Kemēcemenaw: Menominee Food Sovereignty

Kemēcemenaw:

Tribal Extension Partnerships That Support Indigenous Food Sovereignty on the Menominee Indian Reservation

By: Jennifer Gauthier, Brian Kowalkowski, & Meg Perry

ATTRIBUTIONS

Kemēcemenaw: Tribal Extension Partnerships That Support Indigenous Food Sovereignty on the Menominee Indian Reservation, First Edition, Version 1

Copyright © Gauthier, J., Kowalkowski, B., and Perry, M. 2020, Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). Published by Extension Foundation.

ISBN: 978-1-7340417-8-1

Publish Date: 10/08/2020

Citations for this publication may be made using the following:

Gauthier, J., Kowalkowski, B., and Perry, M. (2020). Kemēcemenaw: Tribal Extension Partnerships That Support Indigenous Food Sovereignty on the Menominee Indian Reservation (1st ed., 1st rev.). Kansas City: Exension Foundation. ISBN: 978-1-7340417-8-1.

ISBN: 978-1-7340417-8-1

Producer: Ashley S. Griffin Peer Review Coordinator: Heather Martin Technical Implementer: Henrietta Ritchie and Rose Hayden-Smith

This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension (NTAE) grant no. 2019-41595-30123 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Department of Agriculture.

For more information please contact:

Extension Foundation c/o Bryan Cave LLP One Kansas City Place

1200 Main Street, Suite 3800 Kansas City, MO 64105-2122 https://extension.org/

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Attributions ............................................................................................................................................. 2

Table of Contents..................................................................................................................................... 3

Menominee Indigenous Food System Initiative......................................................................................... 6

What is Food Sovereignty?....................................................................................................................... 7 Authors ............................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Assessments .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Defining Menominee Food Sovereignty ........................................................................................................................... 12 First Nations Toolkit .......................................................................................................................................................... 15 Menominee Food Sovereignty Assessment ..................................................................................................................... 16 Menominee Wellness Initiative ........................................................................................................................................ 17 Survey Research................................................................................................................................................................ 17 Stakeholder Analysis ......................................................................................................................................................... 18 County Health Rankings & Roadmaps .............................................................................................................................. 20 Land Grants ........................................................................................................................................... 21 Land-Grant Institution Definition ..................................................................................................................................... 21 Partnering with an 1862 Land-Grant ................................................................................................................................ 22 1994 Land Grant ............................................................................................................................................................... 23 USDA-NIFA Tribal Colleges................................................................................................................................................ 25 Integrating Culture: Indigenous Planning Systems................................................................................... 27 Seasons ............................................................................................................................................................................. 27 Moon Phases..................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Clans .................................................................................................................................................................................. 31 Seven Grandfather Teachings and Local Values ............................................................................................................... 32 Integrating Culture: Cultural Assets ........................................................................................................ 34 Language ........................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Culture .............................................................................................................................................................................. 35 Environment ..................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Extended Family................................................................................................................................................................ 37 Integrating Culture: Historical Trauma and Healing ................................................................................. 38 Community Engagement .................................................................................................................................................. 38

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Menominee Trauma Model.............................................................................................................................................. 39 Safe Learning Spaces ........................................................................................................................................................ 40 Outreach Strategies ............................................................................................................................... 42 Email Outreach ................................................................................................................................................................. 42 Flyers, Posters, and Print Media ....................................................................................................................................... 43 Word of Mouth ................................................................................................................................................................. 44 Facebook ........................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Cultural Considerations.......................................................................................................................... 46 Traditional Stories and Teachings..................................................................................................................................... 46 Gift Giving ......................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Local Food Preparation ..................................................................................................................................................... 47 Community Leaders and Protocol .................................................................................................................................... 49 Other Tribes ...................................................................................................................................................................... 50 State .................................................................................................................................................................................. 51 Successful Projects................................................................................................................................. 52 Garden Education ............................................................................................................................................................. 52 Seed Distribution Event .................................................................................................................................................... 54 Plant Giveaway Event ....................................................................................................................................................... 56 Kehtekaewak Farmers Market.......................................................................................................................................... 58 CMN’s Campus Garden ..................................................................................................................................................... 61 Community Supported Agriculture................................................................................................................................... 64 Seed Research................................................................................................................................................................... 67 Menominee Immersion Club ............................................................................................................................................ 69 Wild Ricing ........................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Art Revitalization .............................................................................................................................................................. 72 Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 75 Farming 101 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 75 First American Land-Grant Consortium ............................................................................................................................ 76 First Nations Development Institute ................................................................................................................................ 77 Great Lakes Intertribal Food Summit ............................................................................................................................... 77 Indigenous Farming Conference....................................................................................................................................... 78 Intertribal Agriculture Council .......................................................................................................................................... 78 Mino Wiisinidaa! Let’s Eat Good ...................................................................................................................................... 79 Native American Agriculture Fund ................................................................................................................................... 81

