Circa Winter 2020

Winter 2020 • Volume 13, Number 1 North Carolina Museum of History Circa


On the cover

( Top right ) Suffragists picketing the White House, 1917, courtesy of Library of Congress; ( middle row, L to R ) suffrage poster, 1917, courtesy of NC Museum of History; suffragist leader Alice Paul, 1915, courtesy of Library of Congress; “Elect Women” ERA button, 1970s, courtesy of NC Museum of History; delegate badge of suffragist Gertrude Weil, 1917, courtesy of State Archives of North Carolina; ( bottom row, L to R ) ERA pin, 1970s–1980s, courtesy of NC Museum of History; suffragist Anna Julia Cooper, ca. 1902, courtesy of Library of Congress.

State of North Carolina Roy Cooper, Governor Daniel J. Forest, Lieutenant Governor

Department of Natural and Cultural Resources Susi H. Hamilton, Secretary Reid Wilson, Chief Deputy Secretary Staci Meyer, Deputy Secretary Arts and Administration

Scan this code to access the museum’s website.

Office of Archives and History Dr. Kevin Cherry, Deputy Secretary

Division of State History Museums North Carolina Museum of History Kenneth B. Howard, Director James E. Huebler, Chief Financial Officer Don Pendergraft, Associate Director for Regional Museums Circa Doris McLean Bates, Editor in Chief/Editor Obelia J. Exum, Designer Eric N. Blevins and D. Kent Thompson, Photographers Michael A. Ausbon, Cheri Beasley, Michelle L. Carr, Cathy Dobbins, Katie Edwards, Obelia J. Exum, Benjamin Filene, Kara Leinfelder Meyer, RaeLana Poteat, Jessica Pratt, and David Reid, Contributors Circa magazine, a publication of the North Carolina Museum of History, has been produced since the first issue, spring/summer 2008. The summer 2017 issue was the first digital version of the publication (no print issues made). Later editions are available in print and digital. Circa is normally published two times per year by the North Carolina Museum of History, 5 East Edenton Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Published articles do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources or any other state agency. The text of this publication is available on magnetic recording tape from the State Library of North Carolina, Services to the Blind and Physically Handicapped Branch. For information, call 1-888- 388-2460. Unless otherwise noted, images used are courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History or the North Carolina Museum of History Associates. Approximately 4,500 copies of this publication were printed with private funds through the generous support of the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation. For information on contributing to the foundation or sponsoring an issue of Circa , phone 919-814-7076 or visit Circa could not be mailed without the kind support of the North Carolina Museum of History Associates, the membership arm of the museum. For additional information or to join, visit © 2020 by the North Carolina Museum of History

Law and Justice: The Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1819–2019

QuiltSpeak: Uncovering Women’s Voices Through Quilts

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Toy Boom! Toys from the 1950s and ’60s

For further information on all of our exhibits, access

North Carolina Museum of History 5 E. Edenton Street, Raleigh, NC 27601 919-814-7000 • Free admission


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18 8

From the Director by Ken Howard

When I think of history and history exhibits, I tend to recall things that occurred many years ago, like the founding of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, as represented in the museum’s newest exhibition, Law and Justice: The Supreme Court of


North Carolina, 1819–2019 . I don’t see myself as being old enough for events that have hap- pened in my lifetime to be considered history or a topic for a museum exhibit. However, two exhibitions included in this issue of Circa feature topics that were very much a part of my youth. Toy Boom! Toys from the 1950s and ’60s features some of the toys my brother and I played with, including several of my brother’s toy soldiers. I cannot believe that these toys are now over 50 years old! Our upcoming beach music exhibition, Beach Music: Making Waves in the Carolinas , will feature the music and the musi- cians that I danced to in college—and still do today! Where does time go? It is hard to imag- ine that today’s events will become ancient his- tory to someone else later. Of course, our museum is not all about exhib- its. As you will see in this Circa , due to the lack of emphasis on teaching state history in schools, the museum has developed programs and resources that help our teachers educate students statewide on the history of North Carolina. And, of course, we conduct a series of lectures at the museum to inform the nonstu- dent public about our state’s history. As always, we greatly appreciate the support you give to the museum. Our exhibitions and educational programs are funded through pri- vate donations, including monies raised by the Museum Foundation and our membership orga- nization, the Museum of History Associates. Protect and preserve North Carolina history by contributing to the Foundation or by joining the Associates.

C ontents Features 4 Supreme Court Celebrates Its Bicentennial with North Carolina’s Communities 6 Go BEYOND with the North Carolina Museum of History 8 Which Way to Women’s Suffrage? 14 North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Distinguished Lecture Series, 2020: George F. Will: The Voice of Conservative Thought Departments 10 Historical Profile 12 In the Community 13 Recent Acquisitions 16 Pictorial Essay 18 Programs and Events 19 From the Regional Museums 20 Behind the Scenes 22 Sponsorship 24 MOHA—Museum of History Associates



I ts B icentennial with N orth C arolina ’ s C ommunities

by Supreme Court of North Carolina Chief Justice Cheri Beasley

Cheri Beasley, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. Courtesy of North Carolina Judicial Branch.

The North Carolina Constitution provides that the state’s Supreme Court shall hear oral arguments in Raleigh. The North Carolina General Statutes allow the Court to hear oral arguments in two additional cit- ies: Edenton and Morganton. Thus, opportunities for North Carolinians to see their state’s highest court in action have historically been limited by geography. In celebration of the Court’s bicentennial, however, the North Carolina General Assembly has made an excep- tion, allowing the Court to hear arguments at locations throughout the state beginning in 2018 and continuing through the end of 2020.

