VOLUMC ONE NUMBER ONE
SPECIAL: March On A1bany
No College _Is What?
CONTENTS Interchange Mind's Eye: Field Notes : Jan Nuzzo George Howell, Jr.
STRAIT vol. I no. I 29 Sept . - 12 Oct. ANDREW ELSTON Editor SUSAN PIOTROWSKI Co-ordinating Editor SCOTT ISAKSEN Business Manager BEVERLEY CONRAD News Editor LARRY FRITZ Feature Editor CAROL EDMONDSON Arts Editor
March on Albany The Peoples ' Health Center Buffalo State Hospital : Photo Essay: Nancy Dick Interview with Dr . Donald Schwartz United Farm Workers Children of Nature: Buffalo Five "No , Virginia. . " Essay on Criticism: The Real World Circum locum In This Issue Our first mag, and we think its a good one J.E. Ford
15 16 18 19 20 24 25 30
NANCY DICK Graphics Editor SANDRA SAMBORSKI Advertising/Design Co-ordinator HEDDA GORDON Copy & Proofs
STAFF : Jim Pastrick, Steven Baskin, Barry Cohe n, Eric Chaffee, Wendy Hughes , Kate MacD onald , Steven Wafdman, Frank Castillo, Tom Fontana , Michael Sajecki,..Charles Fontana , John Ryan , Dick lVlanning_, JoAnn Pizzo, Anne Schillenger , Nancy Doherty , Marilyn Berkowitz , Hele ne Heit , Christopher Sajecki, Karen Loeffler, Gloria Simon. Photo credits : Nancy Dick - pp. : 16, 17, 22 ; Barry Cohen - pp. : Cover, 6, 18, 22 , 23 ; Eric Chaffee - pp. : 9, 12, 13 ; Frank Castillo - p.: 24 STRAIT magazine is publish ed twice- m o n thly by the students of the New York Slate Universit y College at B u ffalo , 1300 Elm w ood Avenue, Buffalo , New Y or, 14 222. Office in th e S U CB S t u d e n t Un i o n , room 401 ; t e l eph o n e ( 7 1 6) &62- 5326 , &62-5327. Publishin g a nd op erating f u nds alloca ted through th e Publicatio ns B oard at SUCB under the auspices o f the U n ited Stu dents' Government, SUCB and ad ve r tising income. STRAIT is distr i buted f ree to all m em bers of the SUCB community and to students at other se l ec t ed campuses on th e N iagara Frontier. Price p er cop y f or all o th ers: 35 cents ; $ 4.5 0 p e r year (14 issu es). For advertising rates co ntac t Business M anager at &62 -5 3 26 . C irculatio n : 6 ,00 0. Unsol ic ited manuscripts will be considered f or pu blication by the respective edito rs, but STRAIT will not be respon sible for their re tu rn . Persons not as so c iat e d with S UCB will no t be discriminated against in terms o f pu blishing manuscripts or ph o tography. L etters to the editor should be d esignated as such and must be received at least f ive f u ll days p rior to the release of each magazine. L e tters and sh ort articles for the Forum must be ·rece ived six full da ys prior to the release o f each magazine. Edi torial policy d eterm ined by th e Editorial Board. STRAIT is tempo rar ily serviced by Earth News (EN), Dispatch New s Service International (DNSI), Alternate Fea- tures Service (AFS) and subsc r i bes to College Preu Service (CPS), Copyright 1971 ; all r ights . reaerved : no portion of th/1 magazine, Its pic- toral or verbal content, ma;y be reproduced in any manner without the express consent of the editor-in-chief. Printed In the United States of America by RecordPress.
as far as first issues go. We have brought together a few topics of concern between
these pages . One , a campus concern over the seman- tical and ideological approach to a centennial celebration - which we have chosen to represent on our cover. We think that Robert Squeri's graphic design for the centennial more or less speaks for itself (certainly not for thP Island Theory), but we thought that we'd give it a bit of a nudge with the help of our graphics staff . Larry Fritz, Feature Editor, speaks for the staff in his attempt to unscramble just how a college - most speci- fically this college - does relate to the mainland; Dick Manning, STRAIT cartoonist adds his voice with a comic/semi-historical inter- pretation of the subject. Swimming away from the island, Beverley Conrad, News Editor and Eric Chaffee, photographer covered the March On Albany last Thursday, and_- despite the theft of one roll of Eric's Albany pictures - the story appears here with some fine photos. To help us get our 'forum going, we invited 31 faculty from SUCB to participate in an open, uncensored symposium on the Attica Prison uprising and its subsequent suppression . Getting on to other parts of the mag, we have a fine article on literary criticism by Assis-
tant Professor of English, JE Ford. We hope you can get into this issue and fami- · liarize yourself with our outlay, our coverage and our attitudes.