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Native Nutrition Conference ............................................................................................................................................ 81 Oneida Food Sovereignty Summit .................................................................................................................................... 83 Original Local .................................................................................................................................................................... 84 The Sioux Chef’s Indigenous Cookbook ............................................................................................................................ 86 USDA-NIFA ........................................................................................................................................................................ 87

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MENOMINEE INDIGENOUS FOOD SYSTEM INITIATIVE

The US Department of Agriculture 2018-2022 Strategic Plan (USDA) recognizes its role in helping provide access to safe and nutritious food for limited income people, by supporting limited resource individuals and families in their efforts to escape food insecurity and hunger and improve their well-being. These objectives require partnerships between State, local agencies, and Federal, public and private entities to support best practices in implementing effective programs and ensuring eligible populations have access to programs that support their local food needs. One of the USDA’s strategies is to provide Indigenous peoples with traditional foods that are desired. The Menominee Indigenous food system initiative is a collaborative project between the 1994 College of Menominee and UW Madison Extension programs. The initiative is built on the concept of a sovereign food systems that connects the Indigenous cultural beliefs of spirit, body, mind and heart to the food system. The initiative will access community needs through the Menominee Wellness Survey; integrate Indigenous language and culture through Menominee stories about food and Indigenous food programs and outreach strategies. Current successful programs developed include the establishment of CSA, Farmers Market, seed and plant distribution, seed bank, seed research and sovereign food convening. As one of four topics within the current New Technologies for Agricultural Extension federal grant, the Menominee food project, as the lone community focused initiative, will develop a publication and professional development opportunities that will be shared with other 1994 Tribal institutions, FALCON, and tribal organizations. The project will take a deep dive into sovereign food production, exploring the impact that workshops and seed and plant distributions has on the presence of Indigenous food being sold at community Farmers Market’s and CSA’s.

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WHAT IS FOOD SOVEREIGNTY?

As one of four topics within the current New Technologies for Agricultural Extension federal grant, the Menominee eFieldguide, as the lone community-focused initiative, was developed to be shared with other 1994 Tribal institutions, FALCON, and Tribal orga nizations. Kemēcemenaw (Our Food): Tribal Extension Partnerships that Support Indigenous Food Sovereignty on the Menominee Indian Reservation is a collaborative project between the 1994 College of Menominee Nation and University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension. The initiative is built on the concept of a sovereign food system that connects the Indigenous cultural beliefs of spirit, body, mind, and heart to the food system. The initiative will integrate Indigenous language and culture through Menominee stories about food, Indigenous food programs, and outreach strategies. This publication will highlight successful projects and processes from food sovereignty initiatives on the Menominee Reservation. When we were strong in our foods on this continent, we were stronger people — we were healthier. And for Indigenous peoples it all starts with the food. When Indian Country lost its ability to feed itself, through whatever means, we lost that part of ourselves that supports our ability to thrive. It is only by regaining our foods will we be able to restore our health, our resilience as peoples and secure the stability and diversification within our own communities and local economies (Echo Hawk Consulting, 2015). The concept of food sovereignty was developed by Via Campesina in 1996. Via Campesina is an initiative that describes itself as “an international movement wh ich coordinates peasant organizations of small-and middle-scale producers, agricultural workers, rural women, and Indigenous communities from Asia, Africa, America, and Europe” (Campesina, 2013 .) Via Campesina’s coined term “food sovereignty” represents an alternative to neoliberal policies. Neoliberal policies prioritize international trade, thus increasing dependence on agricultural imports while strengthening the industrialization of agriculture — jeopardizing genetic, cultural, and environmental diversity and forcing farmers to give up their traditional farming practices. Reclaiming traditional farming practices and working to adopt agricultural policies that have to support sustainable family farm-based agriculture are now practiced worldwide. Food securi ty is defined by the World Health Organization (n.d.) as “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.” This differs from food sovereignty in that while adequate food may be available, it may not be culturally appropriate or determined by the preferences of the people consuming it. Food sovereignty, while there is no universally agreed-upon definition for the term, can be defined as “the right of people to determine their own food and a griculture policies; the democratization of food and agriculture (Hahn, 2013).” Peter Rosset argues in “Food First Backgrounder” that “food sovereignty goes beyond the concept of food security…the only lasting way to eliminate hunger and reduce poverty is through local economic development” (Rosset, 2003). While promoting rural development, food sovereignty tackles issues of hunger and malnutrition, disease, and poverty while upholding environmental ethics and sustainable living (Windfuhr, Jonsén, 2005).

