Urban Extension: A Professional Development Offering

Urban Extension

A Professional Development Offering of the Extension Foundation Impact Collaborative

By: Jody Norman and Cynthia Pierfax

A T T R I B U T I ON

Urban Extension

Copyright © Norman, J. and Pierfax, C. 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). Published by Extension Foundation.

ISBN: 978-1-7340417-1-2

Publish Date: 9/18/2020

Citations for this publication may be made using the following:

Norman, J. and Pierfax, C. (2020). Urban Extension (1st ed., 1st rev.). Kansas City: Extension Foundation. ISBN: 978-1-7340417-1-2.

Producer: Ashley S. Griffin Technical Implementers: Retta Ritchie-Holbrook and Rose Hayden-Smith

Welcome to the Urban Extension publication, a resource created for the Cooperative Extension Service and published by the Extension Foundation.

This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

For more information please contact: Extension Foundation c/o Bryan Cave LLP One Kansas City Place

1200 Main Street, Suite 3800 Kansas City, MO 64105-2122 https://extension.org

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T A B L E O F CON T E N T S

Attribution .............................................................................................................................................. 2

Table of Contents..................................................................................................................................... 3 Welcome............................................................................................................................................................................. 4 What is Urban Extension? ........................................................................................................................ 6 Urban Context..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

About Us ................................................................................................................................................. 9

The Work of Urban Extension................................................................................................................. 12 Boone County, Kentucky, University of Kentucky ............................................................................................................ 14 Tampa Bay Watershed Forest Project, Florida, University of Florida .............................................................................. 18 Harris County, Texas A&M AgriLife................................................................................................................................... 21 University of Illinois 4-H.................................................................................................................................................... 24 Prairie View A&M University, Texas ................................................................................................................................. 27 Tampa Bay Region, Florida, University of Florida............................................................................................................. 30 Utah State University (USU) Extension............................................................................................................................. 33 Washington State University Metropolitan Center.......................................................................................................... 36 Professional Development in Urban Extension........................................................................................ 39 Professional Development in the City .............................................................................................................................. 41

Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 42

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Welcome

We don’t need to try to fight the old story. We simply need to walk outside the old story and build a new story.

— Chip Richards, How the Stories We Tell Shape Our World, 2015

Good stories are all about journeys — where they take us, why we choose them, what we learn from them. Extension has had a long, long story, one everyone thinks they understand, and the journey has been taken so long, and so many times, that no one sees it anymore. There is only one way to go, and everyone knows the road. But now that story is changing. Extension is now working with different people and communities, serving different goals, honoring different needs. The old story is not enough now; it must grow, and Urban Extension is where that growth is occurring.

The old story is still real, still vibrant, still needed, and Extension must serve as it always has. But Urban Extension is now adding a new chapter to that traditional tale.

This publication has been envisioned as a story of Urban Extension, exploring what it is, how it works, and what it is becoming.

The first section is an exploration of what Urban Extension actually is, its purpose and scope, describing its particular characteristics of diversity and population shift, and laying out its differences and similarities to Rural Extension.

The second section is a list of those contributing to this publication, allowing the reader to explore its founders as interest allows.

The story then winds on to dive deep into the actual work of the Urban Extension office as viewed through case studi es, which have been structured through the lens of the 4P’s (Positioning, Programming, Personnel, and Partnerships) that the National Urban Extension Leaders (NUEL) believe to be critical to the future of Urban Extension. Positioning focuses on the ways in which Extension is placed in terms of national, state, regional, and city levels, while Programming examines how Extension addresses the multitude of issues and priorities in the city. Personnel assesses how Extension attracts, develops, retains, and structures competent talent in the urban arena, and Partnerships explores how Extension collaborates to leverage resources for collective impact.

Finally, the heart of the publication, and the crux of the story, revolves around what professional development is like in Urban Extension, how it is achieved, and how it advances the work of the institution

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and serves the needs of the communities in which it is embedded. This section is the springboard to the Extension Foundation’s Impact Collaborative Summit in October 2019, focused on professional development.

Reflections

If you could start over in Extension, knowing what you know now, where would you focus your training?

Select your response from the options below.

• Program Development -- Planning, creating evaluations around outcomes, designing programs, implementation, summative evaluations • Diversity and Inclusion -- Authentically connecting with your audience to develop and deliver educational programs. • Marketing -- Extension is the Nation’s best kept secret, and that needs to change • Work-life Balance Management

The last part of this story is the list of resources available for exploration, which touch on everything from deliberative discourse critical to democracy and Extension’s work in that arena, to sustainability sources, to professional development documents, and to scholarly research circling around questions posed about Urban Extension.

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WH A T I S U R B AN E X T E N S I ON ?

