On the Inside

Howtounderstand themost importantpartof • the POW problem. Pretendyou're 12 years old andyour fathers aPrisonerofWarinSoutheast Asia. Y OU won't understand the ma- But meanwhile there is no need for Hanoi and its allies to delay even a day in answering this plea:

neuvers of the bargaining table. You'll be baffled by the cries of "political issue" or "prolonging the war:' You'll want somebody, somebody believable, to tell you your father's all right, that he's being decently treated. This message to Hanoi and its allies is acting as spokesman for alt the boys and girls, wives and parents whose fathers, husbands and sons are being held in secret captivity in North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Cambodia or Laos. Of course, they all want the war tn end and the prisoners of war to be rdea~ed ,1s soon as possible.

SUPPORT OUR PLEA TOHANOI AND ITS ALLIES: Clear away the doubts - Open your prison camps to neutral observers ... now! We ask no more than we give. All American and South Vietnamese prison camps are in- spected regularly by official neutra l observers- The International Cnmmitteeofthe RedC ross.

Let neutral observers into your prison camps to make sure that American prisoners are being de- cently treated, according to the standards of civilized nations. There's nothing political about that. There is something very, very human about it- big enough, tran- scending enough to be understood by a 12-year-old boy or girl. And understood, we hope, by Hanoi. By acting swiftly on this issue they can earn the gratitude of millions of Americans ... and respect from all the world.







Editor-In -Chief ANDREW ELSTON Co-Ordinating Edi tor GARY CUMMINGS Business Manager HELENE HE I T Advertising Manager CHARLES KAPLAN News Editor BEVERLEY CONRAD Art;; editor CAl?OL EDMONDSON Graphic~Editor NANC Y DICK Contribut ing Editor LARRY FRITZ Copy & Proofs HEDDA GORDON






STAFF: Barry Cohen, Eric Chaffee, Linda De Tine , George Howell, Joy Cummings, Michael Sajecki, Steve Mackey , Dick Manning, Marcia Rybcznski, Jo Ann Pizzo, Ann Schillinger, Heather Ingram, Mike Kaiser, Dave Schwab, Mary Sullivan, Bill Mallowitz, Jan Nuzzo, Peggy Burke, Pat Bumstead, Jackfe Michelin, Hobo, Grindle, Moochie, Cat. S'J'UA/1' ma11azin e is pu blished fortnightl y by the students of the Ne w Yori, Stale Universit y Colle/le al Huffa lo, 1300 Hlmwood ,\ venue, Huffalo. Ne w York , 14222. Office., are in th e Student Unio11 , ,101 and 42 1: tele{JhOn t1 ( 716) 862-.5:126, • .S.12 7. l'ub/ishinl{ and operatin11 func/s allo cated lhrou11h th e Unit ed Students ' Go vernment u11der the aus1>ices o f Pub/ica lions Board .and l/11·ou11h lite adverlisin11 income. S'rRA IT is re{Jresented for national adverlisi1111 income /Jy Nalionul Hducalional AdverliRin11 S ervices, 360 Lex ington Avenue, New York , .'V. Y . STR ,\/'I' i., distrihuted free lo all members of 11,e Buffulu State Community and lo other students at other selected campuses of the Nia11ara Frontier. l~·ic:e for all otherR : 25 cents per copy; $4.50 per year (14 issues) . Unsolicited manuscripts will be cons,idered for publication /,ut STRAIT will 1101 be responoible for their return ; person, not associated with SUCB will not be di•criminated af{ainsl in the rms of manusc ript 1>ublicalion. Editorial )li<'y iii de/er mined by the edilorial board. -iTRA11' subscribes to Collel(e Pre•• Service (Cl'S) Denver, Colorado; and Di.,I,atch New• Service lnternalional(DNSI) . Copyri11ht 1972: all ril(hts reserved: no portion of I/ti• maj/ae i~e. ii• pictorial or verbal content may lie repri1,led in any manner without the r.«pre•• consent ()f the Editor-In-Chief. Printed in the United States of America by RecordPress.

In This Issue

School Days, School d~ys, dear old ...whoops! Yes, that's what the cover reminds us of. The "good old days" you always heard your parents talk about, the whole one room school bit. Well, things have changed and unfortunately not always for the better. Education has progressed to the realm of big business, while the student has become a by-product. There are optimistic moves being made in education as seen in the Creative Studies Center located right here on our own Buffalo State campus. Also the international view of learning is featuring a student from Bogota, Columbia, who thinks we all have a lot to learn. And as one of our articles states, WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? And your guesses are as good as ours....