Realizing that the opportunity to take our work on the road will be short-lived, we have made the most of the time the legislature has given us. In 2018 and 2019, the Court heard arguments in a dozen counties across North Carolina— from Buncombe to Craven and many places in between. And we have plans to visit at least a half dozen more coun- ties in 2020. As the Court has travelled across the state, the excitement with which we have been welcomed in each community has been overwhelming! Local elected officials and court staff



Chief Justice Cheri Beasley ( center ) is flanked by ( left to right ) Associate Justice Samuel Ervin IV, Senior Associate Justice Paul Newby, Associate Justice Robin Hudson, Associate Justice Mi- chael Morgan, and Associate Justice Mark Davis. Not pictured is Associate Justice Anita Earls. The group attended the recent opening reception for the exhibition Law and Justice: The Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1819–2019 at the museum. Courtesy of North Carolina Judicial Branch.

have gone out of their way to make our visits comfort- able, and community members and high school students have filled the courtrooms to capacity. Observers have been willing to stand in line, sometimes in extreme heat or cold, for the opportunity to witness the state’s highest court in action. The genuine interest North Carolinians have shown in the work of the judiciary—often the least well-known co-equal branch of government—has been heartening and has served as a touching reminder of how privileged we justices are to do the work of the Court. The 200th anniversary has also provided an opportunity to reflect on the history of the Court: the decisions it has rendered, the 101 justices who have served on its bench, and the rich traditions that surround its practices. And, this year, North Carolinians can get a taste of that history even without attending a session of oral argu- ments. An exhibition currently on view at the North Carolina Museum of History— Law and Justice: The Supreme Court of North Carolina, 1819–2019 —tells the story of the Supreme Court and features artifacts from the Court’s earliest days. The museum will host several educational programs while the exhibit is on display, including talks and tours led by current justices. We are excited that you can even celebrate the Supreme Court’s bicentennial and learn about the Court from the comfort of your own home. UNC-TV has produced a fantastic documentary, North Carolina Supreme Court at 200 , which is airing frequently on the station and is avail- able to stream anytime online. Expertly written and hosted by Tom Earnhardt, the beloved host of UNC-TV’s Exploring North Carolina , the film features interviews with many current and former associate justices and chief justices and offers a thoughtful perspective on the Court’s 200-year history.

Whether it is through visiting the North Carolina Museum of History, viewing North Carolina Supreme Court at 200 , or attending an oral

argument session, I hope each North Carolinian will take a moment to learn about and reflect on their Supreme Court during this bicentennial year.

To stay apprised of news from the judiciary and learn about

events happening near you, follow the North Carolina Judicial Branch on Facebook and visit www .Celebrate



Department of Natural and Cultural Resources Deputy Secretary and former junior historian Dr. Kevin Cherry greets students at the 2019 THJHA Annual Convention.

With help from the Museum of History Associates, BEYOND the Exhibits has been able to share with and learn from teachers at conferences around the state.

N orth C arolina M useum of H istory

by Jessica Pratt, Curator of Education Outreach

These days the Outreach Branch is known as BEYOND the Exhibits (BTE). Through surveying the educators who use our materials, we’ve found that most of our patrons have at least 10 years or more of classroom experience. We appreciate this ringing endorsement from experienced North Carolina teachers but want to ensure that teachers new to the classroom and new to North Carolina know that the museum is an available resource. With support from the Associates, BTE has spread the word about our resources to educators at statewide conferences, during district-level professional development and curriculum days, and in pre- sentations to pre-service teachers at colleges across the state. And while we’re out informing educators about all the museum has to offer, we’re also listening to what they have to say about teaching social studies. This has led to some new program offerings like Carolina Cover-to-Cover, which helps kindergarten through third-grade teachers integrate state history into their reading and literature lessons.

I remember my first visit to the North Carolina Museum of History. Like most Tar Heel natives, it was on a fourth- grade field trip to Raleigh. Also like most people, I contin- ued to think of the museum as a field trip destination. Until 13 years later, when I moved to Raleigh for graduate school and was fortunate to land a part-time position working in the museum’s Education Media Center. In the media center, I scheduled, inventoried, checked-in, and mailed out History-in-a-Box kits, history videos on VHS tapes (yep!), and even slide carousels (that’s right!) to teachers across the state for classroom use. I soon came to know that the museum had a whole branch of the Education Section devoted to resources that exited the museum for use by students and teachers all over North Carolina. The best thing about these outreach resources then and now is that most of them are available at no cost—that’s right, FREE!


For many school systems—due to multiple tasks placed upon instructors—social studies unfortunately is no longer


Students from across the state can “visit” the museum with historians guiding them through the exhibits in our LIVE! Streaming events.

History videos like this one, called North Carolina: Long Story Short—The Musical! , can help teachers bring North Carolina history to their classrooms.

a priority in terms of time or resources. This is especially true at the elementary level, where social studies is not a “tested” subject. Many history teachers can easily find information and primary resources for United States his- tory but are less sure about locating information specific to North Carolina or their local history. While it would be great if all state schools could visit the museum in person, a lack of field trip funding and sometimes distance don’t make that possible. But the museum’s Education Section can provide high-quality and interactive learning experiences for students across North Carolina. BEYOND the Exhibits is here to help, and many teachers have taken note! Last school year, our resources and staff of four reached 147,698 students and educators in 94 of our state’s 100 counties. Our online and hands-on offerings include: Stay tuned to see what we roll out next and how we continue to take North Carolina history BEYOND the exhibits in our building and to students and classrooms throughout the state. • Educator Notebooks • History-in-a-Box Kits • LIVE! Streaming Events • On-Demand Distance-Learning Classes • Online Professional Development   Workshops • Tar Heel Junior Historian Association • Bits of History Podcasts • Carolina Cover-to-Cover (historical reading list)

Students use hands-on objects from History-in-a-Box kits to explore state history in their classroom.

