Shale Shaker Vol 72, No 4 July-August 2021

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V OLUME 72 N UMBER 4 T HE J OURNAL OF THE O KLAHOMA C ITY G EOLOGICAL S OCIETY ~ July | August 2021 ~

An Intact Thirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma: A Question of Preserving

Geological Heritage ...And Much More.

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The Journal of the Oklahoma City Geological Society Volume 72 Number 4

The Shale Shaker The Shale Shaker is published under the oversight of members of the OCGS Publications Committee, who are responsible for all of the editorial and technical content. Publication production assistance provided by: PRODUCTION AND DESIGN Theresa Andrews, Visual Concepts and Design, Inc. visualconcepts64@gmail.com OCGS Board Officers Patrick Kamann President & Sponsorship Committee Devon Energy James Van Alstine Vice President & Shale Shaker Committee Co-Chair Independent Drew Dressler Treasurer, Finance Committee Chair Devon Energy Cole Hinds Secretary, Scholarship Committee

Steve Ladner Past President Ladner Consulting Garin Wente Membership Committee Chair Epoch Resources Directors Lesley Evans Councilor & Governance Committee Chair Independent

Independent Rosie Gilbert Finance Committee & Education Committee Continental Resources Raleigh Blumstein Education Committee Co-Chair Independent Chris Wiggers Education Committee Co-Chair Commission of Land Galen Miller Social Function Committee Independent Joe Voyles Social Media Chair & Website Chair Independent Mike Kumbalek Shale Shaker Committee Co-Chair Independent

AAPG House of Delegates Michael Bone AAPG Mid-Continent Section Representative John Brett OCGS OFFICES 3409 S. Broadway, Suite 804 Edmond, OK 73013 Phone: (405) 235-3648 | Fax: (405) 235-1766 Website: www.ocgs.org Staff Michelle Hone mhone@ocgs.org

July ~ August 2021 | Page 101

The Journal of the Oklahoma City Geological Society Table of Contents

Shale Shaker Features

104

Support Your Local Sheriff Geological Society; Patrick Kamann, President, OCGS Board of Directors Notable Oklahoma Oil & Gas History from 1960-1979; Co-Editor Mike Kumbalek

116

What you Missed - 30th OCGS Annual Shrimp Boil An Intact Thirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma: A Question of Preserving Geological Heritage; Andrew Cullen, Independent Geoscientist; David Hull, Devon Energy, OK; Molly Turko, Turko Tectonics & Structural Geology

118

106

108

OCGS Membership

109

OCGS Upcoming Events

130

Announcement - Call for Papers

110

Announcement - Field Trip

132

Past OCGS Shale Shaker, Volume 13, Number 9 May, 1963 - A Geological History of Oklahoma's Vegetation; L. R. Wilson, University of Oklahoma

112

Announcement - AAPG MCS Convention

113

Announcement - Clay Shoot

114

Announcement - Technical Meeting; Dr. Nick W. Hayman

150

State of the Industry; Mike Kumbalek

152

Advertisers Index

About the Cover COVER PHOTO: Outcrop photo showing the length and width of intact ~34' long/3.5' wide silicified Callixylon log in the Woodford Shale in an inactive quarry on the Lawrence Uplift in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma. Figure from featured technical article "An Intact Thirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma: A Question of Preserving Geological Heritage" by Andrew Cullen, David Hull and Molly Turko.

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July ~ August 2021 | Page 103

Letter from the OCGS President

By: Patrick Kamann, President, OCGS Board of Directors

Support Your Local Sheriff Geological Society

Society members, over the past couple weeks I have had brief discussions with folks at the Oklahoma Geological Foun- dation and at the Tulsa Geological Society about the COVID pandemic and its im- pact on events. In addition, we have had several discussions on the OCGS Board about COVID and the potential effects on our Fall social and educational events. One item we all struggle with is how to effectively hold social, fundraiser, and educational events while also managing concerns over the pandemic. To help address some concerns about at- tending events, the OCGS is looking at both virtual and outdoor options. For instance, the OCGS Annual Shrimp Boil

offers both indoor and patio space. How - ever, even with some of these measures, I recognize that attending an educational or social event isn’t right for everyone. As you and your family navigate the COV- ID-19 pandemic, I would like to encour- age you to Support Your Local Geologi- cal Society. Please consider volunteering your time and talents to our OCGS, the Oklahoma Geological Foundation, or the Tulsa Geological Society. Even if you prefer to not attend an event, someone making phone calls to members or placing orders can be a great help in making an event successful. Patrick