Graphics credits: Barry Cohen • 25, 12; Nancy Dick • 11, 15, 26; 4-'m Flanigan - 26; Dave Geis - 10, 12. COVER BY MARK KOSLOWSKI

Editorial.~~~~~~~ Education Corporation

But along the way, the patrons of this ed• ucation corporation become lost numbers in the production line; lost in the pot holes of the "student " parking lot, while the management gets paid lots of bread and the priviledge to drive to the back door of the plush-carpeted ivory-tower admin- istration building . If the foregoing were not enough to force upon students the realization of what it's all about, the difference of a few pot holes and a few carpeted floors will cause a sudden contempt for the piggishness that is demonstrated by the man- agement. The rhetoric of "the administration" in pre- senting its views on the roll of education and its relationship to the roll of the student is most en- e nlightening. President Fretwell, in a statement equivalent to the United States President's annual State of the Union Message sees the relationship like tJ this (from "Where Do We Go From Here? For- ward!" Remarks prepared for the College Senate on 11 November, 1971) : - "Ideally [the general-liberal requirement] is not just a bunch of hurdles to be cleared by a student . . . but rather an opportunity ... to deepen and broaden his knowledge . . . . And if the student is lucky, his heart has been warmed .." [emphasis added] - (Speaking on the role of the college in providing trained personnel for the com- munity) "Our .society needs enlightened and dedicated people. . . . Planned careers are socially useful, financially rewarding (we hope!) [sic] . .. and provide a means of up- ward social and economic mobility." - (Speaking on future aims) "I want the experience of going to Buffalo State to be [a] vitalizing experience for students and an exciting and satisfying one for faculty . That is no small ambition.,[ emphasis added] ... And if I hear students correctly, they want their education to be an alive process. The statements speak for themselves. And, for A the education corporation. The uncertainty in the 9' phrases: ' .. .if the student is iucky .. .' and ' ...(we hope!) .. .' and ' .. .if I hear students correctly . . .' tell us that, not only is education very bug business, (con 't. on page 7)

There is this thing about education , elementary, secondary and higher alike: it has nothing whatso - ever to do with learning. People have vocalized words to this effect for a long time, notably Bertrand Russell and Paul Goodman . But little has been done about it, perhaps because we think little can be done about it, or because people are not willing to do anything about it . The old idiom : Talk is cheap. The fact is : Education is business . And damn big business at that. Just take a look at New York State and the SUNY system. Well over 5 billion dollars of the New York State budget will be fun- neled into the public education structure next ye . - and then add to that local and federal assistance . The theory behind the business is "Let each become all he is capable of becoming." Which is pure socialism. Socialistic education is what we are all into. But the catch is here: socialism and big business do not fit together ideologically. Each citizen in the state pays a good chunk of his earned and spent money financing education at all levels. Via a lottery, one can purchase "shares." Then, people at all levels can pick up on that ed- ucation so that they may in turn be "rewarded" a higher income bracket which will in turn provide more funds for more education. And the money generated for this enormous business goes not only to teachers (who are the only valid passers-on of knowledge, save for books and film), but also to administrators, assistants, sec- retaries, bookkeepers; planners, consultants, arch- hects, builders; janitors, cooks, attendants, police- men. Why do we need consultants, architects and policemen to learn about Renaissance art, Karl Marx, astrophysics, Sigmund Freud or American poetry? Why do we need these people to learn? Very simply, to learn, we do not need them or their services. But also as simply, in today's society we cannot learn and survive - we must be "educat- ed." And education is big business - a corporate enterprise. And being the enterprise that it is, it needs administrators, assistants, etc. STRAIT 9 MARCH 1972 4





The noted utilitarian of the late 19th century, John Stuart Mill, is a man who is often looked upon as one of the great pre -cursors of contem- porary progressive thought. Indeed, his book On Liberty contains support for many ideas which seem to characterize a liberal view in the present day. Typical of Mill's writings are statements which sup- port the right of the individual. Mill, for example, would say that a person should not be punished for using things such as alcohol, drugs, etc., as long as his usage of these does not interfere negatively with others. Although many of Mill's thoughts appear to be extremely liberal for his era, it was with the progress of society in mind that he proposed such ideas. For Mill, individual freedom was good so long as the society in general benefitted. In his probe of individuality, Mill no tes, " a per- son whose desires and impulse~ are his own--are the expression of his own nature, as it has been de- veloped and modified by his own culture--is said to have a character." He develops this further in a short discussion of genius. For Mill, persons of genius need an "atmos- phere of freedom" in which to live and grow. Per- sons of genius are "more individual than any other people--less capable, consequently, of fitting them- selves, without hurtful compression, into any of the small number of molds which society provides in order to save its members the trouble of forming their own character." Of course- there are many notions as to what "genius" implies . To some it would seem that genius is a natural ·inclination toward great intel- ligence or skill; to others that it is an indication of cleverness; to others still--a'n indication of creativity. Mill implies that his idea of genius is a person of independence and self reliance, and of such in- dividuality, that the stereotypical molds of society become greatly uncomfortable and generally unbearable. In fact, there may very well be nothing

innately superior about persons of genius save the great sensitivity of their insight. A big part of genius for Mill is the originality involved. But even he was forced to admit that persons of this type have two equally oppressive choices. If they choose to lend their originality to the character which society has assigned them, they have wasted their genius. If, on the other hand, they choose to maintain the identi- ty they have carved for themselves, they run the risk of insults and ostracism. By way of explanation for the resentment of persons of genius, Mill says that "originality "is the one thing which unoriginal minds cannot feel use of " ... "the first service which originality has to render them is that of opening their eyes." Mill stated that, concerning society and govern- ment is general, those who had no originality and who were even less interested in becoming so them- selves, .were massive oppressors of genius since they perpetuated mediocrity. Further, he pointed out that the power of public opinion and of the masses as a whole, diminished the strengths and insights of the individual. No longer can a creative and original mind reach the masses with any great force, and no longer can he influence the masses to refine a medi- ocre level . Perhaps it is the repression of originality which makes it all the more outstanding to us. And even more, it may be envy which makes us desire the same initiative by which another was able to break away from the smothering power of society. But in either case, it is important to see that Mills did not seek to insult or discourage us, but only to make us aware of the fact that if we recognize the impor- tance of originality, we can nurture it in ourselves so that we become tha masters of developing our own characters rather than the slaves of being de- veloped.