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US Food Sovereignty Alliance (n.d.) focuses on the following principles to approach food sovereignty:

FOCUSES ON FOOD FOR PEOPLE

Food sovereignty puts the right to sufficient, healthy, and culturally appropriate food for all people at the center of food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries policies.

VALUES FOOD PROVIDERS

Food sovereignty values all those who grow, harvest, and process food, including women, family farmers, herders, fisherpeople, forest dwellers, Indigenous peoples, and agricultural, migrant, and fisheries workers.

LOCALIZES FOOD SYSTEMS

Food sovereignty brings food providers and consumers closer together so they can make joint decisions on food issues that benefit and protect all.

PUTS CONTROL LOCALLY

Food sovereignty respects the right of food providers to have control over their land, seeds, and water and rejects the privatization of natural resources.

BUILDS KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

Food sovereignty values the sharing of local knowledge and skills that have been passed down over generations for sustainable food production free from technologies that undermine health and well-being.

WORKS WITH NATURE

Food sovereignty focuses on production and harvesting methods that maximize the contribution of ecosystems, avoid costly and toxic inputs, and improve the resiliency of local food systems in the face of climate change. Across Indian Country, both established Tribal programs and grassroots projects seek to supply nutritious and affordable foods to Tribal members. Tribes continue to make progress, though many Tribal members remain hungry and unhealthy, without a voice to decide what their community eats and where the food is sourced from. Elizabeth Hoover writes in her book Indigenous Food Sovereignty in the United States, “Many Native people are just now rediscovering their traditional foods, and any news story about an Indigenous chef or a successful garden harvest is felt to be a unique and exciting step toward a vision of food sovereignty” (Hoover, 2019). For the Menominee Reservation, our Indigenous foods are valued. Our very name, Omaeqnomenewak , translates into “people of the wild rice.” Many families actively practice gardening, harvesting, hunting, and gathering. Related to this, many families prepare foods using recipes shared generation after generation.

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Our food sovereignty goal has been to perpetuate these practices and engage as many people as we can so that these traditions continue. Each moon and season help to refine the food sovereignty program.

This work involves an intentional partnership between the College of Menominee Nation and its extension division. Other local programs and departments involved with this work include Menominee Food Distribution, Menominee Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, Menikanaehkem, Menominee Tribal Clinic, Woodland Boys and Girls Club, and Early Childcare Services. This publication is not intended as a comprehensive field guide; it is intended as a resource for those interested in beginning or expanding food sovereignty initiatives in Tribal communities. We value everyone’s contribution to building a better Menominee community.

This 13-minute video from TEDx-Rainier features Valerie Segrest, a native foods educator and member of the Muckleshoot Tribe.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGkWI7c74oo

VIDEO

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGkWI7c74oo

References:

Campesina, V. (2003). What is food sovereignty. Via Campesina .

Echo Hawk Consulting. (2015). Feeding Ourselves: Food access, health disparities, and the pathways to healthy Native American communities . Retrieved from: https://nativephilanthropy.candid.org/reports/feeding-ourselves-food-access- health-disparities-and-the-pathways-to-healthy-native-american-communities/

Feast Forward. (n.d.). Food Sovereignty & Food Access . Retrieved from: http://feastforward.org/sovereignty

Hahn, K. (2013, December 13). What is Food Sovereignty. Michigan State University Extension . Retrieved from: https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/what_is_food_sovereignty

Hoover, E., Mihesuah, D., & LaDuke, W., (2019). Indigenous Food Sovereignty in the United States: Restoring Cultural Knowledge, Protecting Environments, and Regaining Health (Vol. 18) . University of Oklahoma Press.