Priorities The r e cen t Attica Prison incidents should forcibly awaken people in America to a situation which has been i n existence in society for innumerable years. Probably since the first man was condemned to confinement for violation of a man- made law. Undoubtedly , most Americans have been convinced by the prisoners and by those who have seen and lived these conditions that reform is needed . And, hopefully , our legislators - at least the more worthy ones - will fight to see them instituted. But we must not stop at this . Mere prison reform adaptation of conjugal visiting priviledges, better food, better wages, cleaner facilities - if, in fact initiated , will not be enough . Such post facto reform will serve only to placate those who have somehow been adjudicated as unfit for the general welfare of the society. In hurriedly enacting reforms for those sentenced to terms in prison , we are doing little but treating a symptom of a mis-directed nation . We are neglecting the fact there the term "Political Prisoner " is not just a radical expression , but an expression that accurately applys to many prisoners in jail today. We are failing to come to terms with the fact that in prisons throughout America, nearly fifty per cent of the inmates are Blacks, Puerto Ricans , Mexican- Americans and other minority people . • , Since the non-white population of America is just over twenty per cent, it hardly seems reasonable that such an imbalance could occur in a free, democratic society where all people are one mass (who have already enacted their supposed yearning to break free) at the bottom of God's melting pot. Someone in this society is not doing his bit in the equality bargain that we all preach . It appears that we i bear this responsiblity for being lax in our itudes, from the average housewife and blue collar orker to the student and the professor and the cop
on the corner and the judge on the bench.Right up to the top of the chain to the governors and the presi- dent. What this society is also doing is directing its dollars , time, efforts and public relations promotions toward the wrong departments. We constantly hear of police departments and undercover squads being expanded, better trained , better paid - all to better enforce the laws. But upon whom are these laws better enforced? Blacks, Puerto Ricans , minorities who are almost totally undertrained, underpaid , undereducated. Our own college campus bears this out. The Criminal Justice Department, but three years old, is expanding rapidly . It is catching up with the SEEK program already. What kind of priority is that?!t is a little-known fact that the LEEP (Law Enforcement Education Program) on our campus was instituted though the request of the Buffalo City Police Depart- ment and the Erie County Sherrif's Department. Similar programs are operating all over Western New York and the nation . It is a well known fact that Buffalo has a large minority population. And that Buffalo State has a large minority population, through the efforts of SEEK. But just last week it was announced that students studying under the Criminal Justice Program will be acting as aides for Campus Security soon. One can easily see the opposing ends. If we set a priority - one that lives up to our professed national honor and belief - a priority of education and uplifting for the underpriviledged in our society - we would not have to witness such acts as Attica, and stutter in disbelief. We would not have to wait for revolting prisoners to tear down the walls of the prisons. The federal government could tear half of them down for lack of people to put behind them.
Now that the centennial year is upon us there has been a lot of talk about community interest and the university . Indeed the centennial theme "No College is an Island 11 presumes the interest of the community and university are the same. Martin Fried, Centennial Director has said "students, faculty, administration and community have a common interest in the shape and form that the College will take in years to come." As if iron fences and the omnipresent "no parking" signs would be enough to dissuade any well-meaning community member from knowing us, Dr. Fried suggests a community of interest through commonality of pursuit make us partners in university development. What one notices though upon close examination of such a scheme as that of "No College is an Island" is that there is a contradiction in terms . The university, by definition as a place of higher learning, is a place in separation from the world at large. Separation in the sense that its members have affirmed the need to seek intellectually and creatively those activities not normally available anywhere else. To remove these elements of distinction and announce that the university and community are one, is to misrepresent the goals of the institution at its roots. To say in this sense that "No College is an Island" is to create a myth as bubbly as that of celebration champagne. We are an island people in search of the extraordinary and no ill-conceived myth can alter it. Moreover by disclaiming the mythical, we can come to know what is real. The real, in this sense, that we as a people are irrevocably linked together if by nothing more than the nature of our humanity. To study conditioned responses of the white rat or new techniques in molecular biology is all of the same notion - a deep-rooted concern for humanity. In this way no iron fence is too strong nor any parking lot crowded enough to prevent us from reaching out. Now today some of us know this very well. Many of us still do not. Places like the. campus Help Center and Human Opportunities are instances where people are affirming their humanity. There are many others without any special names, but the names are not the important part - the people are. To be honest with ourselves in this Centennial Year is to know that 100 years is only one day of travel on a road to a place where "No Person is an Island." 4
We want to know what you are thinking. We want to know what experiences you have had which might lend to better understanding of a topic or story we have run. We also want you to tip us off on articles and ideas which you think we should cover. If you disagree with something that we do or say, you should make us hear about it . And we want others to read it. That's what this section, Interchange, will be all about . It won't be a letters to the editor column, although we will print those too (if we get any) in another part of the mag. If you are familiar with Playboy you know what we mean. Through this, we hope to increase our direct participation with our readers and maybe even help you and this college out . Think about it, keep us in mind and when you have something to say, write it down and direct it to the editor in Union 401 . Whatever it is, so long as we can read it, we'll print it . Names will beA witheld upon request. 9' What it really is for you: a free "vanity press ." Interchange Four our first Interchange, we invited thirty-one selected faculty members to respond to a series of questions and statements pertaining to the Attica Prison events. Unfortunately, our responses to the inquiry were somewhat fewer than we had expected. Some of the responsibility for this must be placed on ourselves, as we had just over a week to prepare and compile the Interchange. However, many faculty members were unwilling to respond, and, although we respect their silence, we feel that such silence speaks for itself. The following include all the responses we did receive before Tuesday 28 September at 3p~.
ethic of conviction may abhor. Some pro- fessors after joining an administration may find comfort in this though. A wise old bird once remarked that a decision for something or somebody automatically entails a decision against something or somebody. Having said that much for the Governor, a person with some experience in jurisprudence, peno- logy and mass-dynamics might add that he probably should have gone to Attica on the first day of the reported uprising. According to some correction offi- cers, conditions in the prison literally stank to heaven ; moreover, if it is possible that about one half of the prisoners can barricade themselves within a relatively short time, the removal of the responsible civil servant seemed indicated. Without special data one can make only a guess as to whether a gubernatorial presence, the firing of the responsible official and a promise of prompt reforms would have changed the prisoners mind; if not, the outcome may have been the same as three days later, though it could be expected that there would have been no victims. What seems certain, is, that decisions must be made promptly by the highest authority even if they should be proven to be wrong. At least, the spec- tacle of a great national outburst, chang- ing lists of demands and outside interfer- ence would have been avoided. It is painful to have seen the lust for the absolute on all sides again standing in the way of evolutionary progress.