The complex socio-political landscape of working in these communities, the unique character of some of their issues, and the competition from other service providers will require a new Extension engagement model in the metropolitan areas.

— National Framework, 2015

There is, of course, an easy answer. Urban Extension is CES work performed in urban areas. Such a reply, while ostensibly true, lacks a descriptive understanding of why the question matters at all. An accurate answer must consider what urban areas are and why the distinction between urban and rural is worth considering in terms of CES work.

Ninety-eight percent of growth in the hundred largest cities since 2000 was from growth in minority populations. – Nicole DuPuis [1]

This quote illustrates one of the characteristics that distinguishes work in Urban Extension – diversity of all sorts is rising across the nation, but particularly in America’s metropolitan areas. Add to that the fact that the nation’s p opulation is rapidly shifting toward cities, creating a massive surge in urbanization, and it is easy to understand at least one aspect of Urban Extension that differs from its rural counterparts — the numbers served by CES staff working in cities are immensely larger, requiring different approaches for success. Similarly, there is a diversity of governmental jurisdictions within cities, and the interests and work of city, county, regional, and even state officials intersect across multiple complex issues, including planning and economic development, as well as health, social, and educational services. Finally, there are many nonprofits operating in these areas, sometimes acting as competitors to CES, sometimes as partners and collaborators. Perhaps the largest difference between rural and urban areas, however, is hidden behind assumptions. Problems that appear the same in both places actually spring from different causes, and require different solutions. Water quality, for instance — polluted water in rural areas often stems from agriculture, whereas in the city it’s related to waste from industry, homeowners, and stormwater runoff (Ruemenapp, 2018) [2] . Extension desperately needs to recognize this disparity in order to utilize the correct expertise, programming, and solutions to resolve these issues.

Yet, despite these differences, rural and urban and suburban areas are tightly interconnected through economic, social, and environmental needs. “Complex issues do not stop at rural county lines or a city

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bo undary” [3] , and neither does the work of CES, whether urban or rural in source. Extension understands these intersecting relationships better than most organizations, and the National Urban Extension Leaders (NUEL) holds that it is the work of Urban Extension to acknowledge and support and advance those interdependencies, to the benefit of both rural and urban areas. However, due to the distinctions listed above, the work of CES staff in metropolitan areas requires a diverse set of skills and capabilities n ot commonly expected of Extension’s rural professionals, and developing those competencies is the focus of this publication and the Impact Collaborative Summit for which it was produced.

References: [1] DuPuis, Nicole. “America’s Fastest Growing Cities Are Becoming More Diverse, But Face Rising Inequity.” CitiesSpeak, National League of Cities, 5 Apr. 2019, citiesspeak.org/2019/04/05/americas-fastest-growing-cities-are-becoming-more- diverse-but-face-rising-inequity/

[2] Ruemenapp, M. A. (2018). Factors influencing delivery of Cooperative Extension Service programs to urban audiences. Michigan State University.

[3] Henning, J., Buchholz, D., Steele, D., & Ramaswamy, S. (2014). Milestones and the future for Cooperative Extension. Journal of Extension, 52(6), 6COM1. Retrieved from https://archives.joe.org/joe/2014december/comm1.php

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Urban Context

Densely populated areas present unique challenges and opportunities for Extension and other community- based organizations. Extension addresses the population shift in the U.S. and refers to one or more of the following terms for urban, metro, or city Extension. • Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (metro and micro areas) are geographic entities delineated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for use by Federal statistical agencies in collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics. • Urban Influence Codes form a classification scheme that distinguishes metropolitan counties by population size of their metro area, and non-metropolitan counties by size of the largest city or town and proximity to metro and micropolitan areas.

• The Census Bureau’s urban -rural classification is fundamentally a delineation of geographical areas, identifying both individual urban areas and the rural areas of the nation.

• Internationally, organizations use various typologies to delineate and map population along the urban rural continuum.

Agencies and organizations may also have specific guidelines, but the common essence is the densely populated geographic area, defined as urban context in this Guide.

Due to the s cale, diversity, and complexity of large metropolitan areas, Extension’s work is similar and different when compared with Extension professionals working in rural and suburban areas. One of the unique aspects for urban Extension professionals is that many have not had an Extension experience as a client and it’s common to work alongside colleagues and volunteers who may or may not be familiar with Extension. Urban-Suburban-Rural Interdependencies: Various indicators demonstrate a dynamic flow of people and other resources throughout all geographic areas along the urban and rural continuum. Extension recognizes that many people live in one county, work in another, and enjoy recreation and tourism in other counties.