Speaking of metaphors, let me tell you about metaphors . A metaphor is like braille (simile), or a seeing-eye dog (metaphor .) You are blind, stumbling through a paper situation, or curbside dilemma, and your metaphor puts it together for you, synthesizes all these unrelated run-on sentences in the sidewalk of life, and gets you where you're going. You trust. You can't be sure, you know . You just trust it, like you do an automobile, which leads us to the first important image of this column-wheels. Lets depart for a moment, dear readers, into the world of auto- mobility, or autoeroticism. Ever think about the effect General Motors has had on your sex life? I doubt it. Now, I don't mean making love in the back seat of a Dodge Dart, ei- ther. I'm talking about the arbitrariness and quick changing scenes we citizens of this age of transition find ourselves in . Goddamn, we move so fast! And to where? Evenings at Goodbar and the 'Head bring to mind Mr. D.H. Lawrence's insights into the world of sex. (I should mention I've been struggling with Women in Love for a while now, and a real struggle it is.) Lawrence was really down on "sex in the head", meaning the inactment between men and women of self-conscious sexual roles which are based on our general mental conception of what sex ought to be, rather than the real "blood· consciousness" relations that ought to occur spon- taneously. Metaphorically, try visual sex, sex in the eye. You see what you want and you go after it. You know in your conscious mind what you want even before the real thing is there . A masturbation fantasy projected into real life. You can see it all around you, obviously _in the bar scene, and less obviously in "meaningful relationships." Things change so quickly because they are based on two dimensional images and not skin. Everone is hussling for the Platonic fuck. We just can't get our spiritual rocks off. We keep jumping into cars and scenes, changing all the time, never satisfied, always under no obligation to commit ourselves to anyone, we continued on page 21

Taking patience for virtue and three clear photographs on the wall for one figure beside you ; isn't the feel of wire more cutting than the sight of sharp paper flowers sighing for you to cut them?

This has been a particularly rough column to write. My faithful readers will have noticed that I didn't make an appearance in the last issue. The reason was simple enough--I forgot about my dead- line. I was too busy making a few profound dis- coveries about myself and a few others which seem consistant with these few lines lifted out of Sonnet 2, written two summers ago one drunken, stoned evening. I almost wish I was in that aforementioned condition tonight, just so I could get it out, or get it on, or get it up, or whatever it is we're suppose to do with ourselves. So traumatic, this writing business. I was accused not so long ago of exposing too much of myself in this 1000 word vornitorium, and while I had to agree, it is becoming more pain- fully brought to the foreground with each thing I write that I have just begun to strip myself down for someone else's action. Actually, naked isn't the right quality. I'm becoming more and more trans- parent, a roll of cellophane you look through to see the other side, your side. A cellophane mirror. How's that for a metaphor?



EDITORIAL (con 't . from page 4)

ucational system that is thrown at him a t an early age , and which he learns to oegrudgrnqly or blindly accept after the important, early years? Without suggesting total decentralization , total removal of state influence from learning, or suggesting private education - probably the only ultimate solut ion to mechanization - there are many alternatives . One can submit to the education corporation and allow it to dominate, subjugate , depersonalize as much, or for as long, as it is admissable for him- self, hoping or knowing that true learning will not be stifled by the mechanized education . Perhaps while so doing we can find our individual niches in t he corporation which will serve as a retuge - an extra-curricular activity, perhaps. One may refuse the education corporation al- together and become self-educated , self-learned in a way t hat only an individual and his own personal creative , inquisitive self may realize. Or, if really intent on calling the ba nkruptcy of the corporation, we can all withdraw our shares. We can say "no 1 " Sure, talk is cheap. But as Dr. Mark Chesler , social reformer from the University of Michigan pointed out during a lect ure here last week : " School will not exist in t he future if student 's don't want it."