Patrick Kamann

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Page 104 | Volume 72 Number 4

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July ~ August 2021 | Page 105

By: Mike Kumbalek, Co-Editor Letter from the Editor

equivalent to $1.20 in 2021. During this time period there were 13,312 wells spud and/or completed in Oklahoma. In the early 60’s new discoveries in Okla- homa were waning yet production re- mained flat. This was largely in part due to larger older productive fields under - going secondary and tertiary recovery techniques to boost production. While oil production was slowly increasing due to secondary recovery, natural gas pro- duction was on the rise due to increased drilling for deeper targets in the Anadar- ko basin. By 1963 Oklahoma natural gas production first exceeded oil production in energy equivalency (Boyd, 2006). The push for deep natural gas made new deepest well records for Oklahoma. The Green #1 drilled in Beckham County was the deepest well in Oklahoma at a TD of 24,453’ and was the second deepest well in the world at the time. Its producing depth was 21,604-22,652’. (Figure 1). This record was surpassed shortly after publication by an offset well that reached a TD of 24,928’. Ultimately this record was smashed by the GHK Co. 1-27 Ber- tha Rogers when in 1974 it reached a TD of 31,441’. The well encountered molten sulfur at TD which solidified around the drill pipe and caused it to twist off. No producible hydrocarbons were found at this great depth and the well was plugged back and completed in the Granite Wash at ~12,000’ as a gas producer Boyd,

2006). This well was the deepest well in the world until the Kola Superdeep Bore- hole in the former Soviet Union drilled to 40,230’ in 1989 and still retains the title as deepest artificial point on Earth (Wiki - pedia, 2021). Bringing it back to Oklaho- ma, in 1967 the Shelly Dean Oil Co was founded by Harold Hamm, this was the predecessor company that we now know as Continental Resources. Overshadow- ing all the technical achievements in oil gas was the event of a lifetime, the moon landing in 1969 and while not a notable achievement of Oklahoma Oil and Gas in the last 100 years, as geoscientists, I think we can all agree this was a major scientific achievement. Following the deep gas targets in the 1960s, the early 1970s saw the Arab Oil Embargo, in which the members of OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petro- leum Exporting Countries) proclaimed an oil embargo and stopped exporting oil to countries perceived as supporting Israel during the Yom Kippur War. This resulted in a rise in the price of oil and a ration pro- gram was put into place for gasoline in the United States. While the embargo might have been deemed ineffective in persuad - ing the involved countries to change their stance on Israel, it was effective in show - ing the political power of Oil, and spe- cifically how the middle east could wield that power. Coming back to Oklahoma, in 1971, Devon Energy was founded by

Keeping with the prior established theme, this article will continue marching through the last 100 years of Oklahoma Oil and Gas history, with this article's focus on 1960-1979. The 60’s-70’s saw large strides in deep drilling in the Anadarko for gas, a subsequent increase in gas pro- duction, and several political events that influenced the oil industry. In 1970, the price of oil was $23 per barrel, which ad- justed for inflation would be $162 in 2021. The price of natural gas was 17 cents per mcf, which adjusted for inflation would be Mike Kumbalek Notable Oklahoma Oil & Gas History from 1960-1979

G regg S. A lletag C ertified P etroleum G eologist L icensed P rofessional G eoscientist B arite R ose E nergy , I nc

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father and son John Nichols and J. Larry Nichols. Nearing the end of these two de- cades, the Natural Gas Policy Act took ef- fect, which deregulated natural gas prices and allowed them to increase with de- mand (Boyd, 2006). This helped to further incentivize Oklahoma drillers to search the deep Anadarko for gas. This was espe- cially the case when Robert A. Hefner III began an extensive drilling program in the area around Elk City (Franks). The papers in this issue go together well, the first, “An Intact Thirty Four foot Long Petrified Log in the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geo- logical Heritage” by Andrew Cullen, Da- vid Hull and Molly Turko discusses pos- sibly the largest found silicified log found in the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. This highlights the excitement of geologic field work and trying to unravel how we could get such a large single piece out so far in a deep depositional environment. The second article is a vintage article from the May 1963 issue of the Shale Shaker, titled “A Geological History of Oklahoma’s Vegetation” by L.R. Wilson. I thought this would pair well with the modern article as it discusses in depth all the vegetation found in the Oklahoma fossil record, in- cluding the Callixylon log discussed in Cullen et al. I hope you all enjoy them! Mike Kumbalek

Figure 1 - Shale Shaker Vol 19, No 8 Cover featuring at the time the deepest producing well in Oklahoma and the second deepest well in the world.