Rosset, Peter (2003, October 1). Food Sovereignty Global Rallying Cry of Farmer Movements. Food First Backgrounder. https://foodfirst.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/BK9_4-Fall-2003-Vol-9-4-Food-Sovereignty.pdf

TedX Talks. (2014, January 22). Food sovereignty: Valerie Segrest at TEDxRainier [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGkWI7c74oo

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Windfuhr, M., & Jonsén, J. (2005). Food Sovereignty: Towards democracy in localized food systems. World Health Organization. (n.d.). WASH and Food Security . Retrieved from: http://www.ukabc.org/foodsovereignty_itdg_fian_print.pdf

U.S. Food Sovereignty Alliance. (n.d.). Food Sovereignty. Retrieved from: http://usfoodsovereigntyalliance.org/what-is- food-sovereignty/

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Authors

Jennifer Gauthier — Senior Outreach Specialist, Menominee County/Nation

Jennifer K. Gauthier is an enrolled member of the Menominee Nation and has worked in her community for over twenty years. Jennifer worked for the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin for nearly 15 years with half of those years spent in administration overseeing over ten Tribal departments. For the last six years with the Division of Extension, Jennifer has taken Extension programming and resources and adapted them to fit the needs of the community. Jennifer’s work is unique and her years working with the Tribe gave her an in-depth understanding of community and political systems to help her do the work she does. Jennifer has a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in Political Science and a Master of Public Administration from the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. Outside of work, Jennifer is the chair of the Menominee Language and Culture Commission and she has dedicated her spare time to assisting with language and cultural arts revitalization. Brian Kowalkowski — Dean of Continuing Education, College of Menominee Nation Brian Kowalkowski started at the College of Menominee Nation in 2007 as Assistant Director of Education Outreach Extension. Prior to that he worked for the Menominee Tribal Government for nine years, first as a land use planner and then as a community resource planner. His current position as Dean of Continuing Education requires him to manage and administer all grants and contracts of the department and act as the Extension Director. He analyzes community data to determine appropriate activities to be undertaken by the department. He also works with different community agencies to establish cooperative working relationships. He is involved with numerous local, state and federal professional organizations, representing his college and 1994 Tribal Land Grant schools. Brian has his Master of Science in Management degree from Marian University.

Meg Perry — eFieldbook Fellow

Meg served as an AmeriCorps VISTA volunteer for the College of Menominee Nation from July 2018-November 2019. Meg has a BA in Anthropology from the University of Toledo and is currently pursuing a Masters degree in English at North Dakota State University.

Acknowledgements: Gary Besaw, Dr. David Overstreet, Chris Caldwell, Ron Corn Sr., Ron Corn Jr., Joey Awonohopay, Bonnie McKiernan, Maydene and Jerry McDougal, Dr. Alex Adams, Jeremy Wescott, Scott Krueger, Sarah Touri, Sam Knapp, Lisa Misch

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ASSESSMENTS

Assessments are one of the many tools an institution can use to better understand the needs of the community it serves. What an educational institution believes it knows about a community and what the community actually needs can be different. That is why taking the time to research, assess, and listen to key stakeholders can be beneficial in ensuring programming is being conducted effectively.

Defining Menominee Food Sovereignty

Indigenous food sovereignty is a powerful phrase used throughout Indian Country to generally describe food systems, relationships, and values within a Tribal community. There are a number of definitions that exist, including the following from a First Nations Development Institute publication: Native food sovereignty is the right of American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians to produce their own traditional foods on their own lands to sustain themselves, their families and their communities. Native Americans had food sovereignty for thousands of years before the first European contact in the Americas. Food systems have dramatically changed to the detriment of Native peoples’ health (2018). As Menominee food sovereignty projects, programs, and activities grew and evolved, the College of Menominee Nation and its extension division wanted to understand what food sovereignty meant to community members and service providers. Service providers included higher education faculty and staff, elected leadership, and administrative leadership. The work that service providers were engaged with varied and it was not clear whether food sovereignty projects, programs, and activities were either based in community need or service provider-defined initiatives. In efforts to focus the work, the College of Menominee Nation and its extension division co-facilitated a number of convenings, or gatherings, to engage community and service providers to gain a better understanding of food sovereignty and to co-create a local definition for the Menominee community. Participants included community members, College of Menominee Nation students, participants of the Menominee Wellness Initiative, and elected leadership, to name a few. Two resources were used to create the format for this community engagement process. First, questions from the First Nations Development Institute’s Food Sovereignty Assessment Tool (Bell-Sheeter, Segrest, A-dae Romero, & Foxworth, 2014) were selected. This important resource has a host of community engagement tools that are culturally appropriate and useful in helping Tribal communities understand their local food system. Once questions are selected, the next step was to decide how the questions would be asked. For Menominee, it was decided to use a group facilitation process. The design of the convenings was semi-structured yet allowed for open thinking. The goal was to gather as much input from each participant in a manner that was equitable and respectful. The constructive discussion was designed to give every participant a voice and prevent any one person from dominating the discussion.