A but also a very uncertain , hit-and-miss business . But, 9afterall, if as few as 100 students a year do not become "enlightened" Dr . Fretwell and his col- leagues see no reduction in salary , no less praise from SUNY or society . The preliminary report on the college 's self- study - headed up by Dr . Robert Schoenberg, Assis- tant Vice President for Academic Affa irs - prepared for the Middle States Association contains literally thousands of statements that call for deeper exam- ination of the "direction" of the college . In refer- ring to the "relevancy," or " the need t o keep abreast of new techniques and. . . current social trends, " the drafters of the document admit that these things "have a vague flavor and imprecision ." It further states that "Most departments show little evidence of. .. internal quality controls . There are few indications of consultations with students... " Speaking on the " Administrative Roles and Balance" the same report reveals that : " The role of the administrator is never entirely clear ." Not only does the corporation look to new techniques and trends as " vague and imprecise ," but it cannot de - fine the role of its bosses. So what then does the student who is interested in 1 earning do when confronted with the ed-

GE.-r our oF 1'"HIE WAY f Y()V 1 f<.E H0LOI NG- UP PROGRESS !ff)--



COLLEGES ASKED TO 'TURN OFF THE FAUCETS' Recent reports in education have shown that colleges and univer- sities across the nation are discouraging students from entering education fields . e This year 234,100 new graduates will be competing for 115,900 jobs in U .S. public schools [figures from National Education Association .] Only four years ago 175,500 teachers could choose from 177,600 jobs . Eugene Karol, chairman of an NEA committee reported this to be the worst time in history for jobs in education . He advocated that colleges "turn off the faucets" because if they don't "we'll have two teachers for every position for the next 1 O years." Some reasons for the overflow of teachers are that more people are graduating in education but less are being hired because of the schools' financial difficulties. Also public school enrollment which had been rising has leveled off.

NEWS ~~~Tc"T"T~ • Compiled bY JoAnn Pizzo 'I- ' .:tfl'

FREE!FREE!FREE!REGISTER!FREE!VOTE!FREE! In an effort to promote young people eligible for voting to register, A.&M. records has announced a new service that it will undertake. They plan to release an album that will be available free to those young people who present voter registration receipts. Gil Friesen of A & M showed a concern in making the "25 million unregistered voters between the ages of 18 and 24 . . . aware of their opportunity to register and vote in the next election . . ." The album will be a double LP and will feature some of the company's best artists like the Carpenters and Cat Stevens. The plans for distribution have not yet been finalized, but the record will probably be available through the mail.

'TERMPAPER UNLTD . ' TIME LIMITED The ill-fated term paper arsenals may be coming to the end of their profits. The State Attorney General of N. Y. has filed suit to prevent the sale of term papers to hundreds of students, some of them in Ivy League colleges and universities. In an unprecedented suit, Attorney General Louis J . Lefkowitz accused Kathleen Saksniit of aiding and abetting students in fraud. Ms. Saksniits business, operating under the names of N.Y .C. Termpapers Inc., or Termpaper Unlimited of N.Y. has grossed A over $35,000 since 1 November. •

DRAFT RESISTER'S CHANCES GOOD Over half of the 2,9 . 3 young men who were indicted last year for draft violations had their cases dismissed according to a report by the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors [C.C.C.O]. C.C.C.O. reported that the average young man's chances of avoiding military service by refusing induction are better than fifty percent. 217 more men were found innocent after they went to trial and of the remaining 1,036 men, only 446 of the men who pleaded guilty to drfat violations were convicted. The average sentence of those con- victed last year for draft violations was 29.1 months although 650 of last years draft violaters were put on probation. The nation's busiest Selective Service- related judicial district, San Fransisco, disposed of the most cases last year. In an effort to clean up the large back.log of draft cases, nine special assistant U.S. Attorney's were sent to the San Fransisco district. Last year there were 5,000 pending cases. This year fewer than 1,200 are waiting to come to trial. San Fransisco district U.S. Attorney James Browning stated that indictments last year in his district were approached 69 percent over the previous year and up to two hundred percent over 1970.

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AEC - THE GREAT AMERICAN BOMB Today ' s major nuclear threat to America emanates from Washington, not Moscow or Peking. This statement is the essence of the message of a new book by Roger Rapoport , a muckraking journalist with credits extending from Ramparts to Harpers. Because of his weak confidence in the Atomic Energy Commission he has written The Great American Bomb Machine . It deals with the fact that, "Mindless design production testing and transport of nuclear weapons may be a greater threat to national security than all our enemies, real or imaginary ." When it comes to atomic energy, many Americans have a sense of the surrealistic . But incidents like the National Warning Center sending a war alert message to 2500 stations nationwide by mistake (an employee put the wrong tape in the machine) have begun to erode public confidence. Rapoport admits that his book is depressing, and that it is a subject that scares people away. He said, "The book won't reach a mass audience because people would rather read Future Shock or something on how to have better orgasms. Rapoport concludes his book with a plea for Unilateral Disarmament of nuclear weapons which he considers the only solution to the dilemma.

CHEMISTRY CLASS IN A CHINESE UNIVERSITY : Quotes on either side of Mao Tse-tung 's photo read - "Education must serve proletarian politics and must be unified with productive labor," and "Let philosophy be liberated from philosophers, classrooms, and books, and become a sharp weapon in the hands of the masses. "

VIDEO INTERVIEWS A unique idea has been developed by the University of Maine to help students seeking employment. The University, through their audio- visual department will videotape interviews for seniors, thus breaking down geographic boundaries in job hunting. The placement director of the University, Philip Brockway, prefers to call the interviews "conversations." The tapes are consisted of a conversation between Brockway and the student. About fifty tapes have been cut and Brockway thinks they have been helpful. This idea could save the student time and especially money for travel to far-off prospects of employment. According to Brockway this new system may be "one of the looks of tomorrow as far as job placement goes." TURN IN A PUSHER Some cities, in an effort to stop trade in hard drugs have initiated programs called Turn in A Pusher (T.I.P.) People who furnish infor- mation on anyone selling heroin or other hard drugs are offered rewards. One such program in Tampa, Florida has received 5,000 calls since the program was first initiated a year ago. However, out of these calls only fifty arrests have resulted. T.I.P. does not deal with marijuana offenses, nor does it deal with information about possession--it is directed specifically toward the pusher. Tampa's Chamber of Commerce paid out $2,000 in reward money and would have paid more, but not everybody collected their bounty_ The reward payments ranged from $100 to $500.


