2017 America's Legacy Book NEW


Eighteenth Amendment  Declared the production, transport and sale of alcohol illegal (Prohibition)

Sixteenth Amendment  Income tax authorized

Passed by Congress Dec. 18, 1917. Ratified Jan. 16, 1919. Repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment.

Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified Feb. 3, 1913. Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by the Sixteenth Amendment. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, fromwhatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Seventeenth Amendment  Senators elected by popular vote

Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913. Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the Seventeenth Amendment. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

FREEDOM FACT Before the Nineteenth

Amendment was passed, voting rights varied by state: 15 states allowed women to vote in all elections, 21 states barred them from certain contests and 12 states prohibited female voting altogether.

Nineteenth Amendment  Gave women the right to vote

Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified Aug. 18, 1920.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Twentieth Amendment  New terms of office for president and Congress

Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified Jan. 23, 1933. Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the Twelth Amendment was superseded by section 3. Section 1. The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20 th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3 rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

A LARGE GROUP, MOSTLYWOMEN, stand around a table in the office of Missouri Governor Frederick Gardner as he signs the resolution ratifying the Nineteenth Amendment; Missouri became the eleventh state to ratify the amendment.


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