on a common assumption basis in order to have a consistent decision background.
Action plans at urban level under national and internal framework conditions need efficient simulation tools and planning procedures covering all technical, economic and organisational issues. The success stories are found where the process has been planned and implemented in an interactive and not in a counteractive way. Experiences and best practices It is mainly the northern, central and eastern European countries that have a high penetration of district heating, and in cities like Copenhagen, Helsinki, Warsaw, Vilnius and Riga about 90% of the residential heat demand is based on district heat. The "Best practice study" for BASREC (Baltic Sea Region), carried out 2014 – 2015 gives a comparable and consistent overview of the present structure of DH, CHP, DC and use of RES for the 11 BASREC countries. The capital cities in the countries are all active players in establishing and implementing sustainable energy development schemes and in the study, detailed cases for Stockholm, Helsinki, Warsaw, Berlin and Copenhagen are presented. Stakeholders (key pioneers) in selected cities (Berlin Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm and Warsaw) were interviewed, and an overview of the main features and driving forces was drawn from the questions below: • How local structures are developed and how they support fulfilling national goals for CO2 reductions and integration of renewable energy sources? • How short term actions are optimised in a long term perspective? • Whether there is a tradition for cooperation between energy supply companies and authorities at local and national level. Are the different stakeholder able to communicate and have procedures for communication been defined? • Whether there is a set of common assumptions and procedures for carrying out comparable cost benefit analysis in order to establish a consistent and robust decision basis for long term investments as well as short term actions? Over the past years the district heating systems in many major BSR cities have developed both in respect of integration of several smaller systems and through larger transmission systems. In all the major cities A variety of heat production facilities like different types of CHP plants based on different fuels including biomass and waste, industrial surplus heat, heat pumps, solar plants etc. have been connected into larger integrated district heating systems. Establishment of DH systems requires large investments in infrastructure compared to individual heating supply options. However, the operation costs and the environmental impacts are in many cases significantly lower. This is particularly the case if
Initiatives can be taken from different stakeholders in the international, national and urban environment e.g. urban development planners, energy suppliers, building owners, technology suppliers and lobby institutions with different interests. Cooperation between all involved public and private stakeholders, however, is essential to ensure implementation of development plans in accordance with agreed development goals. Monitoring and evaluation should be an integral part of each development plan. Agreement of common development goals between involved stakeholders requires a consistent overview and a common understanding of where we are, where we want to go and what consequences this will have for different stakeholders. A total benefit should be identified and recognised by involved parties before stakeholders negotiate how to split the benefits. An integrated top-down and bottom-up development process is the way forward. The top-down process is needed as basis for decisions regarding long-term development strategies to achieve national and local goals and commitments in respect of environmental sustainability, security of supply and economy. A bottom-up process initiated in parallel with the top-down process define specific actions to analyse and demonstrate options and implementation steps related to specific projects mainly at local level. For both processes, however, it is important to keep an overview and to understand the interrelationships in the entire demand/ supply chain. The interfaces and the balancing over time in all dimensions are important to efficiency in the short, medium and long term. The involved stakeholders need to cooperate
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