Congressman Jack Kemp reported on 26 February that a pending bill giving the Army Corps of Engineers authority to undertake "wide ranging projects to improve water quality, provide recreation and restore tbe environment ·in the Buffalo River Basin is receiving "en- couraging attention." Covered under the measure are water- sheds encompassing nearly 450 square miles in portions of Buffalo, Cheektowaga, West Seneca, Lancaster and other small towns. Kemp pointed out that treating such problems as "storm water runoffs, industrial discharges of pollutants and solid waste and sludge disposal" on a regional rather than a local community scale can be done much more effectively. Introduced last December the Kemp legislation would authorize the Corps to undertake projects without the need for congressional approval. He stated that these regional programs to curb pollution throughout the basin watershed are necessary to "improve water quality and make a significant impact on improving the ecology of Lake Erie."




In the past few years, American public schools, especially at the high school level, have experienced a considerable rise in the number of open escalated conflicts between groups within the system. In the City of Buffalo alone , secondary schools have faced a series of clashes ranging from so-called "racial" fights to student sit-in 's and protests. White and black students both physically and verbally attack each other . Occasionally they join with other stu- dents in waging active campaigns against teachers and administrators . Groups of parents have since banded together to reinforce pressure for the change which students are exerting. The question of just why these groups have turned to engaging in open conflicts is being raised. DR . MARK A . CHESLER , a social researcher from the University of Michigan spoke at Buffalo State College last week and offered his theory concerning social crisis and change. Dr. Chesler is presently director of the Educational Change Team which serves as a consulting organization to schools and commissions concerned with these problems. In recent years, Chesler has worked with the Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders and on New York's Fleischmann Commission , which was concerned with New York State's a educational system. • Chesler stated that his recommendations were not con- cerned with all conflicts. Rather, they dealt with the handling of escalated conflict - violent, destructive or aggressive behavior. Conflict, of itself, he said, is a "natural, normal part of social life" especially with the diversity of races and social classes. He asserted, however, that the structural organization of our schools creates situations which actually encourage serious conflicts. For example, at present all young people are required to attend school, thus imprisoning a number of students to sit within an institution although some may have no desire to be there at all. Even for those students who do wish to attend school, many end up frustrated by the inflexibility of the system. For the most part, there is no serious organ through which the young student might voice objections, or work toward changing the structure. At present all young people are required to attend school.





Chesler pointed out that another key factor that con- tributes to school crises is that schools exist with "an unclarity and disagreement concerning the goals of teaching." The American education system, being public, tries to mirror the values of many kinds of interest groups, some of which are quite expectedly in opposition. The U.S. therefore, sustains a system which has "no clear purpose that is either publicly coherent or answerable." Chesler lashed out at our teacher education schools which he cites as passing out diplomas to indivduals who, despite their training, may be clearly incompetent as teachers. He also questioned the status of teachers as professionals, noting that teachers define the interests of their clients (students) in terms completely different from those which their clients would use. Furthermore, in the past decade , high schools have Jost what used to be a primary service to their clients . With today's increased emphasis on the advantages of a college education, secondary schools have lost their appeal as well as proof as economic "stepping stones." Rebellious students no longer have any reason to put trust in the oppressive schools, said Chesler. The schools, in turn , are becoming increasingly aware of the doom predicted by student violence. The move in the schools is now towards an increased implementation of authoritarian power in order to combat this trend. Bureaucratic rules and regulations are being created and enforced for no other reason that to repress student instincts toward change. Humiliation and impersonality are also integral parts of America's institutionalized destruction.

The priority response has been to deal only with the symptoms.

Chesler charged that patterns of white dominance are maintained in our schqols in a number of different ways : - Content material which either ignores or distorts the history of many minority groups - Singular acceptance of cultural styles of behavior which are over- whelmingly white and middle class - Counseling which encourages mi- nority group members to seek careers in fields which do not require a college background - Tracking systems which channel children into groups on assump- tions of their ability - Patterns of financial distribution which help maintain stratification in our society Chesler noted that whites are also dis- advantaged by this distortion of reality. They are prevented from learning about the viewpoints and rich culture of mi- nority groups, which refuse to conform to our "American " ethno-centric life-style.

avoid repeat clashes. Some schools tend to handle the conflicts by an increase in communication with the students - in other words, they talk and talk until everyone "cools off." In the end, of course, nothing significant is really changed in the school system. To begin to seriously deal with these problems, Chesler suggests a re-organization of the Governance in schools to allow students a greater share of power. Student appeals and grievance must be given serious attention. Outside of academic activities, students should exercise their own self-control and judgements. Increased power for minority groups is especially