livion, having discovered anew that mean- ingful change cannot come without the support of the larger political system. Whether Gov. Rockefeller could have avoided the tragedy by going to Attica or not is merely conjecture at this point. That that stone was left unturned is a fact that cannot be denied. To second guess this action now, however, is an exercise in futility with no perceivable redeemable feature. If those who gave their lives at Attica, both prisoner and guard , are not to have died in vain , we must not respond to the irrational voices that serve only to com- pound the tragedy. Instead, we must come together in a common bond to work for penal reform which makes pun- ishment as archaic as the inquisition and rehabilitation the banner flying over every prison. Edward L . Morgan Professor - Chairman Criminal Justice Department
Obviously , when 40 men are slaugh- tered , the situation was mishandled . venor Rockefeller , as ultimate decision ker in the situation, bears primary re s- po n si b lit y for the debacle. Human - itarianism requirer! that before ordering the use of force , he should have appeared at Attica to personally try to persuade the prisioners to call off the strike and to allay their fears of administrative retal- iation. If all possible avenues to end the strike failed, the force applied need not to have been a s brutal and a s indiscriminate as it was. The governor had the responsibility to see to it that the state troopers were properly instructed in the least harmful use of such force . Unfortunately , I fear that the major result of the Attica strike will be the further polarization of society. I am a- fraid that the punitive and penurious in - clinations of society and their legislative representatives will not allow for neces- sary and long overdue reforms in our prisons or in the society which produces the prison population. It is our shame that our primary con- cern with the lawbreaker is to punish him rather than to rehabilitate him and , as a result, prisons tend to harden and rein- force lawbreaking instead of preparing convicts to lead productive lives. Reforms ' ch as occupational training in skilled d desireable occupations, greater com- unication with the outside through mass media , letters and visits, conjugal visits, palatable food, elimination of purely punitive restrictions, and the hiring of compassionate and better edu- cated prison officers are essential to the conversion of a "prison" system to a "correctional" system. Irving S. Foladare Professor of Sociology The tragedy of Attica Prison has yet to be completed. Like Phoenix, anti- climax marches and demonstrations will rise from the ashes of our dead and soar screeching into further tragedy. Perhaps there may be some germ of validity to such activities by showing public dis- pleasure but one must question whether the concerned voices of penal reform can be heard over such a clamor. Attica in all it's tragic gore has called pointed attention to far deeper problems, not only in our prisons but within the Criminal Justice System as a whoie. Many rmers have, in the past, emerged to t like Don Quixote, the proverbial windmill only to sink once again into ob-
Max Weber in a frequently quoted but apparently rarely read speech [ Politik als Beruf, Gesammelte Politische Schriften , Muenchen , 1921, Translated by Gerth & Mills: From Max Weber, Ox- ford University Press, 1946, pp. 77-128.] distinguishes between an ethic of respon- sibility and an ethic of conviction. He points out that the decisive means of poli- tics is violence but also that an ethic of responsibility forces decisions wnich an
Joseph H. Bunzel, JUD Professor of Sociology, SUCB
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'---= ''I:N TlfE NAME OF KIMr E.K.FR.ETWEU.. 1: PR_OC.L.AI,., 'NO COLLEGE IS AM ISL.AMO'! 11
Rather than accepting new thoughts and visions with an openess which should have charact- erized the " re birth" of intellectual endeavor, perceptive and incisive thinkers of the time were denied the right to express themselves to the public and were generally penalized severely for daring to think. In an all too similar manner as we witness today , countless numbers of individuals were harras- sed, tortured, and often executed by frightened clergy nobles and scholars who somehow convinced themselves that their educations and inspirations justified their judgment and virtual eliminati9n. of. . those who dared to challenge tradition with .insight . It is doubtful that humanity could have sur; vived . such intellectual and emotional suffocation · had it not been for those people who could view themselves as timeless and universal. For, the perse- cutors acted as if time as they knew it was stagnant and true for all time . For the progress which remains, we are indebted to those who were able to consider themselves and their actions as one small part of a huge and all-encompassing world . If we are to be at all practical, we must exa- mine and admit that in this respect , the human race has been sadly regressive. For all the technological skills we have acquired, we are , oddly enough, stran- gers to our own humanity. We are not able to scru- tinize the present, draw from the past , or speculate with love into the future . Indeed, our material wealth has promised us success and has convinced us that our minds have progressed in equal fashion . There is no doubt that our inner eyes must catch up with the world we have built around us in order to strike the balance which will strengthen and mature us. It is a task, however, which must first be internalized before it can be applied . If we are not concerned enough to make some attempt at objective introspection , then we may consider our future as a dismal failure, certain to degenerate into superfluous action rather than enlightened inter- action . This type of thinking is, of course, applicable in many situations, not the least of which most of use in the college community must fact on a day to day basis . It is ironic that we can conceive of free- dom of thought on a large scale, but we do not even detect the absence of this freedom even when -we are oppressed by it . Perhaps the most alarming instances of narrow- mindedness and intellectual neglect characterize present day academia . If we are disconcerted with the behavior of our Renaissance ancestors and their violent reactions to free thought , we should be out- raged at our current academic situation. Very often that which we think to be a state of reality is a 'poor representation of the true conditions which exist . So it is with academic life, that what appears (continued on page 23)
MODERN EDUCATION: THE STRUGGLE AGAINST MEDIOCRITY
The problems that have become forcefully inte- grated in everyday college life must finally be recog- nized as recurrences of the age old afflications of immaturity and insecurity . The problems of the universal community of man seem to have deve- loped as a result of the discrepancy between mat- erial advancement and mental progress. This discor- dant situation has occurred, in generally reduced terms, as a result of the fact that even after thou- sands of years of relative civilization in one form or another, man has been sorely remissive in attempt- ing to arrive at harmony between mind and matter. The problems we find in the present day college community become more striking when considered in the context of the actual mental · development of man in the past several hundred years. Even since the period known as the Renais- sance, when man is commonly considered to have made awesome discoveries and progress, the evolu- tion has been slow. To view our present dilemma historically, it is important to note the activity which occurred during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. During this (time) period, there evolved a phenomenon we now identify as (a time of) rebirth and revitaliza- tion. It was during this renaissance that many departures from traditionally rigid schools of thought were revealed on a larger and comparatively radical scale than had previously been popularized. As opposed to earlier times, sacred beliefs and ideo- logies were now questioned, examined, and in some cases, disregarded . Had not the European clergy been in a position of tremendous power, many pro- gressive thinkers of the time would have met with little or no opposition in expressing different shades of rigid ideologies, however, as history has shown us , this was not the case .