“We enjoyed the artifacts in all kits since hands-on materials for social studies are hard to come by.”— Mary Hooks, Weddington Hills Elementary School Thanks for this high impact offer to NC class- rooms!”—Bianka Stumpf, Central Carolina Community College



W hich W ay to

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment. When you picture the women’s suffrage movement, who comes to mind? A woman in a long dress holding a banner, picketing the White House? Or perhaps Susan B. Anthony in her tight bun and tiny glasses? Did you realize that there were two organizations fighting for women’s right to vote in the early 20th century? And that those groups had very different opinions about how to win the vote? The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), with leaders like Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Chapman Catt, took a conservative approach. NAWSA worked within the system, relying on socially prominent, politically connected members to slowly convince men in power—and the nation as a whole—that women (or at least well-educated white women) deserved the vote. They worked toward gain- ing suffrage state-by-state, hoping that once women in enough states could vote, passage of a federal amend- ment was more likely.

The Congressional Union (renamed the National Woman’s Party in 1917) believed in a more “militant” approach. Its main leaders, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, cut their teeth working for suffrage in England, where “suffragettes” 1 believed active protest was necessary for success. Initially, Paul and Burns tried to work within NAWSA. The two women envisioned a new way to draw attention to the cause—a grand parade in the nation’s capital. Their March 3, 1913, parade and pageant (held the day before President WoodrowWilson’s inauguration) was the first large, national protest of the suffrage struggle. The parade was a turning point—revitalizing the movement and mod- ernizing its public image. But NAWSA soon cut ties with Paul and Burns, preferring to continue with less confronta- tional tactics, such as appealing to legislatures, circulating petitions, writing articles, and working through state branches. With the formation of the Congressional Union, Paul and Burns introduced methods that might seem familiar today—aggressive congressional lobbying, active opposi-


tion to political parties that did not support their cause, and ongoing picket lines. At the time, these choices were a completely new direction for women and for American politics. In January 1917,“Silent Sentinels” began picketing the White House. Each day, suf- fragists stood quietly, in all types of weather, bearing signs addressing President Wilson and holding banners in the Congressional Union/National Woman’s Party colors of purple, white, and gold. During 1919, suf- fragists began burning copies of President Wilson’s speeches in “Watchfires of Free- dom” to protest his promotion of democ- racy abroad when America’s women did not have the vote. 2 Police arrested National Woman’s Party members, who were sometimes sent to prison on minor charges like obstructing the sidewalk. Several suffragists went on hunger strikes to protest being held as regu- lar prisoners, rather than as political prison- ers. The public became more sympathetic after news of beatings and force-feedings emerged. So, where did North Carolina suffragists fit into this national divide? Very few Tar Heels became members of the Congres- sional Union/National Woman’s Party. The North Carolina Equal Suffrage Associa- tion was affiliated with NAWSA and went out of its way to denounce “militancy” in the press and in resolutions it passed: “The North Carolina Equal Suffrage Association wishes to declare that they have no connec-

Program from the first woman suf- frage parade held in Washington, DC, 1913. More than 5,000 suffragists marched in the event. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

tion with the Congressional Union nor are they in sympathy with the methods used by that organization.”The North Carolina organization hoped to gain suf- frage “through its own state and its own men” and believed that “militant” actions harmed their chances of converting con- servative Tar Heel men to their cause. In the end, it took both the overt protests of the National Woman’s Party and the slow and steady behind-the-scenes work of NAWSA to convince Congress to pass the 19th Amendment. But North Carolina’s male legislators never did come around to the appeals of the North Caro- lina Equal Suffrage Association. Despite the opportunity to become the 36th, and final, state to ratify the amendment, the General Assembly voted instead to delay considering the bill, allowing Tennes- see to become the state that made the amendment into law. You can find out more about the fight for women’s suffrage—and how that fight played out in North Carolina—by visit- ing the exhibition “You Have to Start a Thing,” opening March 6, 2020. 1 Suffragist or Suffragette ? In early 1900s, most people called the very radical suffrage fighters in England Suffragettes and other women work- ing for suffrage, Suffragists. (Conservative North Carolina suffragists would not have appreciated being called suffragettes!)

Virginia Josephine Arnold was one of around a dozen North Carolina women who worked for the Congressional Union/National Wom- an’s Party in Washington, DC. She was the step-niece of well-known Tar Heel suffrage supporter Chief Justice Walter Clark. She also worked as an organizer in western states, and she became executive secretary of the CU/ NWP. She picketed the White House, was arrested multiple times, and served a brief prison sentence. Here, she stands with the banner she was holding during the August 1917 “picket riots,” when sailors and other men attacked suffragists while the police looked on. Courtesy of Library of Congress .

In 1913 Alice Paul feared that having African American suffragists march alongside white women in segregated Washington, DC, would offend potential white south- ern suffrage supporters. She quietly discouraged black participants, and, at the last minute, told them to march at the back of the parade. Mary Church Terrell marched with members of the Delta Sigma Theta sorority. Ida B. Wells Barnett ( seen above, center ) ignored the request and joined the Illinois delegation mid-parade. Courtesy of Chicago Daily Tribune , March 5, 1913 .