The priority response of our school systems to crises which arise from the structure of their organization has ~en to deal only with the symptoms. Students are suspended, pun- ished by loss of privileges, faced by policemen in their halls, delivered "warning" speeches, and are "discussed" at school and community meetings. The school administration tends to cover up or deny the real issues - ie. , A school fight is de- scribed either as "completely racial" in its nature, or else "has nothing to do in any respect with race." In-depth examinations of the conflicts would probably show that there is no one explanation for conflicts and schools must deal with as many causes as possible if they truly wish to




important. Schools must also immediately begin to work at eliminating racism in their own structure and also in the students' attitudes. A new course of study based upon humanistic values must be brought into our classrooms.

Schools will not exist in the future if students don't want them. An extremely important basis for this program is to some- how teach children how to deal with parental opposition to this approach. Chesler notes that opposition to this kind of program will be great, but that we cannot wait for a "general revolution" to occur in our society before concerning our- selves with our inhumane education system. He added that it was his personal opinion that "children are now dying" because of our schools. In a short discussion after his lecture Chesler noted that while no school's systems have attempted the sort of change

that he advocates, some districts have individual schools of this type. The "mini-schools" in the Berkeley district was an example cited. When questioned about the "seeming impossibility " of effecting such changes in most schools, Chesler replied : "Schools will not exist in the future if students don 't want f



Four of the students are studying in the United States on scholarships give:tf by the Agency for International Dev- elopment [AIDl . When queried about the possibility of losing his scholarship, one student replied, "I think we 'll just get a short letter of reprimand from AID. The important thing is that now other Vietnamese who are studying here under AID scholarships will not be afraid to speak out." Another student expressed the fear that· those holding AID scholarships might be deported to Vietnam. In a telephone interview with Dis- patch [DNSI] , a spokesman for the South Vietnamese Consulate in New York City said "No reprisals will be taken by the Saigon government against the students" The spokesman, Dr. Tran Van, said, "They achieved success a lit- tle, I guess. " The students feel they must take a stronger and more active role in the U.S. peace movement. This new stance was evident in the consulate seizure. It was the first act of organized civil dis- obedience undertaken by Vietnamese in the U.S. The action was well-planned and brought together students from as far away as Seattle and Los Angeles. One student, Doan Hong Hai, from M. I .T . in Cambridge, Massachusettes, commented, "We want this act to signal the entrance of a growing group of Viet- namese in America into an active partic- ipation in the peace movement." Nguyen Hoi Chan, a student at Harvard and spokeswoman for the group, commented: "We have done what we have to do. Every day our brothers and sisters in Vietnam are fighting and struggling. They are arrested and tor- tured and killed. We Vietnamese living in the United States feel we must appeal to the American people to stop the war. Overseas Vietnamese students have play- ed their part in modern Vietnamese history. In the early l 900's up to two hundred Vietnamese went to Japan to study and seek Japanese support in their anti-colonial struggle against the French. Ho Chi Minh himself spent thirty years abroad before returning to Vietnam in 1941. Groups of students in Canada, France, West Germany, and Japan all well as the U.S. have been active in recent years. Most of them feel they must play a role in bringing peace to their country. The students recently founded the Vietnam Resource Center in Cambridge, Massachusettes where they publish Thoi Bao Ga, a monthly newsletter of events in Vietnam. One student plans to join Don Luce, the journalist who exposed the "tiger cages" on Luce's nationwide speaking tour.



•CHRIS JENKINS Dispatch News Service International, Inc .

As American troops come home from Vietnam and as President Nixon springs his new peace plan and completes his historic journey to China, Vietnamese students studying in the United States are feeling more and more that the American people have forgotten that war still rages in their land. Ten Vietnamese students seized and

stay. They brought food and even a por- table toilet with them. While in the consulate the students called all major wire services and con- ducted an hour-long telephone interview over New York radio station WBAI. By 3:30 p.m. New York City police- men had arrived with crowbars. At the bidding of Dang Van Nhuan, first secre- tary at the consulate, the door was forced open and the students arrested. "You are all cowards," screamed the infuriated diplomat. "Should we measure your courage by the number of U.S. policemen back- ing you up?" responded Ngo Vinh Long, a student at Harvard and the official representative of the National Student Union of South Vietnam in America. In anticipation _of their arrest the students had prepared a statement which they handed to the police. "Please don't interfere," the state- ment began, "We are not raping American women. We are not forcing American men to kill each other and other human beings. . .. We are simply occupying a piece of our own property - '3 property which has been acquired at the cost of countless Vietnamese lives - to make known the magnitude of the crimes being committed by the U.S. gov- ernment against our people. Please don't take part in these crimes."