thought the Peace symbol was "the footprint of an American chicken" but now I am proud to use it as a way of showing you where I am. I can no longer accept that super-defensive attitude that makes us mass produce nuclear/chemical/biological weapons that can not be controlled once they are used, all because we know the Russians and the Chinese are out to get our innocent asses. Why should Chinese schoolchildren have to pay for the grievances between their father's and ours? Why should any 18 year old American boy have to shoot a 16 year old Viet Cong? Would you shoot your kid brother over a political argument? It seems to me that every young man who is of draft age ought to ask himself these kinds of questions before he decides whether to answer his induction notice . These questions concern all of the people in this country, but especially the young men because an army cannot run without man power and too many men are letting Uncle Curtis and public opinion make their moral decisions for them. Part of my time in this column will be spent in reminding us that we are human beings with responsibilities, that we can no longer afford to just play our roles as we fall into them . Next on the symbol, you see positive and nega- tive signs in balance. This image comes from a friend who was trying to explain why he got thrown off the U.B. campus for trespassing in terms of the Electro-magnetic Field theory (established by J .C. Maxwell, from which all Field approaches began.) We were all pretty drunk and the explan- ation never really got across but the essential prin- ciple that you need two poles to have a current, or a relationship, stayed with me. For those of you who read Alan Watt's The Book, you know that there is a little Yin in every Yang, that every man has part of every women within him, that the world operates in the balance of opposites and not solely on men without women and campuses without police . My concern here will be to explore our relationships as members of a very complex society and show just how critical those relationships are. Finally, you see the dotted horizontal line run- ning through the symbol. That represents point of view and perspective, or more specifically, the big "I" that you have been seeing in abundance all (continued on page 23)
This little letter is to inform you that I am on as unfamiliar ground as your are : this is my first column and your first reading . Here we are , on opposite sides. of a magazine page, wondering just how we got into this situation, wondering what will become of it. For myself, I hope you will enjoy this magazine and, maybe, find some useful information in this column . Just what you want and what you think of this whole scene would be interesting to hear. You are probably wondering what all that junk is you see tacked onto the Peace symbol at the head of this letter . Possibly, you aren't wondering what it is for; that is your perogative . However, for those of you who are interested , I call the whole thing a presentational device . You see, that elaboration on the Peace symbol is what this column is about. I will be trying to painlessly lay a heavy Field Theory rap on you for e next six months or so and this little device ows you how I am going to do it . Most people have never even heard of Field theory before, though a man like Marshall McLuhan will tell you that you see it through your T .V . set everyday . I will be trying to show you that you are in a field of experience all of the time, and that our American Field is awfully complex and rather frightening these days . The elements on that symbol all stand for a major area of my life which I think are rele- vant to all of us Americans in the l 970's . The Peace symbol is the easiest to explain, so I'll begin with that. You have all seen it before, no doubt. That one image has probably gotten more coverage over the past 5 years than the Playboy bunny. What you feel about it is your own matter, or at least so for the moment. To me, the Peace symbol represents a critical situation that I will be entering soon . I am presently an unrecognized Conscientious Objector. My C .0., which took an enormous amount of time and emo- tional energy to prepare and organize, was recently turned down by my draft board. This means that eventually, I will be faced with the dilemma of receiving an induction order and doing what I elieve I must. A lot of people find pacifism a revolting idea, and I must admit that once I agreed with them. Once, I accepted the attitude that the "justified" mass killing in war was not murder. At one time, I 7
FREE PRESS Special Senate hearings began this week to discuss the role of the free press in a democratic society and the government's right to control what is reported in newspapers and on television. The public hearings - sponsored by Senator Sam J. Ervin and his subcommittee on Constitutional Rights ·- were called to discuss such matters as the Pentagon Papers Case , the controversy surrounding CBS's "The Selling of the Pentagon" documentary and the growing number of press reporters who are being subpoenaed ·by federal grand juries. Committee members have said that leading reporters , editors , publishers , newscasters and members of the Justice Department are appearing . Ervin has also promised to probe the use of undercover agents who disguise themselves as newsmen in order to gather information. The hearings began in Washington , D.C. on Tuesday, 28 September. •EN MCCLOSKEY CALLS FOR MORE OPEN GOVERNMENT Congressman Paul N. "Pete " McClosky stepped up his attack on President Nixon last week when he charged the Administration with pursuing "an increasing course of concealment of the truth. " McClosky specifically cited a statement made by Nixon to senior citizens recently when the president said, "The time has come for a new attitude toward old age in America ." McClosky charged that money appropriated by the Nixon adminstration under the 1972 Old Americans Act was actually $2.5 million less than under the 1971 Act ; and he added that Nixon 's 1972 budget request for senior citizens was only 28 per cent of what Congress authorized . - McClosky insists that he would not have entered the Presidential race against Nixon had the president "followed a course of truthful , open government ." • EN FIRST CO RELEASES IN MARINE HISTORY Two Marine officers were granted conscientious objector releases from the service this month. These are