VETgirl Q3 2019 Beat e-Newsletter

OCTOBER 2019 BEAT

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IN THIS ISSUE

Q3 WEBINAR HIGHLIGHTS // 04 Resuscitation of the Neonate after C-Section // 04 Taming Unhealthy Perfectionism // 09 10 Leadership Laws // 09

TECH TIPS // 17 Some unique and amazing tips and tricks we’ve learned and need to share

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MEMBERSHIPS // 17

PROVIDER SPOTLIGHT // 18 Check out what others are doing in our community

The Abdominal Exploratory: From Xiphoid to Pubis // 10

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NEPHROTOXICANT TABLE // 14

Because you deserve to eat a meal using silverware instead of tongue depressors.

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family-friendly recipes for the dog-tired chef

the

COOKBOOK

cabbage rolls

ingredients

directions 2 ¾ cups uncooked long-grain rice, divided 4 cups water 2 large heads Savoy cabbage 1 cup water, divided 2 onions, chopped and divided 3 tablespoons butter ¾ cup uncooked long-grain rice 1 pound of extra-lean ground beef (can do just ground beef) ½ pound of pork sausage 4 cloves garlic, minced 2 teaspoons dried dill weed (optional) ¾ teaspoon salt ½ teaspoon ground black pepper ½ teaspoon white sugar 1 can (26 oz.) condensed tomato soup 1 can (28 oz.) whole peeled tomatoes, with liquid 8 bay leaves 1 Wash rice thoroughly. In a medium saucepan, combine 2 cups rice and 4 cups water. Bring to boil; reduce heat, cover and simmer for 20 minutes or until all the water is absorbed. 2 In the meantime, remove the core from the cabbages using a thin, long knife. Place 1 cabbage in a microwave proof container with a lid with core side down. Pour ½ cup water into the container with the cabbage, cover and microwave on HIGH (full power) for 10 minutes. Carefully turn cabbage over and cook covered for an additional 10 minutes. 3 When cabbage is cooked, let sit until it is cool enough to handle. Separate leaves carefully, removing any tough

7 Preheat oven to 350 °F (175 °C). 8 Prepare two 9”x13” casserole dishes by placing some leftover cabbage leaves in bottom of each. Arrange cabbage rolls in a single layer tight against each other. 9 In a food processor or blender, process condensed tomato soup and tomatoes. Pour tomato mixture over the cabbage rolls until just covered. Place 4 bay leaves on top of sauce in each dish. 10 Cover each dish tightly with aluminum foil. Bake in oven for 2 hours. Once cooked, remove the dishes from the oven and let cool for 15 minutes before removing aluminum foil. Serve hot.

ribs. Cook the second cabbage in the same manner. 4 Divide chopped onions in half. Sauté one half of the onions in 3 tablespoons butter; cook just until translucent (do not brown). 5 In a large mixing bowl, mix together both the 2 cups cooked and ¾ cup uncooked rice, cooked and uncooked onions, ground beef, pork sausage, garlic, dill weed (optional), salt, black pepper, and sugar and mix well to blend. 6 Spoon about 2 tablespoons of mixture onto each cabbage leaf. Bring one end of cabbage leaf over mixture, roll and tuck ends in to prevent any filling from falling out.

Submitted by Tara Sager

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main dishes

RESUSCITATION OF THE NEONATE AFTER C - SECTION ERIN SPENCER, M.ED., CVT, VTS ( ECC )

In this VETgirl Real Life Rounds, “Resuscitation of the Neonate after C-Section,” Erin Spencer, M.Ed., CVT, VTS (ECC) reviews the important considerations both leading up to delivery of newborn puppies and kittens and during resuscitation e ff orts to ensure the best outcome.

KEY HIGHLIGHTS

• Both the dam and queen experience a relative anemia that is at its lowest when at term. This anemia is due to an increase in plasma within the blood. With this drop in the number of RBCs/ µ l of blood volume, oxygen delivery is somewhat compromised. • The dam/queen’s functional residual capacity (FRC) is lessened as their diaphragm becomes pushed cranially due to growing fetuses. While the

PHYSIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS OF DAM/QUEEN 1 The first thing to consider when a dam/queen presents for treatment of dystocia is her anxiety or stress level. Increased stress and anxiety can lead to a catecholamine release which results in decreased blood flow to the uterus and, ultimately, the fetus. • Upon presentation, some accommodations that may help keep stress levels at a minimum are keeping the dam/queen with owners in an exam room. • Decrease noise levels through utilizing an exam room (or other room) that is as removed as possible from the bustle of the front desk or the treatment area. • Pre-medication should be considered in cases where the dam/queen is significantly stressed/anxious whether due to the situation or due to pain. While minimizing the amount of drugs the fetuses will be exposed to is a major concern during C-section, this needs to be balanced with the e ff ects of maternal stress on the unborn fetus. 2 Oxygen figures prominently in considerations of the dam/queen.

body makes accommodations for these changes during pregnancy, ventilation can become compromised, especially when the dam/queen is placed in certain positions, such as dorsal recumbency. Dorsal recumbency should be minimized as much as possible when preparing for C-section.