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A helpful resource in guiding the design of these convenings was Fostering Dialogue Across Divides (Herzig & Chasin, 2006). This resource is designed to navigate controversial and difficult discussions. While the questions asked at convenings were far from controversial, the resource provided a great format to ensure equity in participant engagement. Each community must decide on a format that works best for that community. Locally, it was important to assess both community and service provider responses. To achieve this, convenings were held with community members only and with service providers only. The same questions were asked of each group using the format described above. By breaking the convenings into two groups, the College of Menominee Nation and its extension division were able to see areas of alignment and disconnection with the work that service providers were interested in and what community needs were. A final convening of both groups was held to share responses and to use those responses to develop a definition for food sovereignty.

The working definition for Menominee Food Sovereignty is as follows:

“The Menominee Nation describes food sovereignty as living our traditional Menominee ways, identity, values, and relationship to provide a Tribally sustained community food system for future generations.”

Recruiting Menominee community members to participate at the community convening

Menominee Food Sovereignty community convening

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Jennifer Gauthier delivering the presentation, “Is food sovereignty a term used in this community? Why or why not?

Is food sovereignty a term used in your community? Why or why not?

Files:

Food Sovereignty Questions (ppt)

Community Convening (ppt)

• Menominee Food Sovereignty Community Definition (ppt)

• Menominee Food Summit Presentation (ppt)

References: First Nations Development Institute. (2018, October 26). Native Food Sovereignty . https://www.firstnations.org/wp- content/uploads/publication-attachments/1%20Fact%20Sheet%20Native%20Food%20Sovereignty%20FNDI_0.pdf

Bell-Sheeter, A., Segrest, V., A-dae Romero, V., & Foxworth, R. (2014). Food sovereignty assessment tool (2nd Edition). Retrieved from https://www.firstnations.org/publications/food-sovereignty-assessment-tool-2nd-edition/

Herzig, M., & Chasin, L. (2006). Fostering dialogue across divides: A nuts and bolts guide from the Public Conversations Project . Watertown, MA: Public Conversations Project.

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First Nations Toolkit

The First Nations Development Institute’s Food Sovereignty Assessment Tool (Bell-Sheeter, Segrest, A-dae Romero, & Foxworth, 2014) is designed to help Tribal communities understand their food environment. The tool contains a number of exercises and questions that can provide a baseline assessment of needs for a Tribal community as they relate to food sovereignty, health, food environment, and cultural values. The exercises and questions are easily adaptable for focus groups, open community discussions, and surveys. The College of Menominee Nation relied on this tool when developing a community definition of Menominee food sovereignty. The First Nations Development Institute’s The Business of Indian Agriculture Participant Guide (Phillips, 2018) is designed for Tribal communities that are ready to venture into agribusiness operations. However, this guide is important for Tribes that are just stepping into Indigenous agriculture, as it provides grounding information on business plans, return on investment for specific crops, and how to manage a business. While the College of Menominee Nation is not seeking to develop a business, this guide has been helpful in community and partner discussions where Indigenous agriculture and business ventures are being explored. Tribal and community values are important considerations when exploring business ventures.

Who decides what foods are available in your community (at the grocery store, delivered by the commodities program, etc.)?

Why and how have agriculture and food traditions have been lost in your community?

Why and how have agriculture and food traditions have been lost in your community?

References: Bell-Sheeter, A., Segrest, V., A-dae Romero, V., & Foxworth, R. (2014). Food sovereignty assessment tool (2nd Edition). Retrieved from https://www.firstnations.org/publications/food-sovereignty-assessment-tool-2nd-edition/

Phillips, J. (2018). The business of Indian agriculture. Retrieved from https://www.firstnations.org/publications/the- business-of-indian-agriculture/

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Menominee Food Sovereignty Assessment

The Menominee Food Sovereignty Assessment team investigated Menominee people’s views on food access and their knowledge of traditional foods, as well as the prospect of building a farm on the reservation. The team heard from youth, elders, college-affiliated professionals, traditionalists, and food distributors. Conducting a food sovereignty assessment in tribal communities provides an important starting point for evaluating community feedback and creating further assessments, focus groups, workshops, or programs to meet the needs of tribal community members. The goals of this assessment included:

1. Create a common understanding and narrative about traditional foods and practices of the Menominee.

2. Begin to identify current food-sharing and preservation practices, formal as well as informal sharing, distribution, and exchange networks of locally produced/traditional foods.