occupied the South Vietnamese Con- sulate in New York City on 10 February to remind Americans that the U.S. is still deeply involved in their country . The students were arrested and charged with criminal trespassing. Within ten hours the case was adjourned in con- templation of dismissal - meaning that the charge will be dropp.ed if the students do not commit similiar acts in the next six months. The seizure was intended to "make the demands of the Vietnamese people known to the world." The demands in- cluded immediate release of all political prisoners in South Vietnam, the "im- mediate resignation of Thieu", and the immediate disarmament of the Thieu regime appuatus of terror and' repression and its replacement with a coalition gov- emment so that truly free elections .. .... can be held." The students, seven men and three women, seized the consulate shortly after noon while most consulate em- ployees were out at lunch. The students locked themselves into the consulate office in a large office building facing the United Nations. Two consulate secretaries were in the office at the time, but were released by the students shortly before 1 :00 p.m. The students prepared for a long



music on the battlefield Higher than the sound of the enemy bombs Streaming down like waterfalls And clumsy as a cock learning to crow That makes us queasy listening to it, A breath of music Drifts up from the heart of the earth A fighter, Come back to the jungle to rest after a night's attack, Is sifting the smell of bomb smoke from the air Turning it to sweet, clear melody. The sound of a harminica fills Bunker A to overflowing With strains of a song-- Beat the Americans! Happiness wakes a valiant spirit, Whirlpool emotions become a crystal stream of music . The sky is filled with mad sounds, Completely modem-- yet absolutely barbaric : The shriek of string upon string of exploding bombs, The whisper of flying shelle tearing through space, The flapping of helicopters. The roar of H's, F's, A's, B's .. . all kinds, The furious sounds A heart which knows no fear Sifts the air, letting music rise To the vast blue sky-- the blue sky of Trt-Thi@n.* Nhue Ha ·1971 Qulna; Trj and Th~ Thll!n are the two northernmost provinces of southern Vi~ Nam. The People of the South Poetry is a part of Vi~ Nam. It appears in profusion, even in the pages of most daily newspapers. These poems of the Vietnamese resistance, reaching from the present back to the days of the Vift Minh resistance against the French, are taken from books and newspapers published in the North and in the Liberated Zones of the South. Of men thirsting for blood Running riot in the heavens, Despe~ate. Like an eloquent declaration of war, Crisply, The voice of the harmonica Drifting up from the heart of the earth Challenges these barbaric voices On the battlefield.

pellet-bomb ((fruit" Give me the pellet-bomb "fruit", A militia woman says softly.. f --Why is it you seem beautiful as a sparrow, Yet lull people so terribly! Her eyebrows wrinkle, frowning.

--It's like this, isn't it: You are really ghouls, Savoring the fine taste of death! You've become so refined-- Guava bombs, then pineapple bombs. Death: it's a profitable business, f--"c:S:~ It, too, needs a beautiful facade . Huy Can 1967

women of the south Tran th! Ly Long hair, hair of a young mother, Washed in the water of Thu Bon, Adorning your body, wounded in a hundred . places. In life and death, always loyal. Ta thi Kieu With a beautiful na~e from ancient times, You're a faithful neice of Uncle H6. Striking the enemy, you 're strong as a tiger. Speaking of. it, you smile like a flower. ' ._ , Mu'<1i -Dong Thap Just turned twenty, ~der of three hundred sturggles. One leg left, you stand erect, A beautiful flag wrapping your body! Nguyen thi Ut A guerilla of the Delta • Carrying your only child on your hip, Combing the river bank, Striking the enemy as naturally as you go to market! Nguy~n th! -E>!nh

In the assault you command a hundred squiids. Night returns, you sit mending fighter's clothes. Woman general of the South~ descended from ·Trac and Nhi,* You've shaken the 'brass and steel of the White House. -Wu Tr,;mg Lu 1966 * Tnlng Triic and Tru'ng Nhi, are the two famous Trilng sisters who led f \) Vietnamese resistance against the Chinese about 40 BC.




International Perspective

Cristina Villamarin from Columbia


With most of the women 's liberation, I disagree . While at one level we are all the same, you could say I am still tradition-bound. I still think a man is a man , a woman is a woman. Though some things are changing, I think that a large part of the woman's role is still in the home taking care of the children. It might be worth mentioning that it is a woman who is running for president in Columbia today. I think that it is sort of a precedent for both South and North America. WHAT PURPOSE DO YOU SEE in the International Student Program? Well I don't think of it as a dollars for CARE program as I do a cultural enrichment for America herself. It would be foolish to think that all the people from all around the world could not do something for Buffalo State . Unfortunately, the majority of Buffalo State students are afraid or incredibly naive as to the purpose of the program . For myself I have gained more here in Buffalo through the social activities where I met foreign students and American students than in all my classes and books put to- gether.