(continued)

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RESUSCITATION OF THE NEONATE AFTER C - SECTION ERIN SPENCER, M.ED., CVT, VTS ( ECC )

(cont)

• Pre-oxygenation via face mask should be performed for at least 5 minutes prior to induction to help combat a potential decrease in oxygenation and ventilation. The mask should not be pulled away from the patient’s face until the induction drug has been given and the person placing the endotracheal tube has the tube in hand and is able to intubate to ensure the full benefits of pre- oxygenation. If intubation is not successful on the first attempt and/ or more drugs are needed, the facemask should be returned to the patient so pre-oxygenation can continue. PHYSIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS OF FETUS/NEONATE 1 Oxygen saturation levels in the fetus are low relative to adult values. In addition, the clamping and severing of the umbilical cord causes a hypoxic event within the neonate which also causes an increase in vascular resistance within the neonate’s peripheral vessels. All of these factors initially cause dyspnea, which in turn causes a contraction of the chest muscles and, hence, breathing is initiated. This normal physiology can be inhibited or disrupted by several factors both while still in the fetal stage or after delivery. • In the fetal stage, aspiration of amniotic fluid, crowding in the uterus and a prematurely detached placenta can all result in hypoxia.

• Commonly neonates experience hypoxia due to an inability to inflate the lungs. This may be due to obstruction, aspiration of birth material or fluids, or may be due to a lack of surfactant needed for the lungs to expand and move within the chest cavity properly. Lack of surfactant is most commonly associated with premature births but can also be seen when suctioning during resuscitation e ff orts has been too vigorous. 2 Thermoregulation is another concern for the neonate. Upon birth, the neonate’s body temperature slowly drops from the dam/queen’s body temperature. A large surface area- to-body mass ratio, inability to shiver, and poor vasoconstriction make it di ffi cult for the neonate to maintain body temperature. It is important to provide heat support at all times for the neonates until they can be returned to the dam/queen. Heat support needs to be monitored closely because providing too much heat can put the neonate at risk for becoming hyperthermic due to their inability to pant, poor peripheral circulation, and poor coordination. 3 C-section situations create an added concern for the fetus/neonate. The blood brain barrier is immature in the fetus and results in a higher sensitivity to drugs. In addition to the blood brain barrier, all body systems are immature and are more sensitive to drugs. As mentioned earlier, pre- medication can be used if needed but

should be done so judiciously. While it is necessary to utilize induction and maintenance anesthetics to perform the necessary surgical procedure, doses should be conservative while still providing adequate anesthesia. The goal is to have minimal drug interactions within the neonate to prevent extreme resuscitation e ff orts from being necessary.

(continued)

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RESUSCITATION OF THE NEONATE AFTER C - SECTION ERIN SPENCER, M.ED., CVT, VTS ( ECC )

(cont)

DRUG CONSIDERATIONS 1 Anesthetics and analgesics cause depression of the fetus. In cases where there are viable (or possibly viable) fetuses, decisions surrounding the anesthetic and surgical plan of the dam/queen should focus around minimizing drug e ff ects on the fetuses. The first question is whether or not to pre-medicate the dam/queen. There are di ff erences in opinion about whether or not to give medications prior to induction but the key is to first evaluate each case on an individual basis. If premedication is indicated, it is important to use the safest drugs at the lowest doses possible. • Reversible drugs are ideal in case of severe depression in the neonate, but alpha-2 agonists should be avoided in C-sections. Any drug that may significantly decrease heart rate should be avoided since the neonate will depend on heart rate to maintain cardiac output (CO). • Opioids are a good choice but respiratory depression and bradycardia can occur in both the dam/queen and fetus and should be monitored for closely. Opioids are also a good choice as they can be reversed using naloxone. • Ideally, a short acting pre-med is ideal. Butorphanol and fentanyl may be considered in this situation. Butorphanol may be just enough to relax the dam/queen to minimize catecholamine release without severely depressing the fetus.