3. Understand how food (locally harvested/produced versus other) is shared and distributed within the household, family networks, and the larger community.

4. Understand perceptions of government food programs and their relationship with food sovereignty.

5. Systematically involve youth and elders and more rural parts of the reservation.

In addition, the Menominee Food Sovereignty Assessment team examined the history of the Menominee Tribe as sustainable agriculturalists. The College of Menominee Nation has been working in collaboration with tribal archeologist Dr. David Overstreet, who previously taught at the College and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, to build scientific capacity through ongoing research into the ancestral Menominee practice of sustainable agriculture since 2012. He has over 25 years of experience working collaboratively with the Menominee Historic Preservation Department and the Tribe’s historic preservation officer. This historical perspective of agriculture in the Menominee tradition has been of great value for engaging the community in food sovereignty initiatives.

 Menominee Food Sovereignty Assessment (pdf)

Wisconsin’s First People (You Tube)

This 30-minute video relates the origin story of the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CuPldJ Sycc

VIDEO

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References: Grignon, Marcus. (2017). Menominee Food Sovereignty Assessment 2016-2017.

Chastour. (2017, April 27). Wisconsin’s First people [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CuPldJSycc&t=332s

Menominee Wellness Initiative

The Menominee Wellness Initiative is composed of local service providers with an interest in overall Menominee health. This group meets monthly and is an opportunity for partners to share projects, data, and other information. The initial guiding framework for this group was steeped in Collective Impact and provided a foundation for future work. As meetings progressed and trusting relationships were formed, opportunities to collaborate on projects, research, and funding opportunities arose. The meeting structure became more informal, with standing agenda items and roving meeting locations. This group is committed to working together to provide quality programming to the community. Tribal communities may want to consider creating a similar group to make best use of local funding and other resources.

 Menominee Wellness Initiative Meeting (doc)

 Wellness group pushes for healthier lifestyle on Menominee reservation

References: Hanley Brown, F., Kania, J., & Kramer, M. (2012). Channeling change: Making collective impact work (pp. 56-78). FSG.

Survey Research

Surveys are key to developing responsive programming. Surveys do not need to be complicated and should always be created with your target audience in mind. For Indigenous communities that are in the early stages of developing food sovereignty programs, needs assessment surveys and evaluative surveys can shape programming. Needs assessment survey results help to identify priority program areas and can improve program attendance. Evaluative surveys are an opportunity to seek feedback on your organization’s programming efforts. These types of surveys are integral to developing projects that are responsive to community members’ needs and should be integrated in all program planning processes.

Google Forms is an easy and accessible tool for creating and distributing surveys. If technology access is an issue for the community, paper surveys can still be used, and program staff can manually enter survey results into Google Forms.

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Google Forms also provides summary results data. If programs want to dig deeper and analyze results on their own, Google Forms provides an option to export data to Microsoft Excel. Other survey tools include Qualtrics and Survey Monkey.

Below are brief descriptors of each survey our program developed for the Menominee Indian Reservation. See the complete surveys for more detailed information.

• Menominee Wellness Initiative Survey . This survey was administered to assess the effectiveness of seed distribution events and to learn about gardening practices. The results helped to improve event advertising, garden workshop content, and confirmed the need for seed distribution in the Menominee community. • Supomahkwakwan Survey . This simple survey was distributed to individuals who participated in maple syrup workshops. The goals of the survey were to assess what participants learned, determine the value of the workshop content, and gather ideas for future workshops. • Community Convening . The Community Convening Survey was administered to community members who participated in the convenings. The survey results helped us understand what participants learned and how they might be able to apply that knowledge, as well as how we can improve future convenings. • 2015 Menominee Food Sovereignty Survey . This survey was conducted in order to assess the state of food security and food sovereignty on the Menominee Indian Reservation. Survey respondents helped us identify community needs and opportunities to increase access to local, fresh, culturally appropriate foods.