the first such releases in Marine Corps history. Robert C. Randolph and John P. McDonough , both Marine lieutenants at Quantico, won CO releases after being counseled by the American Civil Liberties Union . Both men reported that their viewpoints about the armed services, war and killing had radically changed while serving in the Marine Corps. McDonough wrote that he had discovered "a general callousness of military men with regard to the plight of mankind." Both men reported in their CO applications that their Marine instructors relished accounts of killing and torture. Although these CO releases were the first ever granted by the Marine Corps, the Army, Navy and Air Force have all granted CO releases to military officers in the past. • EN DICK NIXON AND A WEEK FOR DRUG ABUSE A spokesman for NORML, the National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws, reports that the members of the President's Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse are closer to recommending the legalization of grass than had been expected. The commission has held a series of public hearings in San Francisco and Chicago recently to hear testimony about marijuana and other drugs. Keith Stroup of NORML says that private conversations with several members of the commission indicate that if the commission were to give its report to the Presiden~ next week, it would be with the recommendation that there be no legal penalties for simple possession. .,. But President Nixon has already determined that he will ignore the commission's study if it recommends legalization. In fact, Mr. Nixon has already told the commission just that and has declared the week of October 3rd through 9th as "National Drug Abuse Week."
March on Albany
"AT ATTICA THE PRISONERS ROSE AND IN THEIR BLOOD DIED FREE"
FROM " DESPERATION " A POEM WRITTEN BY AN ATTICA INMATE
PHOTOGRAPHY BY ERIC CHAFFEE
STORY BY BEVERLEY A . CONRAD
Under grey skies on 23 September , 1971 , demonstrators numbering into the thousands gathered in Albany's pitol Plaza . They had come to protest the slayings of inmates at the Attica State Prison on 13 September.
On Thursday morning 9 September at 8:30 am the prisoners at Attica State Prison, Attica, New York , refused to form work ranks after breakfast . They were protesting the beating and solitary confinement of one of the inmates on Wednesday night . The men then took control of Cell Block D and seized 39 hostages with which to bargain. Wednesday night following the beating of the one prisoner, the inmates in Cell Block D comprised a list of thirty demands in the form of a manifesto . The manifesto was presented to Commissioner of Corrections, Russel G. Oswald with the stipulation that the hostages would be re - leased unharmed when their demands were met. Included in the manifesto were the names of men and organizations that the prisoners wished to represent them : William Kunstler, defense attorney for the Chicago 8; Bobby Seale, Chairman of the Black Panther Party; Arthur Eve , Black Democratic Assemblyman from Buffalo ; N.Y. State Senator, John Dunne; Louis Farrakan, Black Muslim Minister of the Nation of Islam ; U.S. Representative, Herman Bodillo ; Juan Ortiz of the Young Lords Party ; William Gaite of BUILD. Negotiations over the prisoners' de- mands continued until Sunday when all but three of the demands were met, a- mong these · amnesty for the revolt. The prisoners refused to negotiate over am- nesty and a deadlock of decision resulted. On Monday morning an attempt by police to rescue the hostages sparked one of the bloodiest prison riots in U.S. his- tory. As of 25 September the total num- ber of those killed in the Attica riot is 42. Most of the dead succumbed to bullet wounds. Despite the pleas of William Kunstler, who sided with the prisoners during the negotiations, Governor Nelson A. Rckefeller issued the order that sent po- lice into the prison in the attempt to res- cue the hostages. The New York governor is being charged with murder by certain coalitions of people of New York State. On Friday, 17 September, Rennie Davis of the People's Coalition for Peace , , and Justice and radical attorney William Kunstler called for non-violent action to protest the present American Prison System. In an "emergency coalition meeting" Davis said that plans for a demonstration in Albany 23 September to protest the killings had been decided upon. "JAIL ROCKEFELLER FOR RACIST MURDER!"
TO THE PEOPLE OF AMERICA
The incident that has erupted here at Attica is not a result of the dastardly bushwacking of the POW prisoners September 8, 1971 , but of the unmitigated oppression wrought by the racist administration network of this prison, throughout the year. We are MEN' We are not beasts and do not intend to be beaten or driven as such. The entire prison populace has set forth to change forever the ruthless brutalization and disregard for the lives of the prisoners here and throughout the United States. What has happened here is but the sound before the fury of those who are oppressed. We will not compromise on· any of the terms except those that are agreeable to us. We call upon all the conscientious citizens of America to assist us in putting an end to this situation that threatens the lives of not only us, but each and everyone of us as well. We have set forth demands that will bring closer to reality the demise of these prison institutions that serve no useful purpose to the People of America, but to those who would enslave and exploit the people of America. THE INMATES OF ATTICA PRISON The Inmates' Demands 1. We demand that all inmates be given adaquate food , water, A and shelter. • 2. We will return to our cells only under our own power. 3. We want complete , meaning freedom from any physical, mental and any legal reprisals. 4. We demand that the New York State Minimum Wage Law be enforced in all State institutions. STOP SLAVE LABOR! (Inmates at Attica are getting $.25 an hour for their work.) 5. Give us by October 1 a permanent group who will represent our views at the prison, to be made up of people acceptable to us from the nearby communities. 6. There must be no intimidations or reprisals for all New York State prisoners who are politically active. 7. Give us true religious freedom. 8. End all censorship of newspapers, magazines and letters and other publications coming from the publisher. 9. Aliow all inmates, at our expense, to communicate with anyonl:' wa please.