2 White suffragists did not acknowledge the irony of seeking suffrage for “half” the country—when they knew that African American and American Indian women in the South would be disenfranchised by Jim Crow voter suppression. In fact, many suffragists openly reassured southerners that women’s suffrage would not affect white supremacy.

Historical Profile

A Year of Historic Milestones Compiled by Michelle L. Carr, Curator of Special Programs

The year 2020 marks many monumental anniversaries in American history, particularly in the areas of exploration, politics, and education. And the Tar Heel State played a pivotal role in several of them. Let’s take a closer look at some of the historical events we will commemorate in 2020.





In 1795, or 225 years ago, the University of North Carolina opened its doors in Chapel Hill, becoming the first state university in the nation to open for students.

Spanish helmet.

500 years ago, the ear- liest-known Europeans set foot in what is now North Carolina when Pedro de Quexoia led a Spanish expedition from Santo Domingo (in the present-day Dominican Republic) to the North Carolina coast.

Tryon Palace.

Andrew Jackson.

Tryon’s Palace was completed in New Bern 250 years ago. The extra taxation used to fund the project proved un- popular and served as a major catalyst in North Carolina’s War of the Regulation.

UNC–Chapel Hill.

190 years ago, in 1830, Presi- dent Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, calling for American Indians to be forced from their homes to lands west of the Mississippi River.



The first USS North Carolina joined the United States fleet 200 years ago in 1820. Three other naval vessels have carried the name USS North Carolina , including the famous World War II–era battleship now moored in Wilmington.



A second English colony led by John White landed on Roanoke Island in 1587. White later sailed back to England seeking much-needed supplies and didn’t return until 1590, or 430 years ago. He found the colony deserted, and the Roa- noke settlement became known as the Lost Colony.

A small, unauthorized group of tribal members signed the Cherokee Removal Treaty 185 years ago. Despite Cherokee protests, the treaty became the basis for the Trail of Tears. Estimates suggest that about 100,000 American Indians were forced from their homes during that period, and that some 15,000 died during the journey west.

The first English settle- ment in America was established at Roanoke Island 435 years ago. The effort failed.

James Iredell.


230 years ago, in 1790, President George Washington appointed North Carolin- ian James Iredell a justice of the inaugural United States Supreme Court.

USS North Carolina.

Lost Colony.

Cherokee are removed by US troops.


Historical Profile



75 years ago, on August 6, 1945, the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Mocksville native Thomas Ferebee served as the bombardier aboard the Enola Gay , the B-29 bomber that released the weapon. The dropping of a second atomic bomb three days later led to Japan’s surrender and the end of World War II.


In November 2000, or 20 years ago this fall, Bev- erly Perdue was elected North Carolina’s first fe- male lieutenant governor. Eight years later, voters elected her as the state’s first female governor.


On February 1, 1960—60 years ago—four African American students from the Agricultural & Technical College of North Carolina (now NC A&T State University) in Greensboro sat in the F. W. Woolworth store’s res- taurant area and refused to move, even when denied service. Their actions sparked a national sit-in movement to challenge racial seg- regation. A few months later, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, one of the major civil rights organizations of the 1960s, was formed from a meeting that Ella Baker organized at Raleigh’s Shaw University. Lunch counter from Salisbury sit-in.

Construction on the cur- rent State Capitol building was completed in Raleigh in 1840, or 180 years ago. It was built following the fiery destruction of the first North Carolina State House in 1831.


Bev Perdue.

Enola Gay and crew.

Congress ratified the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution on Feb- ruary 3, 1870, or 150 years ago. It prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previ- ous condition of servitude.”

NC State Capitol.





55 years ago, on August 6, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Voting Rights Act, which made discriminatory voting practices illegal.

The first performance of Unto These Hills took place on July 1, 1950, in Cherokee. It is the third- oldest outdoor historical drama in the United States and recounts the history of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians up to their removal via the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma. Over the past 70 years, more than 6 million people have viewed the drama.

On April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was assassi- nated at Ford’s Theatre in Wash- ington, DC. Upon his death, 155 years ago, Vice President and Raleigh native Andrew Johnson became the 17th presi- dent of the United States.

Women’s suffrage poster.

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee was the 36th, and final, state to ratify the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, making women’s right to vote national law 100 years ago.

Political button.

Founded 155 years ago in 1865, the Raleigh Institute (now Shaw University) is the oldest Histori- cally Black College or University in the southern United States. Shaw Building at Shaw University.

A scene from Unto These Hills.

A billboard advertises the opening of Unto These Hills .


In the Community

“Always use the best ingredients.” —Mildred “Mama Dip” Council

Crisp Cookies by using some of the same ingredients. These cookies are made with locally sourced eggs and pecans, which put a little taste of the South in your mouth. I started out selling my cookies at Grandma’s restau- rant in the dessert case and even- tually I sold them at culinary and trade shows. The orders for these sweet treats were in such demand I had to add some ad- ditional flavored cookies to the line. I developed several more recipes, including Peppermint Chocolate Pecan Crisps, Choco- late Pecan Crisps, and White Chocolate Pecan Crisps. What would you like for your customers to take away as part of your signature? I understand hospitality means good customer service and delivering good products that keep bringing folks back to the restaurant again and again. Sharing recipes is great. What is one that we should really try, and why is it important to you? My grandmother loved pumpkin. Here’s a recipe that comes from both of us: Grandma’s Pumpkin Pie with Pecan Crisp Crumbles ( see left ). Sweet Tea and Cornbread Grill and Eatery has traditional-style Mama Dip pies, such as pecan, apple, and chocolate, as well as banana pudding, to name a few of the scrumptious desserts available at the museum res- taurant. And don’t miss Tonya’s Cookies! Museum members receive a 10 percent discount. The restaurant is open Monday through Satur- day, from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m.