2 When using propofol as your induction agent, there is some argument to be made for preparing the dam the same as any other abdominal surgery. Propofol is initially rapidly absorbed by the fetus but then crosses back to the dam/queen quickly which would mean the optimal time to remove the neonates would be about 15-20 minutes after induction. Depending on the team’s skill level, preparation and approach can likely fall into this time frame. There are two di ff erent ways to approach surgical prep of the dam. Ideally, shaving and a “dirty” scrub of the surgical site should be performed prior to any drug administration. This will cut down on the time the fetuses are exposed to drugs. The integrity of the skin should be taken into consideration when shaving is performed in an active awake animal. There is an increased risk of micro-trauma to the skin and may put the dam at increased risk for skin irritation and infection post- operatively. If the dam is active, then any shaving should be done at minimum after premedications have taken e ff ect but may not be possible until after intubation. 3 Maintenance anesthesia during surgery with inhalants can be minimized through multi-modal e ff orts such as continuous rate infusions (CRI) and epidurals. Epidurals are a good option as they will have minimal to no e ff ect on the fetus. CRIs should be used judiciously until after removal of the fetuses and then can be increased as needed to allow for lowering the

inhalant anesthetic. Initial or additional pain medications can also be given at this point. 4 Buprenorphine can be used post- operatively for pain management in the dam/queen. ABC’S OF NEONATAL RESUSCITATION 1 It is important to be prepared for a dystocia or C-section situation at all times. Having a container with resuscitation supplies will help decrease the time from presentation to delivery of the fetuses and thus increase the chances for survival. Choose a container of appropriate size so that it can double as an enclosure for the neonates until they are returned to the dam/queen. The “A” of resuscitation refers to airway . • Fetal membrane material should be gently wiped away from the face. If the membrane is intact, it can be torn by hand. Care should be taken to make the tear away from the umbilical cord to avoid prematurely severing the cord. • Gentle suction using a bulb syringe or a large bore syringe (with stylet removed) attached to a syringe can be used to remove material from nasal passages and the oral cavity. There is some evidence that the use of a nasal aspirator that is used for human newborns may also be e ff ective at removing

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RESUSCITATION OF THE NEONATE AFTER C - SECTION ERIN SPENCER, M.ED., CVT, VTS ( ECC )

(cont)

opioid. If other conditions present themselves naloxone should not be used until other e ff orts have been made to correct these conditions. • Overall, normalizing body temperature will help with both respiration and heart rate. Drying the neonate and keeping them in a warm environment will aid in normalizing and maintaining body temperature. 2 Once the neonate has been successfully resuscitated, the umbilical cord should be tied o ff . Suture material can be used to tie a strong knot around the umbilical cord. An indent should be seen in the cord to ensure that it is tight enough to occlude the vessel. The knot should be close to the abdomen. Once the knot is secure, the portion of the umbilical cord distal to the knot should be cut with a sterile blade or scissors.

fluid and mucus without causing trauma. Surgical suction units should be avoided. • Vigorous rubbing should be used to stimulate the neonate. Swinging puppies and kittens in a downward motion should be avoided as this method has been shown to cause injury and also increases the risk of dropping. • Oxygen should be administered via face mask until the neonate is breathing regularly on its own with a sustained respiratory rate of at least 30 breaths/minute. Chest muscle weakness or overall depression may be seen due to the drugs used for the dam/ queen’s anesthesia. If delivery via face mask is not possible, the neonate can be intubated with a red rubber catheter or a stylet- less IV catheter. These tubes can be removed once the previously stated parameters are met. • The nasal philtrum acupuncture point can be used to stimulate breathing in apneic neonates. A 25g needle can be inserted into the philtrum and then rotated. • Doxapram has been found to have little e ff ect in the face of hypoxia. Given that the neonate is born in a state of hypoxia, doxapram is no longer indicated for stimulation of breathing in the neonate. The only time it may be indicated is in apneic neonates who have not responded to other means of resuscitation.

The “B” stands for body temperature . • Normal body temperature of neonates is between 95°-99°. • Warm towels should be used to rub the neonates. Rubbing will help to dry and also stimulate the neonates. • Newborn puppies and kittens are unable to regulate their body temperature so it is important to provide a heat source. The important factors to remember are that inability to regulate means that neonates can overheat as well so the source of heat should not come in direct contact with the neonate and needs to be continually monitored to ensure overheating and/or burns do not occur. The “C” stands for circulation . • In most instances, if a normal respiratory rate can be reached, then the heart rate will increase. Bradycardia can be due to hypoxia so increasing respiratory rate and oxygen saturation will likely increase heart rate. Keeping neonates warm will also increase peripheral circulation. naloxone can be given sublingually or IM (0.1 mg/kg). It should be noted that naloxone may worsen existing bradycardia in a hypoxemic patient so this drug should only be used in cases where the goal is to reverse the depression e ff ects of an • For neonates that are slow to respond to resuscitation e ff orts

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TAMING UNHEALTHY PERFECTIONISM JEANNINE MOGA, MA, MSW, LCSW Chief Happiness O ffi cer, VETgirl, LLC

In our recent Facebook LIVE event, VETgirl’s Chief Happiness O ffi cer, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, explores how our veterinary perfectionism can be unhealthy.