[Excerpt from the Urban Extension Introductory Guide]

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A B OU T U S

The lead curators of this publication are Jody Norman, Project Specialist with Denver Extension, and Cynthia Pierfax, 4-H Youth Development Specialist II with Prairie View A&M University Cooperative Extension. They were both selected as 2019 Extension Foundation Co-Fellows by the National Urban Extension leaders (NUEL).

Jody Norman Co-Editor

Cynthia Pierfax Co-Editor

2019 National Urban Extension Leaders (NUEL) Fellow

2019 National Urban Extension Leaders (NUEL) Fellow

Project Specialist Denver Extension

4-H Youth Development Specialist II Prairie View A&M University Cooperative Extension

jnjody13@gmail.com

cmpierfax@pvamu.edu

Editorial Review Board An expert team of reviewers from Extension reviewed the material and added resources. The reviewer team is made up of:

Kristin Feierabend Editorial Board

Julie Fox Editorial Board

Area Agent Extension Urban Programs at North Carolina Cooperative Extension Wake County Center

Director of Strategic Initiatives and Urban Engagement & Interim Director of Learning & Organizational Development The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES) Department of Extension

kefeiera@ncsu.edu

fox.264@osu.edu

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Ramona Madhosingh-Hector Editorial Board

Brenda G. Rogers, M.S. Editorial Board

Regional Specialized Agent, Urban Sustainability UF/IFAS Extension

Southwest District Extension Director University of Florida IFAS Extension

bgrogers@ufl.edu

ramona.m.hector@ufl.edu

rmadhosingh- hector@pinellascounty.org

Marie A. Ruemenapp, Ph.D Editorial Board

Jeffery Young, Ph.D Editorial Board

Extension Specialist and Co-Director Urban Collaborators Michigan State University Extension & School of Planning, Design and Construction

Director for Urban Extension University of Kentucky

jeffery.young@uky.edu

ruemenap@anr.msu.edu

Contributors A number of additional experts directly contributed to sections in this publication:

Fralonda Aubrey Contributor

Dawn Burton Contributor

Urban Youth Specialist Texas A & M University

Family and Consumer Health (FCS) Program Specialist Prairie View A & M University

FWAnderson@ag.tamu.edu

deburton@pvamu.edu

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Alvarez Dixon Contributor

Robert Northrop Contributor

Extension Specialist – 4-H Youth Development University of Illinois Extension

Extension Forester University of Florida IFAS Extension

northrop@ufl.edu

alvarezd@illinois.edu

Brad Gaolach Ph. D. Co-Contributor

Martha Aitken Co-Contributor

Washington State University Extension Director | Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension Director | Western Center for Metropolitan Extension & Research Associate Professor | Community & Economic Development

Washington State University Extension Assistant Director | Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension

aitkenm@wsu.edu

Gaolach@wsu.edu

Forestry Extension Team, Utah State University Contributors (left to right from the top) Megan Dettenmaier, Megan.Dettenmaier@usu.edu Mike Kuhns, mike.kuhns@usu.edu

Lauren Dupey, lndupey@aggiemail.usu.edu Darren McAvoy, darren.mcavoy@usu.edu

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TH E WO R K O F U R B AN E X T E N S I ON

Urban Extension services must be closely linked to research-based educational initiatives and designed in culturally appropriate ways, diverse in scope, and relevant and responsive to community needs.

— National Framework, 2015

The City. The Metropolis. Urban.

This is the arena in which Urban Extension works, where new goals are created, new partners and collaborations built, and new programs constructed.

It’s tempting, here, to build with the same tools used in Rural Extension, to assume that nothing has changed, that Extension need only transplant tried and tested methods into this, a new place, and they will work as well as ever. The case studies portrayed here make it clear that this assumption is untrue, describing the work of urban offices in the communities they serve, ranging from locations in small cities to those set in large urban regions, from the local scale to that of the state. They also detail the complexity of urban arenas, the diversity endemic to the situations explored, and the multitude of partners and collaborators on the ground, from nonprofits to governments of all types. Each case study illustrates the ways in which Urban Extension offices address the multitude of issues and priorities in their particular metropolitan area, from programs focusing on kindergarten readiness (Success by Six, Boone County) to creating scholarships for underrepresented youth (4-H Illini Summer Academies, University of Illinois) to empowering students with healthy living practices (Heroes 4-Health, Harris County). Case studies also demonstrate Urban Extension’s focus on developing and retaining competent talent in the urban arena — i.e., the cultural competency training program of the University of Illinois and the creation of a Regional Specialized Agent in the Tampa Bay Region. Finally, building partnerships to leverage resources for collective impact is one of the primary responsibilities of Urban Extension, exemplified through collaborations such as that between the Northern Kentucky Forestry Collaborative and Boone County, KY. Or the Finca Tres Urban Farm, where students undertake the Agricultural Immersion Tour in Harris County, Texas A&M. Or collaborating with Arts Tampa Bay to facilitate a film screening in the Tampa Bay region. Or, finally, working with three separate Florida universities and a

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not-for-profit stormwater engineering firm to create a suite of planning tools for the integration of green infrastructure into existing gray (engineered) stormwater systems in the Tampa Bay Watershed.