Southern Culture, Sweet Tea, and Cornbread by Obelia J. Exum, Graphic Design Supervisor

Grandma’s Pumpkin Pie with Pecan Crisp Crumbles Ingredients: 1 15-oz. can pumpkin puree 1 14-oz. can sweetened condensed milk ¾ c. sugar 2 large eggs, slightly beaten 1 tsp. ground cinnamon ¼ tsp. ground cloves ½ tsp. ground ginger ½ tsp. ground nutmeg ½ tsp. salt 1 9-in. unbaked pie crust 4-oz. bag of Tonya’s Pecan Crisp Cookies ¼ c. chopped pecans, optional (If you love pecans like me, you can never put in too many!) Directions: 1. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F. 2. In a large bowl, whisk together pumpkin, milk, eggs, sugar, spices, and salt. Mix until smooth. Pour into unbaked pie crust. 3. Place inside the oven and bake for 20 minutes. 4. Carefully pull oven rack outside of oven and place crumbled cookies and chopped pecans on top of pie. 5. Push rack back into oven and continue baking for 20 to 25 minutes. 6. Cool to room temperature before serving (serves 8). accented with mason jars that contain cotton blooms mixed with magnolia leaves and filled D Delectable food and down-home ambiance come together at Tonya Council’s Sweet Tea and Cornbread Grill and Eatery now open at the North Carolina Mu- seum of History. As you enter the eatery, you may notice tables

with pinto beans. The restau- rant exudes a southern atmo- sphere, a sense of tradition and culture and style. From pork chop sandwiches and vegetable plates, to savory soups and salads and chicken pot pie, any given day can offer a medley of southern foods. Council is a chef, cook, entrepreneur, and granddaughter of the late re- nowned culinary artist Mildred “Mama Dip” Council. In August 2019, Council opened the museum restau- rant. In the following interview, learn more about her life and family. Where did the name Sweet Tea and Cornbread come from? The words “sweet tea” and “corn- bread” represent southern cul- ture and identity for me. They have come to mean comfort and simplicity. How does your grandmother’s legacy connect with that name? In Mama Dip’s Kitchen in Chapel Hill, we served good old-fashioned southern food: fried chicken, potato salad, lima beans, chicken and dump- lings, cornbread, yeast rolls, iced tea, and more. So, the name connects to that kind of food that I grew up eating.

For six days a week at the mu- seum, you serve special hot meals. What role does that play in the mission and brand for your restau- rant? What do you want custom- ers to know? It’s my way of letting my customers taste the kind of food I [had as a child]. Mama Dip’s Kitchen was a home away from home. I worked around my mother, aunts, uncles, and cous- ins as part of a family business. So, this is the kind of food we often sat down and ate together as a family, as well as served to others. words of wisdom taken from your grandmother that enrich your life today? Some of the most impor- tant ones are: “Always use the best ingredients.”“Make people a priority.”“You get out what you put in.” In mixing styles and sharing one of your successes, how do you tweak the food style that your grand- mother produced and yet at the same time invent something new for today’s model? Do you have an example that you’d like to share? I fashioned my cookies from my grandmother’s famous pecan pies. I created Tonya’s Pecan Can you hear your grandmother’s voice? What are some of the


Sweet Tea & Cornbread Grill and Eatery Hours Mon.–Sat., 11 a.m.–3 p.m. 919-814-6980

Recent Acquisitions

H Hands of Experience by Michael A. Ausbon, Curator of Decorative Arts

Have you ever marveled how wood- carvers select a chunk of wood for carving? I imagine their observant eyes and their intuitive hands working in concert to validate their choice as they handle the wood— “yes, this piece is perfect!” Every person–and every block of wood—has a unique story to tell. The wood-carver is the storyteller for wood, coaxing each story to the surface. Oma Otis Spencer (1895–1984) carved a container that recently became part of the museum’s folk art collection. When Spencer moved to Plymouth, North Carolina, he recalled,“I bought [my] house because of a big walnut tree in the backyard. I saw that tree and knew that I could carve some beautiful pieces from it.” In other words, that tree called him home so that he could uncover its stories. Spencer—an accomplished home builder—had a deep, symbiotic relationship with wood. As a wood- carver, he skillfully brought figures forth from the wood with his chisel and mallet, fashioning them into beloved treasures for his family and friends. Spencer did not create his work for profit or fame, but for personal satisfaction. He, like many other backyard hobbyists, did not consider himself an artist and did not view his work as artistically consequential. He carved wood to satisfy his soul. Holger Cahill—the father of American folk art—encouraged the appreciation and investigation of the genre. Cahill contended that the vernacular expression of everyday artistry reflected an authentic part of the American experience.

