ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank Project SCENe, Innovate UK and ERA for sponsoring and providing all the support necessary to complete this research project; Chris Dunham, Leif. H. Tambjerg and Anders N. Andersen from the energyPRO team for the technical support in developing the simulation models.
The calculated shares of the electricity for heated DHW presented in Table 1 are in line with the findings presented in a recent Danfoss report, where the HIU with electric heaters were tested in a real domestic application in Denmark. Finally, a few recommendations need to be considered in the design process to avoid sub-optimal operations of the electric heaters. These need to be controlled by correctly delaying the start of the operation to avoid unnecessary electricity consumption at the beginning of each DHW draw-off and the possible increase in the peak electricity demand needs to be assessed in particular if a limit is imposed by the local electricity supplier.
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