And lastly, the case studies gathered in this publication exemplify the many issues that Urban Extension offices address, from work with the food system in gardens, farmers markets, and farm tours; to advancing educational goals such as kindergarten readiness and career field exploration; to sharing horticultural knowledge through arboretums and nature centers. And Urban Extension is also actively moving to address issues of sustainability across cities and regions — for example, engaging in environmental education, urban forest canopy cover assessment, and sustainable community initiatives, as well as advancing community engagement through the construction of a film series on environmental issues, and working with a city to replace sidewalks with pervious pavement, thus saving trees and improving water filtration.

List of Case Studies:

• Boone County, Kentucky, University of Kentucky

• Tampa Bay Watershed Forest Project, Florida, University of Florida

Harris County, Texas A&M AgriLife

University of Illinois 4-H

• Harris County, Texas, Prairie View A&M University

• Tampa Bay Region, Florida, University of Florida

Utah State University (USU) Extension

• Washington State University (WSU) Metropolitan Center

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Boone County, Kentucky, University of Kentucky

Boone County Cooperative Extension Services

How Boone County CES is positioned at the national, state, regional, and city levels:

As a part of the greater Cincinnati Metro community, Boone County’s population is currently over 130,000, with a mix of urban, suburban and rural populations. To remain engaged, agents and support staff plan events and programs that address a mix of traditional programming while offering new and innovative lineups to address the broader needs of a growing urban community. Agents and staff offer geographically-dispersed programs to accommodate transportation limitations of some residents and also plan events and programs that draw people to one of several Boone County Extension facilities (listed below).

Kentucky Statewide

Demographic Categories

Black/African:

7.98%

Asian:

1.35%

White:

87.3%

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander:

0.05%

Native Alaskan/Native American:

0.21%

• CES Administrative Building – staff offices, meeting facilities

Two or more races:

2.18%

Other race:

0.93%

• CES Enrichment Center – food demonstration kitchen, general project/demonstrations, large events

Median age:

38.6

Total Population:

4,484,047

• Farmers Market – located on CES property

• Arboretum – a partnership with local government. The land is owned by the county, and CES provides funding for staff, plant materials and maintenance.

• Extension Environmental Education and Nature Center – a 120-acre farm that has been developed into a nature preserve.

How Boone County CES address the multitude of issues and priorities in their community through educational programming:

Boone County CES and their managing Board of Directors own, manage and/or support a diverse set of properties and facilities that serve the communities through the creation of educational programming that is multidisciplinary and relevant to urban issues, as described below.

The CES Administrative Building is the current location’s original facility. Built more than 25 years ago, it has undergone several renovations to increase space and upgrade technologies. It consists of agents and

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support staff offices, meeting facilities and is also home to Natural Resource and Soil Conservation District Offices .

The CES Enrichment Center was completed in 2015. It is a state-of-the-art facility food processing/cooking demonstration kitchen, complete with 14 training kitchens and able to accommodate approximately 75 people. The Center also has conference facilities that can accommodate up to 700 people, and is widely utilized by many other community and local government groups and non-profit organizations. The Boone County Farmers Market is located on CES property and has been voted ‘Best Farmers Market’ in Northern Kentucky for eight consecutive years by Northern KY Magazine. In 2018, growers reported sales of $1.1 million, making it the second largest farmer’s market (FM) in the state. The FM involves approximately fifty producers and is very customer-focused. CES employs a dedicated staff member whose job is to “market” the market, which is also promoted regularly in the local media. In addition, there are weekly events at the FM featuring local chefs and Extension agents, who demonstrate how to prepare the food that is available onsite. Local live bands and music provide a festive atmosphere every Saturday morning during the growing season. Live radio promotions, car shows and a Community Activities Fair onsite are all designed to expose new audiences to the FM and also to other programs, events and services Extension has to offer. The Boone County Arboretum is a partnership between CES and local government, which owns the land. CES Horticulture initially envisioned the Arboretum as a location to research landscape plants and trees. Local government approved the idea, and today the Arboretum is home to over five thousand varieties of landscaping plants and trees, which are enjoyed by thousands (casually each year) and hundreds more during formal Extension educational programs. To sustain the facility, Boone County CES purchases all trees, plant materials and irrigation equipment, and also funds a portion of the curator position as well as seven seasonal maintenance staff salaries. The Arboretum consistently ranks in the top five Arboretums in Kentucky based on educational programming and species grown. In addition, the facility also offers a long- established youth sports facility. (See https://bcarboretum.org/) The Extension Environmental Education and Nature Center , purchased in 2010, consists of one hundred twenty acres designed to serve as an environmental preserve, used to educate the community regarding wildlife and other natural resources. CES environmental education programs are multi-disciplinary, with thousands of youth and adults learning how to protect and enrich the local environment each year. Boone County Master Gardeners assist the Center by maintaining demonstration plots of fruit and vegetable gardening, as well as a butterfly plot. The site also has a “High Tunnel” for demonstration purposes. Other demonstrations include: irrigation, plastic-culture, cut flowers, and research involving different mulching materials.

