Brasov, Romania The old coal-fired district heating system in Brasov used to supply both industry and households. However, large industry sites closed down in 1990, thus the network, now only covering 5% of the demand, is overdimensioned and unreliable, with losses reaching 50%. The insufficient performance of district heating has led to customers switching to individual gas boilers. Renewing the district heating network until 2030 will allow decreasing losses to 10%. Under the assumption that saved heat can be sold to additional customers, district heating price will increase only by 12%, while if the existing capacity is fully used and new customers connect, the district heating price will decrease
Heat density of Brasov
by 22%. The analysis will focus further on decarbonisation options such as district heating switching to biomass, solar heating and individual heat pumps and biomass boilers.
Helsingør, Denmark District heating in Helsingør constitutes 35% of the total heat supply and is produced with natural gas CHP and with a waste incineration plant located in the neighbouring municipality. The planned investments in a biomass CHP, and in an expansion of district heating network (up to 41% heat demand, which is still below the Danish average of 50%), are feasible mainly due to biomass tax exemption and electricity generation revenue. About 36-42% reduction in heat demand is feasible; mainly in old buildings outside district heating areas. Several other alternatives were analysed and the results show that in the mid-term, large heat pumps and solar thermal collectors should be considered, if the district heating price is to stay competitive with individual supply options. While the socio-economic cost of heat production from biomass-fired district heating and large heat pumps is similar, the business profitability of heat pumps depends highly on future electricity taxation and this is the focus of policy analyses.
Heat density of Helsingør
Matosinhos, Portugal No district heating nor cooling is available in Matosinhos. The focus area within the municipality is the shopping mall and large stores, where individual gas boilers and compression chillers are currently installed with the cooling demand being triple the heating demand. All units have been constructed recently, so the existing solution is very cost-effective in comparison to alternatives. Nonetheless, a nearby refinery could potentially be an excess heat source for a decentralized network, showing lowest levelized cost of heat and achieving CO2 neutrality. Such connection could also be a first step towards establishing a larger district heating and cooling system in Matosinhos, with additional generation from solar thermal fields. In this case study, heat pumps would be viable only in combination with a compression chiller and photovoltaic systems, while solar thermal systems could reduce CO2 emissions and the cost of heat generation.
Focus areas in Matosinhos
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