10. We demand effective rehabilitation programs for all inmates. (No real attempts are made to rehabilitate prisoners. The main emphasis is on punishment and most of the U.S. prisoners are just kept in their cells.) 11 . Modernize the inmate educational system ancd include a Spanish language library and a criminal law library. If y ou want to learn about - 10
"In Albany," Davis said, " we will an- nounce. the formation of a campaign that will go on and on until there are fundamental changes made in the prison system." Praise of the manner in which Rockefeller handled the Attica revolt was delivered by President Richard Nixon during a personal telephone conversation. Although later details of the killings were given to the President, a White House spokeman said that Nixon remained in full support of the Governor's decision. A list of demands was compiled by the Albany National Action committee for the September 23 march . The list included points stating 1) that the prison- ers origional thirty-one demands be met, and that amnesty be granted to the prisoners that participated in the revolt; 2) that Rockefeller, Oswald, and Mancusi the warden of Attica State Prison must resign immediately, and that moves to in- dict them be made without delay; 3) that New York State pay reparations to the families of the slain prisoners; 4) that a list of all the Attica inmates, their location, and their physical condition be made public in order to put an end to "the continued secret brutality"; and 5) that observors chosen by the prisoners be allowed into the prison and be allowed complete freedom of movement and communication. " ATTICA MEANS FIGHT BACK!" Under gray skies demonstrators num- bering into the thousands gathered in Albany's Beverwyck Park at Washington Avenue and Ontario Street to participate in the march on the Capitol. At 1:00 pm they headed toward Capitol Plaza in rows of five to ten thick. The voices of the marchers came to- gether as they condemned Rockefeller for his action on Attica. Blacks and Whites walked together as they carried banners, posters, and plackards pleading for am- nesty for the prisoners; demanding that measures be taken to reform the present prison system. Shop-owners watched from their doors as the procession continued. One man on the sidewalk was heard to couanent: "Those prisoners, they broke the law. They go outside the law; I go inside the law. I say - shoot 'em." The demonstrators continued in an or- derly yet vocal fashion to march down the street to that Capitol where they joined a rank of 300 people who had gathered together in Capitol Plaza.
12. There must be an effective drug treatment program for all prisoners who request it. (Attica inmates addicted to heroine are given therapy sessions only once a month.) 13. All inmates requesting legal assistance must be given that assistance either from outside lawyers or inmates, depending on their choice. 14. Give us less cell time and more recreation with better recreational equipment and facilities. 15. Give us a healthy diet . Stop feeding us so much pork, and give us some fresh fruit daily . 16. Give us a Doctor that will examine and treat all inmates that request treatment . Spanish speaking doctors must be available for Spanish speaking inmates. 17. We demand a significant increase in the number of black and Spanish speaking officers. 18. Give us an institutional delegation comprised of one inmate from each company authorized to speak to the administration concerning grievances so that we may participate in the decision making processes that affect our lives. 19. Investigate the charges of mon~y taken from the inmate funds apd investigate how the profits from metal and other shops are being used. 20. Cease administrative resentencing of inmates returned for parole violations. . 21. No parole violations made without legal representation. 22. There must be more funds to expand work relief programs. 23. End approval lists for correspondence and visitors. 24. Remove visitation screens. 25. No one must spend more than 30 days in solitary confinement for any one prison offense. 26. Paroled inmates shall not be charged with parole violations for traffic offenses. 27 . We demand that outside dentists and doctors be allowed to treat inmates within the institution. 28. Members of the Observer Committee must be permitted into the institution to see if all the provisions are being carried out. **We want safe tra.nsportation to a non-imperialist country. **We demand the removal of Mancusi, Warden of Attica State Prison. **We demand amnesty also from authorities outside the prison administration including the State of New York.
Editor's note : The original manifesto included thirty-one demands, the last three of which were refused by the Administrators during the negotiations. society, look at its prisons''
As a final comment on the Attica uprising a poem entitled "Desperati~- '\ that was written by an Attica inmate read aloud. Tom Soto stated at this point that on 14 October this year, in the Grand Ball- room of the New York Hilton Hotel in New York City, Nelson A. Rockefeller would receive the 1971 Humanitarian Award. He also stated that Commissioner Oswald would receive a similiar award at the George Washington Hotel on 6 October. All were invited to be present for these two events. At about 4 :30 the demonstrators dis- persed. Workshops with Tom Soto , Dave Dellinger, and others that spoke at the rally, were held following the demon- stration.
Anita Wilson of the Lawyer 's Guild , then addressed the group emphasising that it is our job as concerned people to expose the system" . She also noted from the U.S. Constitution that as a free coun- try, when the government of the peo- ple fails to comply to the wishes of its people it is the right of the people to es tablish a new government. A suggestion that called for the organ- ization of a rehabilitation program for the prisoners, and that demanded that a complete list of all the prisoners wounded during and after the masacre be released , was then voiced by Miss Wilson . Other speakers at the rally included: Rodrigas Demingo, of the Buffalo Bills ; Paul Meyer; and Charlene Davis, of the Free Angela Davis Committee .