Folk art has been disparagingly described as outsider , primitive , and naïve because folk artists, such as Spencer, typically teach themselves, and their work does not conform to a recognized academic tradition of art. The late Dr. Everette James, an avid collector, noted,“Art [is] derived from the inner spirit of the maker. The singular character of folk art that is most compelling are the artists themselves—the folk of folk art.” Folk art can be, then, anything but traditional. Spencer’s playful, idiosyncratic voice comes through in this unconventional container. Why did he deploy a duck as sentinel above the ring of sunflowers? Both icons have protective connotations: ducks fiercely defend their families, and folklore associates seven encircling sun- flowers with protection. How deliberate were Spencer’s aesthetic choices? He has left us a mystery. He is, however, allowing each of us to participate in his creative process and determine our own answer. We do know—through family members’ recollections—why Spencer crafted this clever piece. It concealed, even protected, his bottle of Ancient Age bourbon from prying eyes and thirsty tongues. After all, this was his favorite libation while work- ing in his shop. Wood carving is reductive. Removing excess layers, the carver uncovers the artistic essence locked within the wood. Spencer was a visionary who saw stories held within wood reflective of his imagi- nation. Oma Otis Spencer reminds us to remove the layers of our cultural, social, and artistic expectations and just enjoy his folk art dream.

Oma Otis Spencer (1895–1984) using a chisel and wood mallet to carve a bird in his woodshop, ca. 1960s. Courtesy of Dwight Kiser’s page,

A variety of carvings in Oma Otis Spencer’s woodshop, ca. 1960s. Courtesy of Dwight Kiser’s page,

Folk art container, likely maple, ca. 1955, hand-carved by Oma Otis Spen- cer of Plymouth. Purchase of this artifact provided by the Mary Powell White Fund. Courtesy of North Carolina Museum of History.


Distinguished Lecture Series, 2020

5 East Edenton Street Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 919-814-7076

George F.Will: The Voice of Conservative Thought

by Michelle L. Carr, Curator of Special Programs

Victor E. Bell III, chair of the foundation’s board.

Foundation Board Victor E. Bell III, Chair, Raleigh Wilson Hayman, Vice Chair, Raleigh Carole Symons Roebuck, Secretary, Elizabeth City John T. Church, Treasurer, Raleigh W. Trent Ragland III, Assistant Treasurer, Raleigh Lyl MacLean Clinard, Past Chair, High Point Kellie Hunt Blue Pembroke Senator James T. Broyhill Winston-Salem Christopher H. A. Cecil Charlotte Frank A. Daniels III Clarksville, TN Julia Jones Daniels Raleigh Samuel B. Dixon Edenton David R. Hayworth High Point Margaret Harry Kluttz Salisbury Betty Ray McCain Wilson Kay Anthony Phillips High Point Orage Quarles III Raleigh Joy Cox Sloan Raleigh Dr. Allston J. Stubbs III Winston-Salem Lee Lyles Webster High Point Mary Powell White Winston-Salem McKinley Wooten Jr. Raleigh Kenneth B. Howard, Director, Division of State History Museums and North Carolina Museum of History, Raleigh

Political columnist George F. Will offers a glimpse into what the future holds for public affairs, public policy, and American society at the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation’s 2020 Distinguished Lecture Series. Courtesy of Washington Speakers Bureau.

Change is a constant in life, and perhaps nowhere is that more evident than in the political arena. However, one figure in American politics seems impervious to the constant vagaries of politics—George F. Will. For nearly 50 years, he has been a conservative bulwark, unmoved by the political chaos swirling around him. On May 13, 2020, the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation will bring George F. Will, one of America’s foremost political columnists, to Raleigh as the featured speaker in its annual Distinguished Lecture Series. Will’s presentation will offer audiences a penetrating and incisive glimpse into the Washington political scene during an always-exciting presidential election year. With his shrewd political insight, Will is known for providing witty, trenchant, and well- informed commentary on politics, the economy, and American society. He is the country’s most widely read political columnist. Will’s twice-weekly columns for the Washington Post reach over


Foundation Staff Dawn P. Lowder, Executive Director, Raleigh


The North Carolina Museum of History Foundation raises financial resources that en- able the museum to preserve and interpret the history and culture of the Tar Heel State through dynamic exhibitions, educational programming, artifact acquisition, and object conservation. The Foundation also supports needed capital improvements at the museum, as well as building an endow- ment for the future. The Foundation’s vision is for the North Carolina Museum of History to be the leader in the preservation and pro- motion of North Carolina’s history and culture and to promote and encourage the study of all history. W ednesday , M ay 13, 2020 7 p . m . For ticket information, please visit NCMOH-tickets .com or call 800-745-3000. This is a ticketed event at the A. J. Fletcher Opera Theater, Duke Energy Center for the Performing Arts, Raleigh. G eneral A dmission : $45 (B alcony ); $60 (O rchestra /F loor ); $85 (B ox S eats ), plus taxes and fees . Presented by the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation and The News & Observer , with additional support from the Sloan Fam - ily Foundation, the Good - night Educational Founda - tion, Highwoods Properties, Mr. and Mrs. Everette C. Sherrill, and Mr. and Mrs. Paul F. Hoch Jr. Proceeds benefit the North Carolina Museum of History.