References Boyd, D., 2006, Milestones in the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Industry (1859-2006), accessed April 10, 2021, http://ogs.ou.edu/docs/ information/OGS-milestones_oklahoma_oil_gas_industry.pdf Franks, K., Petroleum Industry, Oklahoma Historical Society, accessed September 3rd, 2021), https://www.okhistory.org/publications/ enc/entry.php?entryname=PETROLEUM%20INDUSTRY Wikipedia.com, 2021, accessed September 23, 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kola_Superdeep_ Borehole&oldid=1044426960

July ~ August 2021 | Page 107

OCGS Membership

SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP _____________________________________________________________________________ As of 9/23/2021 OCGS 320 Active 60 Associate 12 Emeritus 9 Honorary 3 Students ______ 404 TOTAL

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Page 108 | Volume 72 Number 4

Upcoming Events

October 1 st – Field Trip - Structural Geology of The Wichita Uplift; 8:00 am-5:00 pm @ Wichita Mountains October 3 rd -5 th – AAPG MCS Convention @ Hyatt Regency, Downtown Tulsa, OK October 15 th – Fall Clay Shoot; 9:00 am- 1:00 pm @ Quail Ridge

October 20 th – Technical Luncheon: Using Mechanical Experimentation to Explore Reservoir Response, and Bringing the Oklahoma Geological Survey into a Blue- green Economy; 12:00 noon-1:00 pm @ OCGS

PLEASE CHECK THE WEBSITE FOR UPDATED INFORMATION ON SPEAKERS FOR THE LUNCHEONS AND WHEN REGISTRATION OPENS FOR EACH EVENT. WWW.OCGS.ORG

July ~ August 2021 | Page 109

Announcements Upcoming Events - FieldTrip

CELEBRATING 100 YEARS OF THE OKLAHOMA CITY GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY MOLLY TURKO, PhD STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY EXPERT FIELD TRIP "STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF THE WICHITA UPLIFT" October 1, 2021 8:00am to 5:00pm REGISTRATION LINK: https://www.ocgs.org/events/m.calendar/51/view/398 Dr. Molly Turko has over 13 years of experience in the oil and gas industry and is a subject matter expert in structural geology. She hashad the opportunity to work in multiple basins in the U.S including the Anadarko, Ardmore, Delaware, Powder River, Appalachian, Onshore Gulf Coast, and Rocky Mountain Basins. She received both a B.Sc. (2009) and a M.Sc. (2011) in geology from the University of Tulsa followed by a Ph.D. (2019) from the University of Oklahoma where she studied under Dr. Shankar Mitra. Her work experience includes Chesapeake Energy, Devon, and several small operators in Tulsa. She has taught courses for R.M.A.G., AAPG, Applied Stratigraphix , and for the Ore Geology Conference. She is also the Vice President of AAPG’s Petroleum Structure and Geomechanics Division for 2021 2023. Molly’s passion is mentoring and teaching, but her favorite role is leading structural geology field courses in Nevada and Southern Oklahoma. She is currently a team member of Applied Stratigraphix as their Structural Geology Expert along with consulting for Turko Tectonics and Structural Geology. The Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma are marked by a complex tectonic history filled with debate on the structural styles, evolution, and origin. During the Precambrian-Cambrian breakup of Rodinia, a failed rift tore through southern Oklahoma emplacing a Large Igneous Province. The rift then began to cool and subside as it became filled with sedimentary rocks dominated by thick carbonates. The region was relatively quiet until about the Late Mississippian through Pennsylvanian when the Pennsylvanian Orogeny uplifted the failed rift exposing the Wichita Mountains as seen today. Debates have pursued on the method of uplift, which include arguments for strike-slip, thrusting, and transpression. While much of the original rift geometry was masked by later deformation, it is also important to consider the impact of pre-existing structures on later Pennsylvanian deformation,