Capitol police were stationed through- out the plaza and posted at the Capitol Building. They stood at the second land- ing level and prevented anyone from ad- vancing above that point. A rope barrier had been set up at ground level of the building but was ignored by the demonstrators as they climbed to get closer to the speaker's stand. As the people waited for the speeches to begin, various groups chanted in unison for the removal of Rockefeller. "Jail Rockefeller for racist murder!" was repeated over and over again on the loud speaker. "Jail Rockefeller for racist murder!" Anita Turco, Chairman of the South Shore Moratorium Committee, a Long Island contingency of women, had this to say when asked what should be done a- bout Governor Rockefeller : "Resign now. Rockefeller should will- ingly step out of office and if he fails to go along with that we should support Arthur Eve and go along with impeach- ment proceedings. Rockefeller let the prisons deteriorate to cause the uprising." Tom Soto, a representative of the Prisoner's Solidarity Committee who had been present at Attica during the four- day negotiating period, was the first to address the group of demonstrators. He begged the State to "give the prisoners' their demands" and cited that throughout the uprising the prisoners had employed a "tremendous class solidarity without mention of the word 'class' ". He concluded by saying that on 2 October there would be protests at all prisons throughout the country. Although William Kunstler was present at the rally, and was urged to make a statement he only commented that Tom Soto had said about everything as well as he, himself could have. The wife of an present inmate of Attica State Prison spoke demanding that all prisoners, black and white, be released from prison immediately. "WE ARE MEN I WE ARE NOT BEASTS."
SPIRO AGNEW SAYS IT AGAIN FOR THE 'SILENT MAJORITY' In another one of his flaming vocal essays Spiro Agnew, Vice-President of the United States, said it again for the silent majority. In a speech he delivered at the 78th Annual Conference for the International Ch iefs of Police Conference, at Anaheim, California, 27 September, he stated that the ultimate issue at Attica State Prison was not prison reform. " No , the issue at Attica, like the issue involved whenever the orderly processes of a free society are confronted by those who place themselves above or beyond the law, is whether that society's free in - stitutions are to survive or go under. " Agnew recognized the members of the audience as persons that would be the first to note that "though the place names and slogans change, the modus operandi in the development of these. celebrated radical left causes remains the same". " Th i s holds true," the quotable Vice-President said, "from their genesis until their final anointment by editorial polemicists , [say po-lem-i-cists : a person skilled or involved in the art of polemics,a controversy or argument]. who then righteously display them as the latest ex- amples of the enduring guilt of American society ." In the past ten years, cited the Vice- President, 633 American Law Enforce- ment officers have been killed as a result of criminal action, and "when those who protect us are attacked, we are all attacked ; when those who safeguard our institutions are endangered, our institu- tions are endangered". Agnew named the Attica uprising as "the creation of yet another cause in the celebre in the pantheon of radical revolu- tionary propaganda". "When those few assigned to uphold our laws give their lives in the conduct of their duty, then we, the manywho sur- vive have a renewed responsibility to see to it that their sacrifice was not in vain • the government of law for which they died is upheld against those who would destroy it."
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UNYAB SCHOOL OF LAW CALLS FOR INVESTIGATION OF ATTICA TRAGEDY The Student Bar Associatation of the
b) The full disclosure of the commision's findings, regardless of· its discredit or embarrassment to any individual, official, agency , or interest group involved. c) Immediate implementation of the oomrnission's administrative, legislative, and judicial recomendations by the appropriate governmental official or body. Furthermore, any findings pointing to or specifically indicating responsibility for the total incident be immediately acted upon by the appropriate judicial and administrative units with a view towards full application of whatever measures are necessary to insure that subsequenttragedies shall not occur. 2. Complete support for the security and rights of prisoners, guards and employees of the institution in the pending investigations and to implement the reforms agreed to during negotiations aimed at terminating the incident. The student body offers its complete assistance , as law students, in the research, investigations and preparations of the findings of any commision convened to deal with the issues raised because of and as a result of the Attica tragedy .
State University of New York at Buffalo School of Law has called for the establishment of an independent commission to investigate the Attica State Prison uprising , and has offered its assistance in the preparations of the commission's report. Mark G. Farrell, SBA president, called the meeting in response to the demands that the Law School take an active role in assessing the New York correctional system and the Attica tragedy in particular. In a statement by Farrell, a list of proposals regarding the investigation was given : 1. a) The immediate establishment of an independent and totally impartial commision truly representing all segments and groups of society to investigate the entire incident, including, but not limited to, the causes of its occurence, the events that transpired in its development and tragic termination and the conduct and presentations made to the public by y and all parties responsible for suring that an objective and candid documentation of the event would result upon subsequent inquiry.