400 newspapers throughout the United States and Europe. He calculates that he has written nearly 6,000 columns since joining the Post’ s staff in the early 1970s. In 1977 Will won a Pulitzer Prize for Commentary. Often combining factual reporting with conservative commentary, Will’s columns are known for their erudite vocabulary, allusions to political philosophers, and frequent references to baseball. The Illinois native is a lifelong Chicago Cubs fan. He was one of the interview subjects for Ken Burns’s PBS documentary series Baseball , and Will’s wedding ring, which he designed himself, has the major-league baseball logo on it. Will began his journalism career as an editor for the National Review in 1972. In 1976 he became a contributing editor for Newsweek , writing a biweekly back page column until 2011. He has been an on-air contributor to Fox News and ABC News, where he was a founding member on the panel of T his Week with David Brinkley . In 2017 Will became an MSNBC and NBC News political contributor, providing regular political input on Today , Morning Joe , and The 11th Hour . In addition to his work as a newspaper columnist and television commentator, Will is a prolific author with 15 titles to his credit. His 1990 publication, Men at Work: The Craft of Baseball , topped The New York Times best-seller list for two months. In June 2019, he pub- lished his most recent work, The Conservative Sensibility , a compelling reflection on American conservatism and the founders’ political thought. The Wall Street Journal has called Will “perhaps the most powerful journalist in America.” Possibly there’s no political acumen more finely honed than his. And perhaps no one has more or better insights into the issues and political realities of today. Whether or not you share his political views, audiences agree that an evening with George Will is always invigorating and thought-provoking.


Pictorial Essay

C Choosing the objects to represent the baby-boomer era in our current exhi- bition Toy Boom! Toys from the 1950s and ’60s was no easy task. The period included an explosion of games, action figures, and dolls (and their acces- sories). The rise of television only perpetuated the influx of commercials, jingles, and the newest toys. The exhibit is divided into various sections. One, titled “Frontier Visions,” focuses on the influence of TV westerns and the space race on toys. Another section examines the fad toys that encouraged movement and all-around zaniness. Other areas showcase creative toys and war toys, finally ending in a section that looks at how gender played out in toys of the period. A Boom of Nostalgia Compiled by Katie Edwards, Curator

Howdy Doody made his television debut in late 1947, and the show’s popularity led to an influx of merchan- dise like books, games, and lunch boxes, as well as the popular marionette.

Do you remember these toys?

Ethnically diverse toys proved scarce during the boomer years. One of Mat- tel’s first African American dolls was not released until 1969 and was based on the breakthrough television show Julia starring Diahann Carroll. Object on loan from The Strong National Museum of Play, Rochester, NY.

The space race influenced many toys of the boomer era, even G.I. Joe, which was the first mass-marketed “action figure.” This G.I. Joe pilot came with a space suit, helmet, and Mercury - style capsule. Object on loan from Thomas McLaurin.

The Mr. Potato Head Funny Face Kit was purportedly the first toy advertised on television during an episode of The Jackie Gleason Show in 1952 .

The popularity of Davy Crockett episodes inspired the coonskin cap craze in the 1950s. Sales totaled more than 5,000 per day and led to a white fur variation, called the Polly Crockett hat, targeted at girls.

The Cold War created a backdrop of suspicion, which led to the rise of espionage in movies, television, and toys. An example was James Bond’s gadget-laden Silver Birch DB5 model car. Object on loan from Whitney Watson.


Pictorial Essay

In July 1958, a new craze spun into the United States. The looping, colorful plastic toys were named Hula Hoops, noting a resemblance between the motion of players and hula dancers.

The Ohio Art Company bought the toy originally called L’Ecran Magique (the Magic Screen) and changed its name to Etch A Sketch. It became one of the most popular toys of the 1960 Christmas season.

The slinky was invented by total accident when Richard James knocked a spring off a shelf and watched it keep going. By the 1950s, the spring toy called “slinky” had become a national sensation!

Barbie first hit shelves in 1959, and sales boomed thanks to an aggressive marketing campaign. Barbie’s friends and a surplus of accessories soon followed, including this paper doll kit released in 1963.

North Carolina had its very own toy company. Fli-Back, based out of High Point, pro- duced numerous toys like the paddleball game, yo-yos, and rubber balls throughout the boomer years. Object on loan from Kay Snow.

Complete with four types of uranium ore and a Geiger counter, the Atomic Energy Lab promised 146 experiments in atomic energy. The kit only sold from 1950 to 1951—possibly due to its $50 price tag! Object on loan from The Strong National Museum of Play, Rochester, NY.


Programs and Events

Popular Programs Return This Spring at the Museum by Michelle L. Carr, Curator of Special Programs

will bring to life the forgotten story of the heroic men who made up our nation’s first elite military unit, the 1st Maryland Regiment. Speaking at the third annual American Revolution Lecture Series, presented by the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati, O’Donnell will share how this remark- able unit, comprised of rich merchants, tradesmen, and free people of color, changed the course of the war. Known as the “Immortal 400,” the 1st Maryland Regiment took part in many major conflicts of the American Revolu- tion, most notably the Battle of Long Island (August 1776). In that engage- ment, the unit stood against 2,000 British regulars and suffered tremen- dous losses. Only a handful made it back to the American lines. The notion of character is also a major theme in the Museum of History Foun- dation’s spring Notable North Carolina lecture. The series is sponsored, in part, by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina. Join Carrie Streeter, scholar of the American South, on March 24, 2020, for an in-depth look at the Cones, a remarkable Gilded Age family of entrepreneurs, preservationists, and philanthropists. Chief among them is Moses Cone, the eldest of 13 children of Jewish-German immigrants. His North Carolina textile company became a major supplier to Levi Strauss and Company, earning Mo- ses the nickname the “Denim King.” A noted philanthropist, he and his wife left their estate to the National Park Service and founded the Moses Cone Health System, a private health care system based in Greensboro.