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which has largely been ignored when addressing these various structural styles observed in southern Oklahoma. On this field tripwewill discuss the complex tectonic history alongside the controversial structural styles of the region including the style of rifting, the driving mechanisms for uplift, and the various structures that developed. Participants will be able to recognize brittle shear zones in granite and interpret the slip direction (normal, reverse, or strike-slip faulting). We will also look at several structures that can help us differentiate between structures that originated during the rifting phase verse the Pennsylvanian Orogeny and what that can tell us about paleo-stress conditions. Discussions will include the expected structural styles based on stress/paleo-stress orientations and the impact of pre-existing structures on later deformation. The trip will include two moderate hikes along with a guidebook which includes a few additional hikes/stops to great structures in the Wichita Mountains.

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Upcoming Events - AAPG MCS Convention Announcements

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Upcoming Events-Clay Shoot Announcements

SPONSORSHIP LEVELS BELOW FRIDAY October 15, 2021 9:00 am - 1:00 pm QUAIL RIDGE SPORTING CLAYS 2401 S MCLOUD RD (HWY 102 NORTH) MCLOUD OK Link to register: https://www.ocgs.org/events/ COST: $100 PER PERSON/$400 PER 4 MAN TEAM NOTE: TEAM MEMBERS DO NOT HAVE TO BE OCGS MEMBERS DEADLINES: LAST DAY TO REGISTER –OCTOBER 12, 2021 LAST DAY TO BE A GUARANTEED SIGN SPONSOR-OCTOBER 11, 2021 LINK TO REGISTER: https://www.ocgs.org/events/m.calendar/51/view/393 2021 SPONSORSHIP LEVELS GOLD SPONSOR $1,500 4 FREE ENTRIES TO SHOOT GOLF CART RENTAL RAFFLE PRIZE RECOGNITION SPONSOR SIGN RECOGNITION AT 3 SHOOTING STATIONS SPONSOR BOARD RECOGNITION AT CHECK IN SHALE SHAKER RECOGNITION TEAM SOUVENIR CUPS

SILVER SPONSOR $1,000 4 FREE ENTRIES TO SHOOT GOLF CART RENTAL SPONSOR SIGN RECOGNITION AT 2 SHOOTING STATIONS SPONSOR BOARD RECOGNITION AT CHECK IN SHALE SHAKER RECOGNITION BRONZE SPONSOR $750 4 FREE ENTRIES TO SHOOT GOLF CART RENTAL SPONSOR SIGN RECOGNITION AT A SHOOTING STATION SPONSOR BOARD RECOGNITION AT CHECK IN SHALE SHAKER RECOGNITION

July ~ August 2021 | Page 113

Upcoming Events - Technical Meeting Announcements

TECHNICAL MEETING Dr. Nick W. Hayman

Director and State Geologist Oklahoma Geological Survey

“Using mechanical experimentation to explore reservoir response, and bringing the Oklahoma Geological Survey into a blue-green economy” OCTOBER 20, 2021 12:00 NOON TO 1:00 PM LINK TO REGISTER https://app.livestorm.co/oklahoma-city-geological-society-1/october-2021-technical-luncheon-dr-nick-w-hayman?type=detailed Abstract – Oklahoma is one of the great energy states of the lower 48, and therefore has enormous subsurface pore space that can be used in the future storage of a wide variety of fuel types and waste products, including carbon dioxide. How- ever, the way this will be implemented in Oklahoma is likely to require novel uses of previously exploited reservoirs for both fossil fuels and induced water. One lesson learned from the unconventional production boom, as well as academic in- vestigations of crustal deformation, was that rocks have a wide variety of mechanical responses at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Two areas that my research has touched on include microfracture propagation into organic materials in shale, and more generally how granular and plastic (fracture) deformation propagates at different scales. Some of these advances have been applied in near-wellbore environments in carbon-capture experimental sites. Future work will consider how the lessons learned from these geological and experimental studies can be employed in both investigative and engineering research into subsurface use-and-storage targets. Bio – Dr. Nicholas W. Hayman became the Director of OGS in July 2020. He has a background in science management cour - tesy of his time at the National Science Foundation as a Program Director for the Marine Geology and Geophysics Program of the Ocean Sciences Division (2018-2020). During that time, and since 2007, Dr. Hayman was a Research Associate (and then Research Scientist) at the University of Texas, Austin, Institute for Geophysics 2007-2020. There he participated and led many research projects, and supervised numerous students and postdocs, with support from the National Science Foun - dation, US Department of Energy, and energy industry sponsors. Prior to UT, Dr. Hayman was a Postdoctoral Research Scientist at Duke University, Earth and Ocean Sciences 2003-2007. His primary research focus has been the many ways that