added that the ACLU has not yet decided whether the court challenge will involve a criminal case--or whether it will be an affirmative court action . Said Wulf : "We selected the state ffflfl 1 Washington as a beginner because we fee1 the climate there is more receptive." The legal attack on marijuana law_s is the first national assault on the const1tu- tionality of the law ever undertaken by the ACLU. A leading medical expert has chal- lenged " as irrevelant" the findings of two other doctors who reported this week that intensive doses of THC--the active ingredient in marijuana-- caused "Bizarre behavioral changes" in laboratory rats. Dr. Lee Hollister of the Veterans Administration Hospital in Palo Alto insisted that the research done by doctors at the Mason Reserach Institute at Worcester, Massachusetts, is irrelevant to human beings. Dr. Harris Rosenkratz at the Mason Research Institute had report - ed earlier this week that heavy doses of THC had caused tremors, convulsions and seizures in rats. He said that an equivalent dose to human beings would require a person smoking 30 strong joints a day for "at least five years." Dr. R?senkra~t explained that the dose used m ra~~ 40 times stronger than the manJua needed to make a person high. Dr. Hollister strongly criticized any conclusion which inferred that the rat experiment somehow proved humans might suffer from brain _damage fr~m marijuana. He added that if a person in- gested 40 times the amount of alcohol needed to. make him high , that person would show signs of tremors or convul- sions at the end of five years. "No ", said Dr. Hollister, "that person would proba- bly be dead within minutes." •EN • DETENTION ACT REPEALED Despite an attempt by conservatives to stop it, the House earlier this month overwhelmingly voted for the repeal of the Emergency Detention Act, the 1950 law which allows for the jailing in deten- tion camps of so called subersives. The House passed the repeal mea- sure 356 to 49. Earlier the same day the House voted down an amendment to the bill which would have only changed the existing law, not repealed it. The amend- ment was sponsored by Congressman Richard Ichord, the chairman of House Internal Securities and one of • ' Congress' leading conservatives. . The sponsor of the repeal measure was Congressman Spark Matsu_naga, a Hawaii Democrat. His staff predicts that STONED RATS
edral he declared the country needs Thie~ to fight the Communists. The issue of peace is clearly upper- most in people's minds here, and Thieu is seen as the main obstacle to an end to the war. "The other side wants peace, too ," declared one driver. "They 've been fight- ing for 25 years. " He added that most Vietnamese--"a majority "--supported the seven point peace plan presented in Paris by Madame Binh, the chief negotiator for the Viet Cong. Although anti-Thieu feelings are clear-cut, the drivers were not in agree- ment on the merits of his competitors. One driver expressed support for General Duong Van Minh, whose withdrawal from the Presidential race precipitated the cur- rent political crisis. But few of them even mentioned Minh, and one driver, a refu- gee from North Vietnam, said, "Ky has support from the poor people. Minh is known for his action in the 1963 coup (against Diem) but he hasn 't done any- thing for the people. Ky has the support of 60% of the Army." As for Thieu's planned October 3rd referendum the taxi drivers expressed a combinatio~ of contempt and resigna- tion. "Why vote? Just one person run- ning " snorted one driver. ' But a 43-year old driver with 6 children said " I must vote because I drive around the ~ity and the police will stop me and ask for my voting paper. " And he asked the reporter, "In America, are you arrested if you choose not to vote? " Al- though he didn't know of anyone. who had been jailed for lack of a clipped voting card after the recent Lower ~ouse elections, he said people were afraid to boycott the election. Although they are willing to talk with foreign reporters about politics, many taxi drivers expressed feelings of powerlessness about the situation. " I'm just a small person with no power," said one. "Poor people have no voice," de- clared another. "We can't speak out. There are too many secret police around. " Presidential elections for South Vietnam will take place 3 October. • DRUGS : THE ACLU Be GRASS The American Civil Liberties Union announced it will Launch a "national liti- gational attack" on marijuana laws within the next six weeks. The ACLU 's executive director Melvin Wulf revealed in New York that a test case challenging grass laws would be filed by the end of October in the state of Washington. Wulf said he spent . several days in Seattle last week laying the ground-work for the legal attack. He
SAIGON TAXI DRIVERS
Saigon (DNSI) - Saigon political circles have been buzzing for weeks with talk of a possible coup against President Nguyen Van Thieu , but public ~pinion, ~s reflected by taxi drivers, remains skepti- cal. Saigon's taxi drivers, some of whom have driven their taxis for more than twenty years, and some of whom have been dorce, by wartime inflationary pres- sures to "moonlight," are among ~he most talkative Vietnamese in the city . Although few of them speak English, they don't mind expressing their views on the current political situation to a foreigner who speaks Vietnamese. During the past few days, these reporters have talked with nearly two dozen of the estimated 5,000 men who wheel their ancient blue and yellow Renaults around Saigon's fume-filled streets. Their answers indicate a high degree of disaffection with ~resident Thieu in the capital and a widesprea~ feeling of futility over Vietnamese poli- tics. Most of the drivers dismissed talk of a coup as unrealistic, since no such change of government could take place without American consent. One driver, a policeman with four children who must drive his taxi to sup- plement his meager income, said, "Ky has support from the army, but the ~eri- cans still support Thieu, so there 1s no chance for a coup." Another said, "It all depends on American policy, and the Americans are still behind Thieu." "Americans control the economy and the aid to the Vietnamese military," said a third driver. "Nothing can be done without their support." Al though most drivers believed Thieu still had U.S. support, one driver, who said he didn't know anything about a coup, added, "I have heard that Ameri- cans are tired of spending so much money for the war. Thieu wants the war, so the Americans will bring him down." The nearly unanimous feeling is that Thieu is extremely unpopular, primarily because of his policy of continuing the war. "Nobody likes Thieu," said one of them flatly . Another declared, "In order to have peace, we have to change two P~esiden.ts- -one in the U.S. and one here. A thU"d driver, when asked about the prospect of another Thieu administration, said, "If we have four more years of the Thieu regime, the people will suffer very much." Only one driver indicated support for Thieu. A Catholic, who crossed him- self as the taxi passed Saigon's main Cath-
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