KEY HIGHLIGHTS

3 Engage in hypothesis testing . “What’s the worst that can happen if ______?” is a great question to explore because our fears – including fear of failure – are often much worse than reality. 4 Adopt a growth mindset . Struggle is the path to strength and resilience. Remember that not a single successful person has ever sailed through challenge without falling down. 5 Limit worry time and rumination . The more we worry about hitting the mark, the less agile our brains become. The more we ponder past struggles, the more depressed we will feel. Limit rehashing and rehearsing and focus on the present moment. LEARN MORE

While most perfectionists identify as detail-oriented, self-disciplined, and precise, those of us in the unhealthy camp tend to struggle with all-or- nothing thinking, catastrophizing, and feedback: anything less than “awesome” feels like profound personal failure. If this rings a bell for you, take a deep breath and try a few of these tricks: 1 Reality check your standards with someone you trust. If the bar is almost impossible to attain by that person’s judgment, set a more realistic goal. 2 Watch for rigid, negative thinking (inner dialogue containing the words should , always and never ). Reframe these thoughts in more flexible terms.

THERE ARE 10 KEY LEADERSHIP “LAWS” THAT SERVE AS A FOUNDATION FOR A GOOD LEADER: A person’s leadership ability determines their level of e ff ectiveness • leadership involves influence • leadership is learned • leadership is not based on style or position • trust is the foundation of leadership

• leaders build relationships and achieve results • leaders develop others (especially other leaders) • leadership is a team sport • the practice of leadership is an art LEARN MORE

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THE ABDOMINAL EXPLORATORY: FROM XIPHOID TO PUBIS DR. STEVEN MEHLER, DACVS Chief Medical O ffi cer, Veterinarian Recommended Solutions In the VETgirl webinar, “The Abdominal Exploratory: From xiphoid to pubis,” Dr. Steven Mehler, DACVS reviews how to perform a systematic abdominal exploratory in small animals including general surgical principles, client/team/operating room/patient preparation, and when to biopsy and also discusses common abdominal procedures.

KEY HIGHLIGHTS

ABDOMINAL EXPLORATORY LAPAROTOMY SURGICAL APPROACH Surgical approach for exploratory celiotomy - through the linea alba. 1 Incision is of adequate length to expose all four abdominal quadrants following retraction of the body wall. Purpose of the procedure is to see and explore the entire abdominal and retroperitoneal areas. • Rule of thumb: adequate visualization for exploration requires an incision that begins at the xiphoid process in all animals and extends to midway between the umbilicus and pubic brim in most companion animals. • Deep-chested dogs - incision is made to the pubic brim. • Male dogs - skin incision is curved slightly just cranial to the

prepuce on the side adjacent to the surgeon and is continued as a paramedian incision to the brim of the pelvis. • Preputial branches of the external pudendal vessels may require double ligation (unless electrosurgery is available) and transection on the side of the paramedian skin incision. • Preputial muscle must be incised in the area of the ligated (or coagulated) branches of the external pudendal vessels so that the prepuce can be reflected laterally to expose the caudal aspect of the linea alba. • Non-midline incisions, i.e. flank approaches, o ff er no advantages and several disadvantages over the linea alba incision. 2 Elevate the linea alba by grasping at the umbilical scar with thumb forceps, and a stab incision is made just caudal to the thumb forceps using the scalpel with the sharp edge of the blade pointing upward (i.e., upside down pencil grip of the scalpel).

(continued)

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THE ABDOMINAL EXPLORATORY: FROM XIPHOID TO PUBIS DR. STEVEN MEHLER, DACVS

(cont)

• Caution: With gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) surgery such a stab could inadvertently puncture the dilated stomach. • Some surgeons will use a standard pressure cut rather than a stab entry. • Regardless, either technique has the potential to inadvertently enter the stomach, and both can be performed safely if appropriate care is taken. 3 The incision in the linea alba may be continued to the limits of the skin incision using a scalpel and groove director (thumb forceps) or Mayo scissors. • Scissors are preferred for long linea alba incisions, such as for exploratory celiotomy. • Extending lineal incision beyond the limits of the skin incision will make closure of the external rectus fascia di ffi cult.