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deformation impacts the crust and upper mantle of the earth, from scales as small as nano-pores, to as large as active plate boundaries. His focus with the OGS is currently to harness the abundant subsurface data in Oklahoma, as well as the eager drive of the people of Oklahoma, to work towards major innovations in society’s access to energy in a resilient and sustainable natural environment. Ph.D., 2003, University of Washington B.Sc./M.Sc., 1997, SUNY Albany Nicholas W. Hayman, Director & State Geologist Oklahoma Geological Survey Sarkeys Energy Center 100 E. Boyd St., Suite N131 Norman, OK 73019 Tel: 405-325-7968

July ~ August 2021 | Page 115

30th OCGS Annual Shrimp Boil WhatYou Missed 30th OCGS Annual Shrimp Boil

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An IntactThirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in theWoodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geological Heritage By: AndrewCullen, Independent Geoscientist, Norman, OK; David Hull, Devon Energy, Oklahoma City, OK; MollyTurko,TurkoTectonics & Structural Geology, Edmond, OK Oil and Gas Exploration An Intact Thirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma: A Question of Preserving Geological Heritage Abstract This short note documents our recent find of an intact, large (at least 34ft/10m long and 3.5ft/1.5m wide) silicified Callixylon log in the Woodford Shale in an inactive quarry on the Lawrence Uplift in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma. In terms of length this trunk likely sets a global record for Devonian age petrified wood. Petrification has preserved exquisite features such as internal vascular tissue, bark, and differential compaction around the rafted log after it sank into a euxenic water bottom. We believe this fossil represents an important piece of Oklahoma’s geological heritage and ask the question “If and how it should be preserved?”

Introduction The Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Woodford Shale crops out on the flanks of the Arbuckle anticline, on a horst block known as the Lawrence Uplift, and in the Criner Hills south of Ardmore (Figures 1a, 1b). Because it is a world-class petroleum source rock, an excellent unconventional reservoir, and serves as the top seal for structural traps; the Woodford Shale has

long attracted the attention of oil and gas operators, as well as the academic com- munity (Johnson and Cardott, 1992 and papers therein; Slatt et. al, 2018). The Woodford Shale’s high-gamma signature enables easy identification on wireline logs which facilitates using it as a regional mapping horizon that show the Woodford Shale was deposited on a major unconfor- mity, thus providing critical evidence for establishing a timeline regional tectonic

events. The Devonian Period is a critical time in the evolution of Earth’s biosphere marked by the initial colonization by a di- verse assemblage of vascular plants, such as lycophytes and ferns that formed the planet’s first forests (see review by Paw - lik, et al., 2020). The development of thick soils and increased chemical weathering provided more nutrients into rivers likely triggering eutrophication and subsequent anoxia on the shelf (Algeo and Scheckler,

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Figure 1 - a) Location map with general structural features along Lawrence Uplift (LU) b) Regional geological map showing overall outcrop patterns of Woodford Shale.

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An IntactThirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in theWoodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geological Heritage, cont. Oil and Gas Exploration

1998). The Woodford shale also preserves the record of Late Devonian and Devoni- an-Carboniferous mass extinction events that are regarded as one of the five largest Phanerozoic mass extinction events (Raup and Sepkowski, 1982). For these reasons, the Woodford Shale can arguably be con- sidered as the most important stratigraphic unit in Oklahoma. Local Geology The Lawrence Uplift is a modest sized horst block about 30 miles northeast of the Arbuckle Mountains (Figure 1b). The Ahloso and Stonewall faults are the re- spective northern and southern boundaries (Figure 1a). The Lawrence Uplift is a rela- tively flat lying block. The surface geol - ogy is dominated by the Woodford Shale rimmed by the underlying Hunton Group

