CONCLUSION When dealing with barriers to deployment of DE or to system integration, it is common to reduce this to an economic or regulatory issue (or both). This study shows that barriers to flexible system integration of district energy systems are multiple (33 identified) and different (9 overall categories). Context can play a large role in deciding which barriers are most significant, but here is a suggestion: • Bounded rationality is relevant in the early phase of a project, since limited awareness of the benefits of flexible system integration can rule out that option.
• Next, integrating with the grid is of key importance. Here, discriminatory grid codes can be a challenge. • Finally, flexible operation is difficult in the absence of signals, e.g. from an electricity market. Since framework conditions are constantly evolving, the list of barriers will gradually expand. Therefore, the author warmly welcomes any supplements and feedback from readers with new and undiscovered barriers. This summary of a longer study is published as part of the Flex4RES project.
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