• Incision o ff of the midline will also make closure di ffi cult; paramedian incisions require more time and e ff ort to suture due to appositional problems. 4 Identify the falciform ligament and ventral ligament of the bladder. Each should be removed at its origin on the ventral midline to facilitate visualization. • Excise the falciform ligament bilaterally. • Then at the cranial aspect, excise the falciform o ff the dorsal surface of the xiphoid process. • Access the dorsal side of the xiphoid by grasping the falciform ligament and pulling it in a cranial direction until the xiphoid process everts cranially. • Be careful to avoid incising the diaphragm while cutting the falciform fat o ff the xiphoid process. • Bleeding from the falciform ligament excision may require ligation or electrocoagulation, particularly when excision is caudal to the xiphoid. 5 The wound margins should be protected with the large, moistened radiopaque laparotomy pads or radiopaque gauze pads and the wound edges retracted with a self-retaining retractor of appropriate size for the patient. When placing the Balfour retractors, be sure that no viscera are trapped between the blades of the Balfour and the abdominal wall. 6 Next, abdominal fluid is collected, if present, and saved for possible cytologic and culture testing. 7 Any area of active gastrointestinal leakage or hemorrhage is identified and immediately isolated to prevent further peritoneal contamination or to temporarily cease hemorrhage. • Radiopaque laparotomy pads or radiopaque gauze pads are placed underneath and around the a ff ected area to isolate it while a more detailed inspection is completed. Surgical repair is by debridement, ligation, suture closure, resection and anastomosis, partial organ excision, or other techniques. 8 Following repair of areas that demand immediate attention, the abdominal area is explored systematically. • No right way or wrong way to explore the abdominal cavity. • It is important, however, that the surgeon explore every abdomen in the same way, systematically, to assure that every organ and region is explored.

(continued)

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THE ABDOMINAL EXPLORATORY: FROM XIPHOID TO PUBIS DR. STEVEN MEHLER, DACVS

(cont)

ONE METHOD OF SYSTEMATIC EXPLORATION The following steps ensure consistent abdominal exploration following celiotomy: 1 Balfour retractor is placed in the cranial aspect of the incision and an assistant pulls up on the sternal spoon portion of the retractor. This action elevates the xiphoid process to create a visual pathway to the area between the liver and the diaphragm . a. Sequential retraction of the left, central, and right divisions of the

liver in a caudal direction. The entire ventral central tendon aspect of the diaphragm , the hiatus of the vena cava , aorta , and esophagus are inspected and felt. b. Palpation along each lateral and dorsolateral aspect of the diaphragm is also performed to rule out congenital or traumatic defects. 2 Next, the liver is replaced against the diaphragm and the stomach is retracted caudally.

a. The common and proper hepatic arteries , the hepatic ducts and common bile duct , and some of the distal portion of the portal vein can be seen and palpated through the filmy layers of the gastrohepatic ligament and the lesser omentum. Identification of the vascular structures and ducts is facilitated by placing a finger into the epiploic foramen, which is located between the portal vein and the vena cava. b. Express the gallbladder gently and confirm patency of the common bile duct into the duodenum. i. Many surgeons express the gall bladder to ascertain patency of the bile duct; however, expressing the gall bladder is not as easily achieved as expressing the urinary bladder and is not necessary. ii. My preference is to apply the “Pillsbury Doughboy Test”. That is, gently poke the gallbladder with your index finger. The gallbladder should indent and spring back to normal position. 1. Failure to indent = gall bladder is overly distended due to obstruction. 2. If you are truly concerned about bile duct patency, perform a duodenotomy and cannulate the duct via the major duodenal papilla after you have completed the abdominal exploration. c. Next, one hand is placed up under the stomach to immobilize it from the dorsal side. The other hand is used to palpate the gastric cavity for foreign bodies or other internal masses from the ventral aspect.

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NEPHROTOXICANT TABLE

TOXIN SOURCE vetgirlontherun.com

MECHANISM OF ACTION

CLINICAL SIGNS

CLIN PATH FINDINGS

TOX TEST

TREATMENT

PROGNOSIS

Serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) – will be suppressed and low Total Ca ++ and iCa ++ – elevated 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels elevated

Signs result from hypercalcemia: depression, lethargy, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, malaise, hematemesis, PU/PD, uremic halitosis, constipation, melena, dehydration AKI usually 2-3d post-exposure due to soft tissue mineralization of renal tubules

Rodenticides OTC or Prescription Vitamin D 3 Psoriasis creams (calcipotriene) e.g. Dovonex®, Calcitrene®, Sorilux®