WHY DID YOU CHOOSE to come to the U.S. for your university education? Buffalo State in particular? I originally came to America to study nuclear physics. At that time, the U.S. offered the greatest opportunities in that field. During my junior year in high school in Columbia, certain people from the Commission of Atomic Energy were in our country to talk about nuclear physics, radiation, etc ., and at that time I developed a great deal of interest in it. However when I came to the U.S. and took the entrance exams, I failed miserably. I could barely speak English, so I entered Suffolk Community College to learn the language. At that time I got interested in drawing - it was the only course I could take without knowing English - and so in some miraculous way I got very good at it . My teacher at that time advised me to enter the drafting and mechanical technology program. Being female I was naturally hesitant. But somehow I stuck it out until I graduated and then en- tered the industrial arts program here at Buffalo State. WHAT HAS BEEN the most surprising experience here for you? I suppose you could say it was my first semester in dorm life at Buffalo State . It was my first semester of dorm life anywhere. That semester I stayed in the suite with seven other girls - mostly seniors and juniors. The idea being they were upperclassmen made me expect something special of them. You know, afterall, in another semester or two they would graduate and enter the world for real. Well, the truth is that my time there with those girls was one of the most frustrating and sad experiences of my entire stay here. Those girls did nothing but sit around and talk - talk - talk about people , themselves and boys. That in itself was not so bad but they constantly infringed on my culture - in particular, when I took out some of my records from Columbia to play for them. Their rudeness shicked me. They had totally no respect for anything I tried to show them about my culture . IN YOUR PARTICULAR FIELD of industrial arts have you ever experienced pressure against you beacuse you were a woman? It's difficult to say in any general way. I'm quite sure that there is no conscious plot against women in the field of industrial arts though I'm sure many of the things that have been done before have been done with only men in mind . For example, many of the machines I had to operate were either adjusted too high or had bolts that were too tight for me to adjust. Most of the time I struggled until a male student would help me. In terms of the professors who were all male, some were very encouraging while others were just negative to what I wanted to do in industrial arts. I recall a time when I was refused admittance to a class because I was female . I finally got admitted when I explained to the prof that I need to take the course in technology. That's one thing a lot of professors don't understand: they really create a negative attitude in the classroom. I know that at least once I've failed a course either because I was a woman in a man's surrounding or a foreigner in an American classroom. It is interesting : it was a man professor at Suffolk College that went out of his way to encourage me in industrial arts. DO YOU HAVE ANY SYMPATHIES with the Women's Movement?


A graduate student in exceptional education from Bogota, Columbia, Cristina Villamarin - now in her third year at Buffalo State - received her B.S . in Industrial Arts here. WHAT DO YOU THINK YOUR most rewarding experience and most disappointing experience while here at Buffalo State? No doubt the most rewarding experience has been to see the International Board grow and prosper. In the last two years we've worked very hard to get money from student government - endless meetings and arguments - and now to see some of it all materialize is very gratifying. Disappointing? To see neglect and lack of interest in the State-sponsored International Program here by both the students and faculty. It can be no more disheartening than to hear a faculty member ask you the most ridiculous and stupid questions, such as: "Why did you come to the U.S. for university, aren't there any schools in Columbia?" And "Where is Columbia anyway?"








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The Creative Education Foundation


Buffalo State College is fortunate in that the ho'Tle of the Creative Education Foundation is Chase Hall . Furthermore, a Creative Studies Library is located within the Butler Library . An extensive collection of material published on the subject of creativity and related fields was donated to the college by the Foundation . It is now open to all students as well ~s faculty and adminis- trators so that the entire college community may benefit by the use of it . Works by authors such as Osborn, Parnes , Guilford , Torrance, and Upton are located there as well as contemporary articles by other authors. In order to meet all of the students needs at all times, the library does not circulate these materials . However the library's hours are general enough so that all students may conven- iently make use of it . The Creative Studies Lirary is centrally located on the second floor of Butler, just to the right of the main staircase and next do the curriculum lab . As one of the means for keeping people in- formed of developments in the field of creativity, the Foundation publishes a "Journal of Creative Behavior ." The journal is the Foundation 's official publication and is now in its sixth year of publica- tion . Mr . Angelo Biondi, in addition to being the journal's managing editor , is also the business and development manager for the Foundation. According to the pamphlet distributed by the CEF, the journal "focuses attention on the rapidly- increasing knowledge in a newly-emerging inter- disciplinary field. It touches on all levels of a broad range of subjects including education, psychology, the sciences, the various professions, business and industry . Authors who are published in the journal are specialists in their respective fields of interest." The Creative Education ·Foundation will co- sponsor an Institute this year with Buffalo State University College. For the Foundation, this will be the eighteenth annual Creative Problem Solving In- stitute with the purpose of desiring "To make a positive difference in an individual's life." The In- stitute will consist of programs which are open to those who wish to explore the nature and nurt of creative behavior . The programs wiH include struction and practice of creative methods and approaches. Aside from the enrollees, there will be


What is creativity? Can it be cultivated or is it already on this campus? If it is on this campus, where can it be found? Locally who's responsible for the creativity movement? Alex F . Osborne founded the Creative Educa- tion Foundation in 1954 because he was concerned about the difficulty and realized the urgency of more fully releasing creativity . He and his associates realized the need for the development of problem- solving ability and thus the Foundation has worked to help education do more to develop creative a- bility . Creativity itself is a relatively new concept. Its realm fuses imagination , originality, flexibility, etc . into one field of study. How can the fostering of creativity within yourself be a positive as.set? It can help you look at your problems in a different per- spective and may further help you to implement solutions to them. During the past sixteen years, there has been a wealth • of material published on the subject of creativity and the Foundation, in addition to ac- cumulating these publications, has also served as the focal point for the distribution of them. Needles.s to say, the Foundation has been one of, if not the most effective leader in reaching thousands of scholars, educators, students and members of the business world.



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