carbonates. The low dips result in poorer exposures of less complete stratigraphic section than in the more studied roadcut outcrops of the Arbuckle anticline. The early work of Huddle and Hass (1965) relied on outcrop along creeks. However, currently the best exposures are the nu- merous shale pits and quarries that pro- vide road fill material (Figure 2). Huddle and Haas (1965) studied the Woodford Shale at 5 locations on the Lawrence Uplift (Figure 2). Each section is incomplete and relatively thin (C-1ft, D-1.6ft, E-22ft, F -no thickness given, G- 21.6ft). Augmenting the work of Huddle and Hass (1965) with some additional sec- tions Over (1990) constructed a composite stratigraphic column on the Lawrence Up- lift and established regional correlations based on conodont biostratigraphy and

lithology (Figure 3). Our cursory obser- vation at five quarries and previous de - scriptions (Over, 1990, 1992; Huddle and Hass, 1965) suggest that there is less bed- ded chert and a higher proportion of silty beds (Figure 4) in the uplift compared to exposures further south. At most of the shale pits operators merely scrapped off the Woodford from the top down resulting in good exposures of bed tops and fracture patterns (Figure 5) but limited vertical in- formation (Figure 6). The most complete section of Woodford on the Lawrence Uplift is a 120ft long behind-the-face core taken at the Wyche Quarry which has recently reopened to provide riprap for the expansion on State Highway 3 (Figure 7). Bulk geochemi- cal and biomarker data from the Wyche Quarry core show that on the Lawrence Figure 2 - Lawrence Uplift locations of Hass and Huddle sections (red circles) and Woodford shale pits and quarries (green circles).

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Figure 3 - Regional correlation of conodont based Late Devonian extinctions at the Frasnian-Famennian and Devonian-Carboniferous boundaries (Over, 1990, 1992).

Figure 4 - Outcrop photo the thin siltstone beds- see inset photo.

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An IntactThirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in theWoodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geological Heritage, cont. Oil and Gas Exploration

Figure 5 - Outcrop photo of Woodford Shale bed tops with well-developed fracture sets. The E-W set is more regionally pervasive than the NE set.

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Page 122 | Volume 72 Number 4

Figure 6 - Small quarry face showing poor exposure of Woodford, light tan beds are rich in silt

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An IntactThirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in theWoodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geological Heritage, cont. Oil and Gas Exploration

uplift the organic matter in the Woodford Shale is composed of immature, type II marine kerogen (Figure 8). Furthermore, these data show that photic zone euxinia increased upward from the lower Wood- ford into the middle Woodford and that a deep, persistent chemocline likely typified the upper Woodford deposition (Connock et al., 2018). Petrified Log Discovery During our reconnaissance work for an up- coming field trip, we came across a most remarkable find, a 34ft (10m) long log of petrified wood that is more than 3ft (1m) wide (Figure 9). The full length could not

be determined because the east end of the log is buried. Petrification has exquisitely preserved some of the primary fabric of the log including bark (which appears to be coalified) (Figures 10a, 10b), vascular tissue (Figure 10c), and differential com - paction in the encasing siliceous mudrock (Figure 10d). We believe that this log was rafted offshore and sank into the euxenic water bottom to be preserved. Most pre-Pennsylvanian petrified wood in Oklahoma has come from the Wood- ford Shale and is the Progymnosperm Archaeopteris, genus Callixylon (Sune- son, 2010). Until properly identified by a paleobotanist, we consider the quarry

log as petrified Callixylon. Callixylon is one of the oldest “true” petrified woods and probably formed Earth’s first forests of vascular plants. Petrified wood in the Woodford occurs throughout the areal extent of the Woodford but is not a fre- quent occurrence. It is interesting that the pyrolysis data from the Wyche Quarry (modified vanKrevelen diagram, Figure 8) yields a classic algal source rock from the Woodford Shale with little indication of having Type-3 terrestrial kerogen from humic, woody debris. Biomarker data (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) around the Frasnian-Famennian boundary from the Woodford Shale and other Devonian sec- tions globally show an influx of pyrogenic

Figure 7 - North wall of the active Wyche Quarry. The vertical fractures are part of the regional EW fracture set.

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Figure 8 - Lithology, RockEval, and TOC data from the Wyche Quarry core (Turner et al., 2015; Connock et al, 2018).

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Oil and Gas Exploration An IntactThirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in theWoodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geological Heritage, cont.