Hypercalcemia Hyperphosphatemia Azotemia Metabolic acidosis

>0.1-0.5 mg/kg can result in clinical signs and hypercalcemia, respectively LD 50 85 mg/kg (dog) Minimum acute toxic dose in dogs of calcipotriene is 37 μ g/kg BW

If no hypercalcemia, conservative treatment but aggressive decontamination: • emesis • activated charcoal • cholestyramine Limited fluid therapy Clinpath monitoring q24h x 2-3d: • SDMA • BUN/creatinine • Ca/Phosphorous • iCa ++ If hypercalcemia present, then calciuresis tx: • hospitalization • IV fluids (0.9% NaCl) • furosemide • prednisone • zoledronic acid • calcitonin (hard to find) • pamidronate Fomepizole (4-MP antidote) is the therapy of choice in which EG ingestion is suggested, and data supports use of higher doses of fomepizole in cats suspected of ingestion DOGS: 4-MP – 20 mg/kg IV 1st dose; 15 mg/kg at 12h; 15 mg/kg at 24h; 5 mg/kg at 36h CATS: 4-MP – 125 mg/kg IV 1st dose; 31.25 mg/kg at 12h; 31.25 mg/kg at 24h; 31.25 mg/kg IV at 36h 7% ethanol solution can be used if 4-MP unavailable (remove 175mls from 1L bag of saline and add 175ml of 80-proof vodka OR remove 74mls from 1L bag of saline and add 74mls of 190-proof grain alcohol) – use only “clear” alcohols • loading dose 8.6 ml/kg (600 mg/kg) 7% ethanol slowly IV • follow with CRI of 1.43 ml/kg/hr (100 mg/kg/hr) IV for 24-36h

Hypercalcemia: Vitamin D precursor of activated Vit D 3 leading to calcium reabsorption from kidneys, bone and GI tract

Cholecalciferol/ Vitamin D 3 Products

Stage 1 (0.5-12h): Signs similar to alcohol poisoning – ataxia, hypersalivation, nausea, vomiting, seizures, PU/PD, metabolic acidosis Stage 2 (12-24h): Signs seem to “resolve” from Stage 1 but severe internal injury – dehydration, tachycardia and tachypnea Stage 3 (12-24h in CATS and 36-72h in DOGS): Severe AKI, severe anorexia, lethargy, hypersalivation, uremic halitosis, coma, depression, vomiting and seizures

Antifreeze (95% EG), Windshield de-icing agents, motor oils, hydraulic brake fluid, developer solutions, paints, some industrial solvents

High osmolal gap seen as early as 1 hour after ingestion High anion gap and normochloremic acidosis w/in 3 hours of ingestion Chemistry changes: • low iCa ++ • hypoglycemia • hyperphosphatemia • azotemia Calcium monohydrate crystals in the urine may present as early as 3-6 hours from ingestion and is considered “diagnostic”

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts EG to glycoaldehyde and organic acids (glycolic acid and oxalic acid) –> calcium oxalate crystalluria –> AKI

Ethylene Glycol (EG)

• Excellent - dogs treated by 5 hours following ingestion • Good - cats treated by 3 hours following ingestion • Grave without hemodialysis – azotemic patients The minimum lethal dose of undiluted EG is 4.2 - 6.6 ml/kg in the dog and 1.5 ml/kg in the cat. DOGS: 4.4 ml/kg –> AKI CATS: 1.4 ml/kg –> AKI

EG or metabolites are only accurate within 24h of ingestion Cats can have false negative results Rare false positives for EG with propylene glycol, sorbitol, mannitol, alcohol, etc. Woods lamp on vomitus, paws, mouth as many products will fluoresce

NEPHROTOXICANT TABLE

TOXIN SOURCE vetgirlontherun.com

MECHANISM OF ACTION

CLINICAL SIGNS

CLIN PATH FINDINGS

TOX TEST

TREATMENT

PROGNOSIS

NSAIDs Cats and certain dog breeds (e.g. German Shepherds anecdotally) are more sensitive and need to be treated aggressively. With cats, severe AKI is more commonly seen clinically and with dogs, GI signs secondary to GI ulceration (vomiting, diarrhea, melena, hematemesis, etc.) is more commonly seen initially, followed by secondary AKI.

