Main project deliverables and goals The main deliverable of the project is the HP facility located in the Southern part of Copenhagen Harbor next to a sewage pumping station to demonstrate the utilization of energy from both sea and sewage water. The intention is not to combine the two low-temperature heat sources but to test both heat sources individually in the same project. Concerning technology optimization, the development of automatic control systems is underway. “HP Autotune” is a function designed ideally to regulate the facility to achieve the best COP under any system conditions, especially source and sink temperatures, based on historic operation data. “HP Doctor” is a maintenance program, which is hoped to provide a prototype for databased rather than standardized maintenance procedures. The project has put a lot of effort into an extensive measuring and data collecting system compared to a commercial facility. This supports the implementation of an extensive test program developed by the Danish Technological Institute and the partnership to learn as much as possible about the optimization potential as possible, especially regarding optimization of COP under varying conditions. It will be very interesting to see if the project based on this can provide a more accurate picture of the technical and economical optimization potential. The project has several research and development activities with a more general aim. This includes a Ph.D. project and researchers from the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) who are developing models and tools that can assist DH companies and suppliers with technology choices and price estimations etc. A specific model has been made of the demonstration HP, which may be applied later in the optimization process. Furthermore, amappingofHPpotential inGreaterCopenhagen (technical potential in terms of heat sources in the suitable distance to the DH net) has contributed to a dialogue with the City of Copenhagen regarding potential locations for future HP facilities. The project has been underway for some time due to a need for technical adjustments of the high-pressure compressors. A technical issue that has been encountered in other ammonia facilities in Sweden and Norway as well and is currently being resolved. The test program is planned to resume in the summer of 2020.
Development areas HPs are considered a known technology and for a while, the tax regime in Denmark has been regarded as one of the main barriers for the implementation of large-scale HPs. Even though refrigeration technology has a long track record, using HPs for heating purposes is quite a different story. The project has encountered and is addressingmany important development areas, including: HEAT SOURCES Finding accessible heat sources with an adequate temperature and energy potential, especially during wintertime, is challenging if surplus heat from industries is not available. Moreover, heat sources and the technical challenges associated, are to some degree location specific. I.e. the seawater temperature along the Danish coasts is generally low in winter due to shallow waters, whereas a stable temperature all year round can be found in the deep Norwegian fjords. LOCATION Suitable locations in the proximity of both heat source and DH network in dense city areas where the competition for land is high can make or break feasibility. Close collaboration with the city planning is required since land for technical purposes is rarely prioritized.
The HP building is located near Copenhagen Harbor next to a sewage pumping station.
SYSTEM INTEGRATION Larger DH systems often have high forward temperature demands in winter (>80°C), which lowers COP and increases HP material costs. Furthermore, production regulation concerning the heat and power markets is a central area where design, performance, and procedures for heat pumps need to be developed.
TECHNOLOGY OPTIMIZATION AND OPERATION EXPERIENCE
Hands-on experience and development of competencies and know-how cannot be underestimated when introducing new technology as HP facilities are often customized to local conditions and system demands. At the same time, it can hopefully also provide a more general understanding of the technical and economic optimization potential.
For further information please contact: Sannah Grüner, firstname.lastname@example.org
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