devastating impact: in an evolutionary sense, loneliness is equated by the body with death, as in a hunter-gatherer society the survival prospects of an individual isolated from the group are very slim. Behavioural science tells us that we are deeply driven to seek out the company of others, not for mate- rial gain but simply for the comfort offered by physical closeness. Loneliness is terrifying because we need the presence of others to acknowledge our experiences and recognise our individual identity. As Crooks notes in Stein- beck’s Of Mice and Men : ‘It’s just bein’ with another guy. That’s all.’ There is clearly much more work needing to be done than I have room for here, in order to form a wider picture of my generation. My attempt at sketching a portrait can only be partial, based on limited knowledge and sub- jective experience. No doubt my personal experience impacts my perspective in a profound way which I cannot ignore. Nonetheless, I find comfort in acknowledging that while there is deep discontent in my generation, there is also a quite beautiful, tentative search for a better, more human way of living. ◎

Each generation is faced with the task of deciding how to find meaning in life. I am convinced that people yearn above all else to believe that their life means something. As Viktor E. Frankl argues in Man’s Search for Meaning : ‘Those who have a “why” can bear almost any “how”.’ The pronounced yearning of this generation is unsur- prising. The promised ‘community’ of ‘social’ media has turned into a cold nightmare that turns people into curated avatars. One small way in which people have recently been attempting to imbue their lives with meaning is via the trend for ‘romanticising’ your life, whereby people take steps to be more conscious of the ‘casual magic’ of ordinary moments. I think this can be incredibly useful. One way of overcoming banality is to learn to appreciate the everyday wonders of our world. However, this approach, too, has pitfalls: some things should not be looked upon with rose-tinted spectacles, and the quest to find beauty in the world often piles yet more pressure on those who cannot afford the life that is being sold as romantic. The promised ‘community’ of ‘social’ media has turned into a cold nightmare that turns people into curated avatars Another key way in which our generation understands the world is through the study of power. Those coming from a socially liberal position rightly, in my view, emphasise the need to acknowledge the ways in which people are op- pressed and disempowered. However, while empowering people to achieve their individual potential is one of the noblest enterprises there can be, we must acknowledge, too, the danger of defining yourself by your powerless- ness. More conservative voices also focus on the politics of power, often highlighting the disempowerment of young men in particular. I think it is right to recognise that society has an ‘angry young man’ problem, and that many feel lonely, useless and, perhaps most tragically, emotionally voiceless. Jimmy, an earlier British poster boy for male discontent, voices this anguish in John Osborne’s 1956 play Look Back in Anger, saying : ‘I learnt at an early age what it was to be angry – angry and helpless.’ In our own times, we have only to look at the American Capitol riots to see the effects of failing to address this discontent. Fig- ures on the right voice legitimate concerns about fractured masculinity, but they often propose unsettling solutions.

The internet provides a haven for the opinions of self-appointed ‘great men’ but we need to listen with caution, says Kit Parsons (Year 12)

Y ou cannot surf the modern internet without Shapiro, Jordan Peterson and Andrew Tate, who have gained huge renown by communicating their ideas to a carefully cultivated community of listeners, transforming themselves along the way into a recognisable and influen- tial source of online discourse. Although social media pro- vides, in theory, an egalitarian platform for all, it has also vastly increased the extent to which such figures can play a leading role in affecting our stream of information. For better or for worse, any wealthy or famous individual can now hop online and spout their beliefs directly into the ears of millions of followers worldwide. One such vastly wealthy talking head has, within the past year, purchased the largest information-sharing platform in the history of the planet. Instead of driving forward the thoughtful exchange of views, Musk fuels hot- blooded reactions, polarisation and chaos coming across so-called ‘thought leaders’: men from across the political spectrum, including Ben In 2021, Elon Musk was named Time magazine’s Person of the Year. Explaining this choice, the magazine’s editors remarked upon how affected modern society is by ‘the pursuits, products, and priorities of the world’s wealthiest people’. Two years on from this, it is clear that Musk has not rested on his laurels, or remained within his previ- ously comfortable territory of electric vehicles and Mars rocket-launch attempts. Far from it: 2022 went on to be the year in which he cemented his place in the ranks of the most recognisable people on earth, mainly thanks to the saga of his ultimately successful attempt to purchase Twitter, which extended over almost seven months. Musk

had toyed with purchasing the platform since 2017. On 14 April 2022 he placed a shock bid of US$54.20 (the 420 reference was widely considered deliberate) for every share in the company, totalling US$43 billion of his own money. Buyer’s remorse quickly set in for Musk, who then attempted to escape the deal, claiming ignorance over Twitter’s bot population. He was promptly sued by the company, after which he proceeded to purchase the social media site, with just days to spare before the court date last October. Much has been written about Musk’s fluctuating personal wealth, though it exists mostly in company shares. How-

Photos taken by Dorian Todd-Miller (Year 10)





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