N/A

DOG DOSES: 16-50 mg/kg – GI signs 50-100 mg/kg – severe GI signs 100-250 mg/kg - GI and renal >300 mg/kg – fatalities >400 mg/kg – CNS signs (coma, ataxia, seizures) CATS DOSES: >5 mg/kg – GI signs >20 mg/kg - renal >200 mg/kg – CNS signs DOG DOSES: Any dose – vomiting >20 mg/kg – GI signs >40 mg/kg – renal CATS DOSES: >4.4 mg/kg DOG DOSES: >15 mg/kg – GI issues >30 mg/kg – potential renal

Anorexia, vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhea, melena, abdominal pain, lethargy, malaise, uremic halitosis, GI ulceration dehydration, renal e ff ects, CNS e ff ects

Ibuprofen (Advil®, Bufren®, certain types of Motrin®)

• GI decontamination • Activated charcoal – multiple doses • IV fluid therapy for diuresis • GI protectants 7-10 days Chemistry – Baseline, then as needed up to 48 hours

Anemia Azotemia Liver changes

Competitive inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis –> mostly GI and AKI

possible based on dose and type of NSAID

Carprofen (Rimadyl®)

• GI decontamination • Activated charcoal – multiple doses • IV fluid therapy for diuresis • GI protectants 7-10 days Chemistry – Baseline, then as needed up to 48 hours • Emesis and activated charcoal X 1 (binds well to charcoal) • IV fluid therapy for diuresis • GI protectants 7-10 days Chemistry – Baseline, then as needed up to 48 hours Decontaminate: • activated charcoal – multiple doses T ½ (dog) is 74 hours, as the drug undergoes extensive enterohepatic recirculation Due to the prolonged half life, fluids need to be continued for at least 72 hours GI protectants for 7-14 days Recommend monitoring electrolytes, especially sodium Tablets rapidly dissolve, emesis may not be helpful unless ingestion was very recent • Single dose of activated charcoal • IV fluid therapy for diuresis • GI protectants 7-10 days Chemistry – Baseline, then as needed up to 48 hours

Competitive inhibition of PG synthesis –> mostly GI and renal e ff ects, reported liver e ff ects as well

Deracoxib (Deramaxx®)

Competitive inhibition of PG synthesis –> mostly GI and renal e ff ects

DOG DOSES: >25 mg/kg – vomiting, GI ulcers >50 mg/kg – renal

Firocoxib (Previcox®)

Competitive inhibition of PG synthesis –> mostly GI and renal e ff ects

DOG DOSES: >5 mg/kg/day for 7 days – ulcerative gastritis >10 – 25 mg/kg - renal

Naproxen sodium (Aleve®, certain types of Motrin®,

Competitive inhibition of PG synthesis –> mostly GI and renal e ff ects

Buproxen®, Naprofex®)

NEPHROTOXICANT TABLE

TOXIN SOURCE vetgirlontherun.com

MECHANISM OF ACTION

CLINICAL SIGNS

CLIN PATH FINDINGS

TOX TEST

TREATMENT

PROGNOSIS

Aggressive gastrointestinal decontamination: • emesis induction (even delayed several hours post-ingestion) • single dose of activated charcoal Aggressive IV fluid therapy for up to 72h post-ingestion Anti-emetics BP and UOP monitoring Serial BW monitoring (q12-24h) Asymptomatic patients monitor BW q24h then 48-72h post- ingestion Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in severe cases Aggressive decontamination: • emesis • activated charcoal X 1 GI support: • antiemetics • H 2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors if azotemic IV fluid therapy Clin path monitoring q24h x 2-3d UOP monitoring for 48h Hemodialysis if anuric Symptomatic & supportive care

N/A

• Excellent – no signs of AKI • Fair to poor – with AKI

Vomiting, inappetence, diarrhea, lethargy, anorexia, abdominal pain, uremic breath, and subsequent oliguria and anuria (48-72h post-ingestion)

Clinpath changes consistent w/ AKI: • hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia initially • azotemia may develop in 24h

Vitis spp. NOT grapeseed extract

Grapes and Raisins

Mechanism of toxicity is not known at this time and possibly idiosyncratic Hypotheses: • individual inability to metabolize tannins or high monosaccharide content • mycotoxin/pesticide residue on fruit • salicylate-like chemicals w/in grapes/raisins

• Fair to good, if tx is early and aggressive • Grave, if anuric or oliguric kidney injury

Vomiting, depression, anorexia Anuric AKI in 1-3d

N/A

Severe azotemia Urinalysis: • epithelial casts (12-18h post ingestion)

CATS only Ingestion of leaves, petals, pollen or vase water

Lilium spp. (Easter lily, stargazer lily, tiger lily and other Asiatic hybrid lilies) Hemerocallis spp. (some species of day lilies) Peace, Peruvian, Calla lilies, lily of the valley are not “true” lilies are therefore, not nephrotoxic