Figure 9 - a) Outcrop photo showing length of Woodford log. b) Outcrop photo showing width of Woodford log.

material from wildfires (Philp and Degar - mo, 2020). We favor interpreting these ob- servations as the recording the consump- tion of finer extra-basinal organic matter by massive marine algal blooms that sim- ply diluted the humic signal upon death and preservation. Discussion: Preservation of Geological Heritage Despite decades of outcrop work on the Woodford Shale, it still yields surprising

features, but one must go to the field with observant eyes. The display of the base of a partly reconstructed Callixylon stump (6ft high / 5ft wide) on the East Central Campus is reputedly the largest Callixy- lon stump in the world (Suneson, 2010). Although our quarry log has a girth of “only” 4.5 feet, we believe its length of at least 34 feet may represent a global re- cord. Although the quarry where this log is currently exposed is inactive, Google Earth images indicate activity as recently as 2018. The entry road to the quarry is

washed out at present but could be quickly repaired should activity resume. Such a resumption would likely lead to the de- struction of what should be regarded as part of Oklahoma’s geological heritage. Currently we are reaching out to the Sam Noble Museum and the Oklahoma Geo- logical Survey to see if this treasure could be excavated and preserved for the greater public. Therefore, we have omitted the quarry location to reduce the progressive small-scale destruction by individual col- lectors.

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Figure 10 - a) and b) Photos showing possible coaly bark c) Photo showing preserved vascular network d) Photo showing differential compaction around and over Woodford log. (CB = Coalified bark, VT = Vascular tissue, DC = Differential Compaction) .

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An IntactThirty Four Foot Long Petrified Log in theWoodford Shale, Oklahoma: AQuestion of Preserving Geological Heritage, cont. Oil and Gas Exploration

References Algeo, T.J. and Scheckler, S.E., 1998, Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 353 (1365): 113–130. Connock, G., Nguyen, T.X., Philp, R.P., 2018, The development and extent of photic-zone euxinia concomitant with Woodford Shale deposition, AAPG Bulletin 102-6, p. 959–986 Hass, W.H., and J.W. Huddle, 1965, Late Devonian and early Mississippian age of the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma as determined from conodonts, in Geological Survey Research 1965: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 525-D, p. 125-132. Johnson, K.S., and Cardott, B.J., 1992, Source rocks in the southern Midcontinent, 1990 Symposium, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Circular 93, 354 p.

Over, D. J., 1990, Conodont

Philp, R.P. and DeGarmo, C.D., 2020, Geochemical characterization of the Devonian-Mississippian Woodford Shale from the McAlister Cemetery Quarry, Criner Hills Uplift, Ardmore Basin, Oklahoma, Marine and Petroleum Geology 112, p.1-21. Raup, D.M., Sepkoski Jr., J.J., 1982. Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. Science 215, 1501–1503. Slatt, R., and Woodford Consortium students, 2018, Conventional analysis of unconventional resource shales, Oklahoma City Geological Society Shale Shaker, 69-6, p. 269- 329. Suneson, N.H., 2010, Petrified wood in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City Geological Society Shale Shaker, 60-6, p.1-21. Turner, B., C. Molinares-Blanco, and R. Slatt, 2015, Chemostratigraphic, palynostratigraphic, and sequence stratigraphic analysis of theWoodford Shale,Wyche Farm Quarry, Pontotoc County, Oklahoma: Interpretation, v. 3, no. 1, p. SH1–SH9

biostratigraphy of the Woodford Shale (Late Devonian- Early Carboniferous) in the Arbuckle Upper Mountains, South-Central Oklahoma, Texas Tech University PhD Dissertation, 186 p. Over, D. J., 1992, Conodonts and the Devonian-Carboniferous Boundary in the Upper Woodford Shale, Arbuckle Mountains, South-Central Oklahoma, Journal of paleontology, Vol. 66, No. 2, p. 293-311. Pawlik, L., Bum, B., Samonil, S., Kvacek J., and others, 2020, Impact of trees and forests on the Devonian landscape and weathering processes with implications to the global Earth's system properties – A critical review, Earth Science Reviews, 205, p. 1-17.