Annual Farm Tours (while not a new concept) continue to be an important method used to educate urban populations on the critical role that agriculture plays in our daily lives. In partnership with the Farm Bureau,

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Natural Resource and Conservation, and local government and producers, this timeless program continues to play an important education and community development function.

The Annual Farm Frenzy is host to over 2500 students, parents, community members. This event, located at the CES facility, provides youth and adults the opportunity to observe livestock, crops and farm equipment that are utilized on Boone County farms, as well as other local food system demonstrations. The Boone County 4-H Fair celebrated its 76th anniversary in 2019. The fair is managed by a non-profit Board of Directors with close historical ties to CES. Approximately forty thousand people visit the Fair every year. Extension has a large presence and high visibility during this important community event. Success by Six is a county-wide project emphasizing kindergarten readiness, and Boone is a top-ranked Kentucky county known for the same. Partnerships exist between Boone County’s public libraries, public schools, the county government, United Way, and Extension, all focused on preparing children for kindergarten.

How Boone County CES attracts, develops, retains, and structures competent talent:

Boone County CES has been a leader in pioneering new staffing positions and structures for Kentucky Extension. In Kentucky, most counties have a three-agent base staffing pattern, consisting of an Agriculture & Natural Resource Agent, Family and Consumer Sciences Agent and a 4-H Youth Development Agent. Because of a growing and comprehensive staffing pattern and multiple facilities, Boone County CES became the first county in the state of Kentucky to embrace local county management. The “County Manager” supervises all agents and most support staff, manages facilities, serves as a contact with local officials and the Extension Board of Directors. In Boone County, there is a highly staffed horticulture education program. This consists of a Horticulture Agent and three program assistants who respond to the constant flow of questions from citizens on plant- and tree-related insect and disease questions. The staff also provide species recommendations, planting instructions and design advice where requested.

The horticulture program also utilizes social media and video to market Cooperative Extension Service (CES) and to educate others interested in learning how to grow their own food.

Another non-traditional CES position is that of Environmental Education Agent. This position was created to help address the growing interest in protecting our natural resources. Utilizing the CES Environmental and Nature Center (and in partnership with other community agencies) CES offers both overnight environmental camps (during the Fall for 5th grade students) and environmental day camps (during the spring for 4th grade students). Over 2000 youth attend one of these camps annually.

The Environmental Education Agent also works to provide wildlife, native plant, and related programming throughout the year to a variety of audiences.

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The marketing and communication needs associated in a large staff, diverse programs and multiple facilities led to the creation of a support staff position to focus on the maintenance of office web presence, social media efforts, reporting, and marketing.

In addition, county-wide mass mailing is delivered to every household in the county twice annually, marketing classes, workshops and events offered by CES.

How Boone County CES collaborates to leverage resources for collective impact:

Living up to its name, the Boone County Cooperative Extension Service invests in broad urban networks, connections, and partnerships, collaborating with many other community agencies, non-profits and governmental units. Some examples include: 1. Horticulture agent and assistants partner with the Northern Kentucky Forestry Collaborative to provide education certifications to employees of local arborists on a variety of forestry best practices. 2. Kentucky CES and the Farm Bureau share an understanding of the important role that agriculture plays in the daily lives of all people, and have a long and fruitful partnership on several community projects and events. 3. Public Libraries often partner with CES by hosting education programs for their patrons. Both CES and Libraries cross-advertise their programming. 4. Senior and other community living centers partner with CES to provide educational and live lesson programs to their residents (this includes centers whose residents have physical and mental disabilities). 5. CES has a long and successful history of partnership with local county and city governments . The county CES leadership regularly attends government meetings and maintains a positive, responsive and open line of communication with local officials.