Book jacket courtesy of Patrick K. O’Donnell .

and Etta to amass a significant collection of modern art. The Cone Collection is be- loved for both its content and the charac- ter of its collectors. The sisters bequeathed their collection, today valued at $1 billion, to the Baltimore Museum of Art in Mary- land and the Weatherspoon Art Museum in Greensboro. For those who are familiar with the Cone family and the “Immortal 400,” as well as those who have never heard of them, these presentations offer a chance to discover new stories about these fascinating people and their tremendous legacy to North Carolina and the nation. Join us at the Museum of History to learn about these memorable characters.

Moses Cone (sitting) and his brother Ceasar Cone built a textile empire in Greensboro during the last decade of the 19th century. Courtesy of W. L. Eury Appalachian Collection, Appalachian State University.

According to the ancient Greek philos- opher Heraclitus,“Character is destiny.”

At first glance, it is a simple sentence made up of only three words; yet it gives voice to a powerful concept. Char- acter is what inspires our unique view of the world. It drives us in what we do, how we do it, and, most importantly, why. In short, it dictates our lives. The word character is hard to define. However, those who exhibit tremen- dous character appeal to something within us. Possibly we admire their courage or maybe we envy their free- dom? Either way, people with remark- able character make for compelling stories. Perhaps that’s why the subjects of the North Carolina Museum of His- tory’s spring lecture series all demon- strate great personal character.

American Revolution Lecture Series Presented by the North Carolina

Society of the Cincinnati Thursday, Feb. 20, 7 p.m.

$15 per person; $10 for MOHA/museum members (plus taxes and processing fees). For information, visit, or call 919-814-6970. The North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati will handle registration for its members. For details, call 919-814-7031. Notable North Carolina Lecture Series Tuesday, Mar. 24, 7 p.m. $15 per person; $10 for MOHA/museum members For information, visit, or call 919-814-7031. Sponsored, in part, by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina, with additional support from the Museum of History Foundation and MOHA, the Museum of History Associates.

On February 20, 2020, award-winning military historian Patrick K. O’Donnell

Through his success in the textile indus- try, Moses enabled his sisters Claribel


From the Regional Museums

The Division of State History Museums includes six regional museums that maintain lively calendars of exhibits and events for all ages throughout the year. Check the accompanying website information for listings.

A Man of Worth by David Reid, Administrator, Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex T The Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex in Fayetteville is proceeding to become the North Carolina Civil War and Reconstruction History Center. This new entity will tell the story of North Carolinians from the years leading up to the Civil War, during the war and after the war, to the early years of the 20th century. One of these stories will feature Omar ibn Said. Ibn Said (sy-eed), an educated Muslim African born about 1770 in Futa Toro (modern Senegal), was captured and brought to Charleston, South Carolina, to be sold into slavery in 1807. He escaped from a rice plantation and fled, arriving in Fayetteville in 1810 where he was jailed as a fugitive. Using fireplace coals to write prayers to Allah in Arabic on his cell walls, Ibn Said attracted visitors who were puzzled over the meaning of the script and his apparent literacy.

Image from a ca. 1855 ambrotype of Omar ibn Said. Courtesy of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Wilson Library, North Carolina Collection Photo- graphic Archives.

Museum of the Albemarle 501 South Water Street Elizabeth City, NC 27909 252-335-1453

In 1831 Ibn Said penned his autobiography. His 15-page manuscript is the only known extant autobiography written by an enslaved person in a native language. The work is significant in that it shows Omar ibn Said was a literate and learned man before he was enslaved. It contains an interesting mixture of Islamic and Christian messages. When the Owen family moved to Wilmington in 1835, Ibn Said went with them. From this seaport, his story circulated far more widely than before. After 1845, Ibn Said was the subject of several widely read articles in

Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex 801 Arsenal Avenue Fayetteville, NC 28305 910-486-1330

Mountain Gateway Museum and Heritage Center 24 Water Street, Old Fort, NC 28762 828-668-9259

such newspapers and periodicals as the Asheville News , University of North Carolina Magazine , Methodist Review , Providence (R.I.) Journal , and the New York Observer. In 1863, during the Civil War, Owen family members and Omar ibn Said

Omar ibn Said was sold to James Owen (1784–1865), a prominent Bladen County planter. Owen and his brother John (1787–1841) took an interest in Ibn Said, who faithfully observed Islamic rituals. He wrote

North Carolina Maritime Museum 315 Front Street, Beaufort, NC 28516 252-728-7317

( Above ) North Carolina historical marker for Omar ibn Said. Courtesy of North Carolina Office of Archives and History. Omar ibn Said came to national attention in 1825, when a Fayetteville resident wrote an account of his life and published it in the nationally read Christian Advocate . down Koranic passages as mementoes for Owen visitors and friends. As Ibn Said learned English, the Owens began to wonder if he might convert to their faith, Christianity. Toward this end, Owen acquired for him a Bible in Arabic. Ibn Said joined First Presbyterian Church in Fayetteville in 1820.

moved back to the Owen Hill plantation in Bladen County during a yellow fever epidemic inWilmington. Ibn Said died in 1863. The original 1831 manuscript of Omar ibn Said’s autobiography was found in a collection in Virginia in the 1990s and sold at auction. The owner then allowed it to be examined by scholars and displayed in museums, such as the Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex. The manuscript now resides in the Library of Congress. Access it online at collections/omar-ibn-said-collection/ about-this-collection.

North Carolina Maritime Museum at Southport

204 East Moore Street Southport, NC 28461 910-457-0003

Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum 59200 Museum Drive Hatteras, NC 27943 252-986-2995


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