True Lilies

• proteinuria • glucosuria

NOTE: When in doubt, all drug dosages and treatment advice should be confirmed and cross-referenced with a reference guide such as Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook or a veterinary toxicology resource. When in doubt, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at (888) 426-4435 should be consulted as needed. Abbreviations: AC: Activated charcoal; AKI: Acute kidney injury; BW: blood work; CNS: central nervous system; GI: gastrointestinal; OTC: over-the-counter; UOP: urine output

TECH TIPS // WITH VETGIRL COO, DR. GARRET PACHTINGER, DACVECC

You may have heard our loud cheers and virtual champagne corks popping! After 8 months of hard work, design changes, and functionality testing… on August 19th VETgirl 3.0 was released. This is the most cutting edge and user-friendly VETgirl CE experience to date… and we have not stopped there. We will be incrementally rolling out improvements to the website as they are developed, continuing to make your CE experience amazing. Each newsletter will highlight one of the notable features on the website. This newsletter we wanted to highlight the CE quiz feature . Did you know that while all interactive VETgirl webinars are initially given LIVE, after the live event they are placed in the VETgirl on-demand library for review on your time? If you missed a lecture…or…want to review a lecture to prepare for your upcoming case, as a VETgirl member you have access to our massive on-demand library 24/7/365! After watching the webinar, take a short quiz to obtain CE credit. Forgot if you already took the quiz? After you pass the quiz, the “TAKE THE QUIZ” button will automatically change to “CE CERTIFICATE” so you can download your CE certificate or go to your CE credit library to view or download any of your previous CE certificates. Need more help? Check out our Help-Center article on CE credits!

Thank you again for being part of the VETgirl CE experience, learning with the #1 CE resource for busy veterinary professionals. Please note that the new website log-in credentials include your email, not your username.

CHECK OUT THE SITE

MEMBERSHIPS // GET 100+ HOURS OF CLINICALLY RELEVANT, PRACTICAL, CUTTING EDGE CE FROM BOARD - CERTIFIED SPECIALISTS ON YOUR TIME. New content added each week, delivering the CE tracks you need to treat your next case in:

• SMALL ANIMAL • LARGE ANIMAL

• TECHNICIAN • LEADERSHIP

RACE-approved, online veterinary training straight to your device through podcasts, webinars, blogs, videos and social media. There are a variety of ways to take advantage of what VETgirl has to o ff er. Find the plan that is right for you.

JOIN HERE

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PROVIDER SPOTLIGHT //

DR. FELICIA LEUNG, DVM VETGIRL’S VETERINARY COMMUNICATIONS COORDINATOR

Dr. Felicia Leung is a general small animal veterinarian who is currently practicing as a relief veterinarian in the Kansas City area. She joined the VETgirl team in 2018 after meeting Dr. Justine Lee and Dr. Garret Pachtinger at the first inaugural veterinary

conference, VETgirl U in Minnesota. Dr. Leung graduated from University of Illinois with a Bachelor of Liberal Arts and Sciences, majoring in Biology and minoring in Chemistry. She graduated with University Honors (graduated in the top 3% of her graduating class) and had her name inscribed on the Bronze Tablet. She then went on to obtain her DVM degree from the University of Illinois College of Veterinary medicine. After graduation, she pursued an internship at Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine in small animal medicine and surgery before starting her career in private practice in Chicago, Illinois. It was in Chicago, that Dr. Leung met her husband, Nick, and followed him through his medical school career, first at Loyola University in Maywood, Illinois, then to Cleveland, Ohio at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for his residency. His fellowship moved them to Charlotte, North Carolina for a year and then back to the suburbs of Chicago initially and finally to Kansas City, KS where she and her family currently reside. When Dr. Leung isn’t busy with VETgirl or providing relief services, she has 2 young children, Cecilia (CiCi), almost 4 years old, and Cameron, almost 1 ½ years old, that keep her very busy. Also, part of her family are two four-legged family members, Tyler, a domestic short hair cat rescued from Wheaton, IL and Cali, a Doberman mix rescued from Cleveland, OH. She enjoys cooking, baking, gardening, crafting (especially knitting and crochet) and listening to audiobooks and podcasts.

CONNECT WITH VETGIRL // ON SOCIAL MEDIA

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© VETgirl, LLC. 2019. VETgirl is an approved provider of online veterinary continuing education by the AAVSB (Provider #785). Each program is reviewed and approved (or pending approval). This approval is valid in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB RACE; however, participants are responsible for ascertaining each board’s CE requirements. Participants should be aware that some boards have limitations on the number of hours accepted in certain categories and/or restrictions on certain methods of delivery of CE. Please contact the AAVSB RACE program or VETgirl if you have any comments/concerns. NOTE: When in doubt, all drug dosages should be confirmed and cross-referenced with a reference guide such as Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook.

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