Ballard ESG Report 2019


Life Cycle Assessment and Comparison

The Life Cycle Assessment for our FCveloCity®-HD85 fuel cell power module (the 85kW capacity module required for a fuel cell electric transit bus) determined that each module generates 6 tons of CO 2 (GHG emissions) during its production. GHG Emissions Required to Produce Fuel Cell and Battery System for a Transit Bus Based on average of 150kg of CO 2 e per kWh for batteries (2) and 70kg of CO 2 per kW for FC system

13.5 tons of CO 2 GHG emissions to produce 50kWh battery with 85kW Fuel Cell system

52.2 tonnes of CO 2 GHG emissions to produce a 350kWh battery

In summary: there are 75% less emissions generated in the production of a fuel cell power train.

The highest GHG impacts arise in producing the metals—especially the aluminum and the platinum catalyst—arise for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and other components. The aluminum and platinum represent 68% of total embodied emissions. When the power stack reaches end-of-life, we recycle 95% of the platinum catalyst. This is not factored into the LCA, but it would drastically reduce the overall GHG profile in a full “cradle-to-grave” assessment.

In 2020, we will undertake a limited study that compares life-cycle emissions from fossil-fuel powered vehicles to Ballard fuel cell powered vehicles.

|9 Ballard Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Report 2019

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