Files:

 Assessing the state of Food Security and Food Sovereignty in the Menominee Community (pdf)

 Menominee Wellness Initiative Survey (doc)

Stakeholder Analysis

The value of knowing who stakeholders are is key to creating inclusive projects, programs, and activities. By conducting stakeholder analysis before a project commences, or early in planning, one is able to identify groups and individuals who can bring additional insight into the work. A stakeholder analysis provides an opportunity to assess how one currently engages with stakeholders, how one is responsible to stakeholders, and who is missing from the project. The first step in this process is to identify stakeholders. We hosted a brainstorming session with the core food sovereignty workgroup. This group included staff from the College of Menominee Nation, the college’s extension division, Food Distribution, Master Gardeners, and other members of the Menominee Wellness

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Initiative. A simple question to ask at this brainstorming session is, “Who in our community is engaged with hunting, fishing, harvesting plants, preparing or processing food, and/or growing food?” A facilitator can collect this information in a number of different ways, including the following:

1.) going around the room and asking people to share and document responses;

2.) asking participants to write one entity/individual per post it note; or

3.) using an online tool like Google Forms or Qualtrics.

This simple process will help to identify most, if not all, of the stakeholders in your community who are engaged in food sovereignty efforts. Your community can take this information a step further and break stakeholders into internal stakeholders and external stakeholder groups. A sample stakeholder map is included for review. It is not specific to food sovereignty but provides a visual example that can be used. Once a map is created, workgroups will want to deepen their understanding of identified stakeholders by completing a full stakeholder analysis. The University of Wisconsin’s Division of Extension has designed a facilitation tool to guide groups through this process. The Excel worksheet title d “Stakeholder Analysis” encourages workgroups to assess their performance through their stakeholders’ perspectives. The worksheet also answers the following questions: How does the stakeholder affect the group? What are the stakeholder’s needs? How does t he group affect the stakeholder? What are the group’s needs? Completing this process provides a solid foundation for future work. The process visually captures most participants in food sovereignty work. The process also encourages workgroups to have conversations about stakeholders they may have never had before. This builds understanding and allows workgroup members to see current and potential partners in food sovereignty work.

Stakeholder Analysis (xls)

MIHS Stakeholders (xls)

Who in your community is involved with growing food, gathering food, processing food, and cooking food?

What non-profits groups are engaged with food sovereignty?

What volunteer groups are engaged with food sovereignty?

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What retail businesses should we include in food sovereignty work?

Who are the community members that have traditional knowledge related to food and the environment?

Who are partners outside of the community that we can include?

County Health Rankings & Roadmaps

The impetus for much of the food sovereignty and local food work on the Menominee Indian Reservation stemmed from an important data source, “ County Health Rankings and Roadmaps ”. Information is split into two categories: health outcomes and health factors. Each category details statistical information for a variety of health measures. Menominee County, which shares nearly coterminous boundaries with the Menominee Indian Reservation, has been ranked as the least healthy county in the state of Wisconsin since the ranking’s inception. Our community uses this data as a source of strength and opportunity. This data source has been helpful in securing grants and creating action plans to address community health issues. The data also supported the creation of the local Community Engagement, a collaborative workgroup composed of service providers and community members, whose goal is to partner on health-related programming and projects. Data such as this is helpful for communities that want a snapshot of their health. With that, it is important to provide local community context related to the data, as the history, environment, and policies that are related to the statistics will vary by community.

References: County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/

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LAND GRANTS

This section is dedicated to defining the idea of land-grant institutions and how rural areas are served by the land-grant family. Institutions such as 1862, 1890, and 1994 land-grants all had unique ways of joining this esteemed scholarly group but in the end, the goal of the land-grant is to provide research and outreach to better the lives of rural America.

Land-Grant Institution Definition

According to the Association of Public and Land- Grant Universities (APLU 2016), “the original mission of Land-Grant institutions, as set forth in the first Morrill Act, was to teach agriculture, military tactics, and the mechanic arts as well as classical studies so members of the working classes could obtain a liberal, practical education”. This was sponsored by Vermont Senator Justin Morrill, who saw the need for higher education in rural America. The intent was to provide an opportunity for those living in rural America to have the same educational opportunities as those living in urban areas. Today, many land-grant institutions, such as College of Menominee Nation, have expanded as modern institutions yet still teach practical skills. Land- grant institutions provide education to all Americans regardless of race or economic status. This model takes education and research to rural communities through extension programs that send educators to communities providing scientific research for optimal practices for living clean, safe, and healthy lives.

College of Menominee Nation located in Keshena, Wisconsin.