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Tampa Bay Watershed Forest Project, Flor ida, University of Flor ida

Urban Forest Conservation, Ethics and Science

How the Tampa Bay Forest Working Group (TBFWG) is positioned at the national, state, regional, and city levels:

In 2005 the University of Florida IFAS Extension organized and facilitated 9 meetings of private citizens, non-profit conservation groups and government natural resource agencies. The meetings led to development of a Mission and Goals that continue to serve as a framework for collaboration. Their purpose is to organize a scientific framework for the ecological assessment and sustainable management of the urban forest ecosystems. A core group of collaborators, known as the Tampa Bay Forest Working Group (TBFWG) includes non-profits organizations; local, state and federal agencies; and universities. Today they provide the technical backbone for 14 years of ongoing monitoring of forest resources; development of science-based plans for the conservation of region’s urban forest, strategic planning for the management of nearly 70,000 acres of urban forest natural areas; and ongoing analysis of bio-physical and social inventories. At the core of the work is an endeavor to develop a sustainable urban forest management system. Unlike older and continuously funded management systems developed for National Forests, state forests and private land holdings (CFM), national and state urban forestry programs lack the organizational infrastructure to support sustainable management and attainment of long-term eco – social goals.

Florida Statewide

Demographic Categories

Black/African:

16.13%

Asian:

2.68%

White:

75.67%

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander:

0.06%

Native Alaskan/Native American:

0.28%

Two or more races:

2.54%

Other race:

2.64%

Median age:

42

Total Population:

21,646,155

How the Tampa Bay Forest Working Group (TBFWG) addresses the multitude of issues and priorities in their community through educational programming:

The TBFWG uses a multidisciplinary approach to urban forest conservation.

Urban forest conservation is primarily a social endeavor. Urban forest management, including arboriculture, operate within a value-laden context. Successful management requires an understanding of the social values which drive political decision-making, as well as an understanding of ecosystem function and process. The

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core group of the TBFWB consist of forest and wildlife managers, extension agents, and bio-physical as well as social scientists.

The Tampa Bay Forest Working Group (TBFWG) has expanded its work into other urban regions of the state, providing strategic planning assistance for urban forest conservation to numerous municipal governments. The initial step in the development of all strategic plans is neighborhood- scale assessments of residents’ values and attitudes toward urban trees/forest and their management. These assessments take the form of full surveys and nominal group sessions. Focus groups are conducted in low income and disenfranchised neighborhoods to ensure all residents have a voice in urban forest planning. Community-Based Social Marketing Plans have been developed to support efforts to restore and maintain the urban forest and urban natural areas. Periodic monitoring of social values and perspectives is now seen as integral to the successful use of adaptive management for urban forest conservation, as is the monitoring of bio-physical elements, ecological functions, and processes.

How the Tampa Bay Forest Working Group (TBFWG) attracts, develops, retains, and structures competent talent:

Urban forests are primarily assessed in terms of the range of services and values they provide to urban and suburban residents (Nowak, 2001). Assessing these services and values often go beyond the traditional disciplines of forest and wildlife management. They require skills in social geography; epidemiology; conflict resolution and mediation; urban design and planning; urban hydrology; and land use law, to name just a few. The practice of urban forest management is relatively new. Strategic planning for urban forest conservation is designed as an experiment. Deliberate use of the scientific method within an adaptive management framework guides development of learning organizations, in this case the University of Florida IFAS Extension and local governments. The dynamic interaction of the urban forest and human health and wellbeing require the ability of engaged extension agents and scientists to be flexible, willing to learn, adapt to novel work environments, and accept the limitations to their knowledge, even within their own fields of expertise. Through 15 years of experience the TBFWG has grown in its use of critical thinking to identify and creatively address emerging problems in urban forest management. This has included the incorporation of individuals and disciplines not typically found working on natural resource-based issues. Much of this new talent has been supplied through the University of Florida IFAS Extension, other University of Florida Colleges, and state and federal agencies.

Innovation, creativity, and success in assessments and management have drawn attention to the work of the TBFWG, attracting professionals and scientists from across the nation.

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How the Tampa Bay Forest Working Group (TBFWG) collaborates to leverage resources for collective impact:

The Tampa Bay Forest Working Group is a collaborative. It is a partnership founded on a mission statement and four broad goals set fourteen years ago. Shared interests and development of professional and ethical bonds have held the group together. Organized initially by the University of Florida IFAS Extension, it now engages in a variety of ecological and social assessments, urban forest planning and management consultation, and educational programming. The TBFWG’s core members include representatives of various universities as well as local, state and federal government agencies.