Biographical Sketch Andrew Cullen recently retired from Warwick Investments Group where was SVP Geology for 6 years. His industry lineage runs through Shell International, Chesapeake, EOG, Altex Oil, and Clear Creek Silver Company. Andrew holds the trifecta of degrees in geology from the Universities of Oklahoma and Oregon. Dr. Cullen is an adjunct professor at the University of Oklahoma (College of Law) teaching in their Natural Resources Master’s program. Andrew chaired the Alumni Advisory Council for OU’s School of Geology & Geophysics (2017-2019), served on the OCGS Board, and has contributed several technical articles to The Shale Shaker. Andrew is reviewer for AAPG’s Grants-In-Aid program (15yr) and is also a reviewer for the Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Tectonics, and Earth Science Reviews. In retirement Andrew maintains several active research projects: evidence for volcanic triggering of Late Devonian mass extinctions from the Woodford Shale, basement faulting and seismic risk in the Wichita Mountains, and the tectonic evolution of the greater South China Sea region. Andrew is a member of a Norman musical trio, Wood and Strings, who are the Rock House Bar band - outdoors on Thursday nights. Andrew Cullen

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Biographical Sketch David Hull specializes in rock-based characterization of reservoirs and depositional systems. He earned an MA in Economics and International Relations from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, did undergraduate geology at Texas A&M, and an MS in Geology from The University of Texas. David started his professional career at Chesapeake Energy and has been at Devon Energy since 2013. David is an avid sailor and recently became a father.

David Hull

Biographical Sketch Dr. Molly Turko has over 13 years of experience in the oil and gas industry and is a subject matter expert in structural geology. She has had the opportunity to work in multiple basins in the U.S including the Anadarko, Ardmore, Delaware, Powder River, Appalachian, Onshore Gulf Coast, and Rocky Mountain Basins. She received both a B.Sc. (2009) and a M.Sc. (2011) in geology from the University of Tulsa followed by a Ph.D. (2019) from the University of Oklahoma where she studied under Dr. Shankar Mitra. Her work experience includes Chesapeake Energy, Devon, and several small operators in Tulsa. She has taught courses for R.M.A.G., AAPG, Applied Stratigraphix, and for the Ore Geology Conference. She is also the Vice President of AAPG’s Petroleum Structure and Geomechanics Division for 2021-2023. Molly’s passion is mentoring and teaching, but her favorite role is leading structural geology field courses in Nevada and Southern Oklahoma. She is currently a team member of Applied Stratigraphix as their Structural Geology Expert along with consulting for Turko Tectonics and Structural Geology. Dr. Molly Turko

Shale Shaker Vol 29 No 7 cover art done by Jim Lange, Editorial Cartoonist for the Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman. Jim was a scheduled speaker for the OCGS that month as well.

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Announcement Call for Papers!

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AGeological History of Oklahoma's Vegetation By: L.R.Wilson, University of Oklahoma Past OCGS Shale Shaker, Volume 13, Number 9 May, 1963

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AGeological History of Oklahoma's Vegetation, cont. Past OCGS Shale Shaker, Volume 13, Number 9 May, 1963

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AGeological History of Oklahoma's Vegetation, cont. Past OCGS Shale Shaker, Volume 13, Number 9 May, 1963

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AGeological History of Oklahoma's Vegetation, cont. Past OCGS Shale Shaker, Volume 13, Number 9 May, 1963

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By: Mike Kumbalek The State of the Industry

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Andrew Cullen. ................................................... 122 Arvine Pipe and Supply....................................... 118 Arvine Pipe and Supply....................................... 123 Barite Rose Energy, Inc....................................... 106 Columbine Corporation....................................... 106 Datalog / Geovision............................................. 104 Devon. ................................................................. 103 GeoMark.............................................................. 109 Greystone Environmental Services Inc............... 122 Impac................................................................... IFC LMK Resources Inc............................................. 123

Maximux Exploration LLC................................. 106 Mid-Continent Geological Library...................... 108 Mid-Continent Geological Library...................... 125 Mid Continent Well Logging Service, Inc........... 105 Spirit Exploration Co. L.L.C............................... 118 Silverthorne Seismic LLC................................... 105 TGS. .................................................................... 131 Toledo Mudlogging............................................. 131 Turko Tectonics & Structural Geology................ 118 Visual Concepts and Design, Inc. ....................... 118 Wilson, Travis (Bluestem Resources, LLC)........ 123

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Shale Shaker Cover Vol 19 No 6 –“Without a doubt the most outstanding picture of our lifetime: -planet Earth as seen from the moon. Taken on Apollo VIII Mission”. A few months after publishing this we would land on the moon.

Shale Shaker Vol 20 No 5 cover illustrating the work the Oklahoma legislators were working on to mitigate concerns on the global oil markets.

3409 S . B ROADWAY, S UITE 804 E DMOND, OK 73013

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