Files:

Land Grant Map (pdf)

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References: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. (n.d). About APLU . Retrieved from: https://www.aplu.org/about- us/history-of-aplu/what-is-a-land-grant-university/

Land-Grant University FAQ. (2016). Retrieved from: https://www.aplu.org/about-us/history-of-aplu/what-is-a-land-grant- university/

The Library of Congress. (n.d). Primary Documents in American History: Morrill Act . Retrieved from: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/morrill.html

United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d). NIFA Land-Grant Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from: https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resource/LGU-Map-03-18-19.pdf

Partnering with an 1862 Land-Grant

As explained by the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU), the first Morrill Act of 1862 provided grants in the form of federal lands to each state. Officially titled “An Act Donating Public Lands to the Several States and Territories which may provide Colleges for the Benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts,” the Morrill Act provided each state with 30,000 acres of federal land for each member in their Congressional delegation. The states used the proceeds from selling those federal lands to establish a public institution to fulfill the act’s provisions. The article “ Land Grab Universities ” provides another historical view of how land-grant institutions were created (Lee, 2020). In the state of Wisconsin, the 1862 land-grant institution is the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Within the land-grant family, a strong collaboration between the sister organizations is paramount to successful outreach and learning throughout Tribal communities. College of Menominee Nation (CMN) has formed a strong partnership with the local UW-Madison Extension office. In doing this, the college has been able to capitalize on the resources of the much larger and more established 1862 Land-grant university system in the state. In return, CMN is able to connect the Menominee community and surrounding Tribes with UW-Madison. This partnership was formalized in 2013 with a memorandum of agreement between CMN and the University of Wisconsin’s Division of Extension, providing office space for the Extension office on the CMN campus. In return, CMN would have access to statewide resources available to local county offices.

Files:

1862 Map (pdf)

 UWEX Memorandum of Agreement (pdf)

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References: Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities. (n.d). About APLU. Retrieved from: https://www.aplu.org/about- us/history-of-aplu/what-is-a-land-grant-university/

The Library of Congress. (n.d). Primary Documents in American History: Morrill Act. Retrieved from: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/morrill.html

Lee, R. (2020, March 30). Land-Grab Universities. High Country News. Retrieved from: https://www.hcn.org/issues/52.4/indigenous-affairs-education-land-grab-universities

1994 Land Grant

This brief video features a discussion of the College of the Menominee 1994 Land Grant Anniversary.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_kt2dP cmPc

VIDEO

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_kt2dPcmPc

1994 land-grant institution College of Menominee Nation located in Keshena, Wisconsin.

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A photograph shot by satellites high above the earth of the 235,000-acre Menominee Reservation shows a clearly outlined, deep-green rectangle from sustainable forest practices.

The approval of land-grant status in 1994 granted Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) the ability to access funding through the United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA). The irony of it at the time was there was no longer any land to grant to the TCUs, and the entire land-grant system was built on land that was once Tribal territory. Instead, an endowment was set up that would provide annual interest payments to all TCUs with land-grant status. The TCU land- grant family has grown from its original 29 to what is today 37 institutions of higher education throughout Indian Country — two of which are in Wisconsin: College of Menominee Nation and Lac Courte Oreilles College. Known as the 1994 land-grant institutions, TCUs very much resemble the original intent of the Morrill Act of 1862, which was to provide post-secondary education and resources to areas of rural America that otherwise could not afford or access it. TCUs work closely with their communities to make sure their programs — such as teacher education, business administration, public administration, and agriculture — align with the career goals of students in that community. The College of Menominee Nation, located in northeast Wisconsin, is no different. At only 26 years old, it is considered a fledgling school but it exemplifies the true purpose of a land-grant institution. It was originally chartered by the Menominee people in 1993, starting with classes in the basement of the founding president’s home. From there it grew, moving to a vacant house, then to classrooms at the local high school, and then to a double-wide trailer to what is today a sprawling campus of seven state-of-the-art buildings and a second campus near the Oneida Nation Reservation in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The college’s growth and success stemmed from the community’s hunger to learn and help the Menomi nee Tribe. Today, the college not only continues to provide associate degree programs but also has transfer agreements with the University of Wisconsin system, as well as baccalaureate degree programs at its institution. Through its 1994 land-grant status, the College of Menominee Nation is able to provide community support through its Department of Continuing Education as well as student research opportunities through its Sustainable Development Institute. This institute strives to replicate the traditional Menominee values of

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