A few examples of work beyond strategic urban forest, and natural area, planning and management:

• In partnership with the US EPA, the Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) assesses the impact of urban forest wetlands to protect water quality; assesses the role of urban forest vegetation along transportation corridors to attenuate carbon particulate matter, and completes analysis of ecosystem services provided by urban trees and forests within the Tampa Bay Watershed. This led to the development of an ecosystems services analysis tool designed specifically for the Tampa Bay Watershed (local). • In partnership with the USDA Forest Service, the group assesses the role of riparian forest vegetation to attenuate the movement of dissolved nitrogen in shallow ground water to open water bodies and aquifers, and assesses the reorganization of forest plant communities due to stress associated with regional urbanization. • Working with three separate Florida universities and a not-for-profit stormwater engineering firm, the TBFWG developed a suite of planning tools for the integration of green infrastructure into existing gray (engineered) stormwater systems – Gray to Green: Tools for Transitioning to Vegetation-Based Stormwater Management . This project was funded by the USDA Forest Service.

• In partnership with the State of Florida Forest Service, the group conducts an analysis of urban forest canopy cover within all municipal boundaries within the state.

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Harr is County, Texas A&M Agr iLife

Harris County Cooperative Extension Services

How Harris County CES is positioned at the national, state, regional, and city levels:

Cooperative Extension Services (CES) have a unique history for educating communities around the world by constructing bridges between research conducted at land-grant institutions and the needs that that knowledge can answer. Thus, CES has experience in building relationships with any business, agency, and community through various engagement models.

CES in Harris County, TX, in the Greater Houston area, relies on community connections to open doors to opportunities by providing services to people. Programming consists of collaborations with organizations

whose goals relate to the education of people and/or clientele. These relationships allow CES the opportunity to meet people where they’re at, a very valuable skill. With a population of over 4.3+ million people, approximately twenty-one cities within Harris County, and twenty school districts, volunteers are key to CES operations, and Extension focuses on their mobilization. In such a highly populated area, the visibility of Extension services in the community is critical, and there are several diverse strategies utilized:

Texas Statewide

Demographic Categories

Black/African:

11.99%

Asian:

4.51%

White:

74.62%

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander:

0.09%

• Providing strong program interpretation to stakeholders

Native Alaskan/Native American: 0.48%

• Conducting programs in central, easily accessible locations

Two or more races:

2.56%

• Offering multiple options for program participation

Other race:

5.76%

• Engaging partners with robust, on the ground relationships that serve their needs as well as Extension’s

Median age:

34.2

• Recognizing volunteers and program participants for their work

Total Population:

29,087,070

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How Harris County CES address the multitude of issues and priorities in their community through educational programming:

Harris County Extension implements educational programming that is relevant to urban issues and attracts minority and under-served audiences. One example of this focus is the Sustainable Communities Project.

The program is highly relevant to Harris Co unty, which is one of the nation’s most populated areas, thick with commercial buildings, roads, businesses, and residential neighborhoods. In such an urban community, the National Geographic Society reports that “most inhabitants… have nonagricultural jobs.” It is not surprising, then, that youth in Harris County have little information about or exposure to urban agriculture, which could serve to lessen the impact on residents of the food deserts that exist in several pockets of the county, limiting access to affordable and quality food. The Sustainable Communities Project is conducted at two college preparatory schools within two Houston food deserts, and is designed to provide educational programming to urban youth, offering them trainings and activities over a period of five years. The purpose is to connect youth and STEM, agriculture, and agri- business through opportunities to explore various career fields in agriculture, life sciences, health, and community sustainability, thereby improving their college readiness.

How Harris County CES attracts, develops, retains, and structures competent talent:

In order to achieve the above goals, Harris County found it necessary to adjust staffing positions, job descriptions and their pattern to meet urban needs. The list below describes the personnel necessary to attain the objectives previously described, as well as their responsibilities.

• County Extension Director. Goal: To oversee all project operations

• County Extension Agent – Urban Youth Development. Goal: To provide day-to-day leadership and guidance, assisting with coordinating and monitoring all project activities. Also responsible for relationship-building between school faculty and staff, parents, and youth participants. This position was adjusted to ensure the needs of the schools were met. This agent also provides reports, oversees the budget, and collects evaluations and program aide trainings for the project. • Extension Program Aide. Goal: To assist with project operations; provide on-site representation and implementation of activities. This position was adjusted to meet the operational needs of school gardens.

• County Extension Agent – Family and Community Health. Goal: To coordinate events and activities around food and nutrition, and to organize family events to incorporate parental involvement.

• County Extension Agent – 4-H & Youth Development (Agriculture & Livestock). Goal: To coordinate programs such as: ‘Ag in the Classroom,’ ‘Egg to Chick,’ and entomology -focused activities.

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How Harris County CES collaborates to leverage resources for collective impact:

The programming described above requires that Harris County Extension engage with new and different kinds of partners in their community, which requires identifying unique opportunities to provide memorable educational experiences through such collaboration.

One such partnership is with the Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo, where students tour exhibits and are assigned an Agricultural Scavenger Hunt to gain a greater understanding of the Texas Agricultural system.

Another example is the Finca Tres Urban Farm, where students undertake the Agricultural Immersion Tour. They are then provided a presentation on food sustainability and urban farming, and are offered a tour of the farm grounds. Students shadow farm volunteers and staff, harvest fresh produce, and prepare lunch with the items chosen. A third example of CES partnerships is that of their work with the Prairie View A&M University. The institution offers an Ag Field Day, where students attend presentations by College of Agriculture and Human Sciences staff to gain knowledge of ag-related career options and opportunities offered at the university. Students tour the campus and attend a demonstration delivered by a Farm Research Specialist. And lastly, there’s the relationship between Harris County Extension and McGovern Centennial Garden, where, as part of a service project, students visit the garden sites regularly to aide horticulture staff with maintenance of the eight-acre garden.

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University of I l l inois 4-H

Illinois State Cooperative Extension Services

How the Illinois Extension is positioned at the national, state, regional, and city levels:

Illinois Extension is the “flagship outreach effort of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, offering educational programs to residents of all of Illinois’ 102 counties — and far beyond.” Illinois 4-H benefits from program leadership that sees the value in diversity of ideas and experiences at all levels of the organization. Staff are encouraged by leadership to try things that have never been done and to take calculated risks. The state leadership team now consists of specialists with backgrounds in urban as well as rural communities. There are several projects currently in development that are being designed to increase the engagement of urban communities and adolescent youth across the state. Our state program leader actively seeks out partners from a variety of sectors that have the capacity to spark engagement of new audiences in 4- H. How the Illinois State CES address the multitude of issues and priorities in their community through educational programming: Illinois 4-H adjusts program promotion and delivery methods to attract minority and under-served audiences through several programs.

Illinois Statewide

Demographic Categories

Black/African:

14.26%

Asian:

5.23%

White:

71.86%

Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander:

0.03%

Native Alaskan/Native American:

0.23%

Two or more races:

2.42%

Other race:

5.97%

Median age:

37.4

Total Population:

12,700,381

In one of them Illinois 4-H hosts a summer multi-day event called 4-H Illini Summer Academies (ISA), where high school youth stay on campus and engage in hands-on learning facilitated by a campus-wide array of academic departments. The program is designed to give youth a high-fidelity glimpse into the college experience and aims to achieve the following objectives: • Career Field Exploration – Youth have the opportunity to choose between many career fields, including animal science, human development, public health, engineering, journalism, food science and biology, and exploring the academic preparation required to succeed in the profession(s) of their choice.

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• New 4-H Audience Engagement – For almost half of the three hundred participants, ISA is their first encounter with 4-H, and the experience serves as a catalyst for continued involvement in the program.

• College Experience – Participants explore what college is like by staying overnight in the residence hall and practicing independence.

For the past three years Illinois 4-H has made changes to the program to its promotion strategy in order to make it accessible to youth from urban and underrepresented communities. The following adjustments have resulted in an increase in participation by students of color and students who would be first in their households to attend college. • In 2016, Illinois 4-H created and funded a program scholarship called the Trailblazers Scholarship . This scholarship invited aspiring students to apply for financial support to attend the Illini Summer Academies by describing their experiences as trailblazers. Considerations for the scholarship include: a) identification with a community underrepresented in a career field matching one of the offered academies; b) demonstrations of membership in a household where no member ha previously earned at least a bachelor’s degree; c) evidenc e of financial need (such as free or reduced-price lunch eligibility).

• In 2017, Illinois 4-H extended its program promotion beyond the usual channels and created opportunities for city schools to sponsor enrollment for small groups of their students.

• Also in 2017, Illinois 4-H developed a partnership with the TRIO Talent Search Program to offer ISA as a culminating summer experience for their program participants.

• In 2019, participants in the Juntos college readiness program were offered financial support to attend ISA.

• Also in 2019, Illinois 4-H extended the ISA program from three days to five and introduced workshop topics entitled S.L.A.A.Y. (Success for Latino and African American Youth ), where students meet with campus staff of color and discuss issues and opportunities impacting minority students attending public and predominantly white institutions.

How Illinois State CES attracts, develops, retains, and structures competent talent:

As related to professional development of staff, Illinois 4-H adjusted staffing positions, job descriptions and pattern to meet urban needs, recruited people with appropriate urban competencies and experiences, often from non-traditional places, and offered special and specific training to their staff. Some examples are:

• Illinois 4-H created thirteen Metro Educator positions, to be located across the state in counties with an urban population of 50,000 or greater. These positions were created on the heels of a major staff

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