Henry - A History of Biola University Since 1908



SINCE 1908





WESLEY K. WILLMER Vice President of University Advancement


May 14 1996


Sue Whitehead


Dr. James 0. Henry Manuscript I am pleased to send you a copy of Dr. Henry's manuscript on the "History of Biola" for you to maintain in the Archives. Recently I met with Dr. Henry and he has given the manuscript to Biola. He would like to see it published sometime in the future. He is completely open to extensive editing or rewriting and he has no financial interest. He has no children and the majority of his estate will come to Biola. I would like to see us publish a Biola history for our 90th anniversary-February, 1998 and will try to work in that direction. Please feel free to contact me with your thoughts or reaction.


cc: Dietrich Buss



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This book is dedicated to the memory of the two men most instrumental in the beginning and development of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles , now Biola University, Mr. Lyman Stewart and Rev. T. C. Horton. Humanly speaking, without these two men there would be no Biola University today, and this history would not have been written.


A project of this nature would not be poss- ible without the help of those who have given freely of their time and encouragement toward its completion. The author wishes to express his thanks and appreciation to Dr. Samuel H. Sutherland, Presi- dent emeritus of Biola University, for his en- couragement to inaugurate the project back in the mid-1950's; to all my former secretaries at Biola who helped in putting the information on paper; to those in the administration and on the staff at Biola for their help in the project; to Miss Inez McGahey for her help in editing the manuscript; and, last but not least to my dear wife Bobbie for her many hours of typing the manuscript.





Al though from time to time tidbits of historic informatron: --Iiave-I)e~n written on the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, now Biola University, thus far all the writing has been in the form of brochures, magazine articles, etc, but nothing of a comprehensive nature has been published. This book has been written with certain specific goals in mind. First, to relate the background out of which the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, came, and to trace its growth and development down through the years from the historic perspective. Second, to focus attention on the vital role the School has played, both in the academic and the religious realm of history. - Finally, to provide a source of information, both to the Biola corrununity, including the faculty, staff, students, and alumni; and to the friends of Biola who might be interested in its history. For these reasons we have concentrated on accuracy in relating the story. We have sought to maintain objectivity, making no effort to gloss over the problems the Sch- ool has expereinced through its history. The research for this project has focused on two psecific areas. First, that of the background of the liberal-fundamental controversy which gave birth to the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, the source of this inform- ation being the numerous books published on this issue. The second area of research has focused on the events in the history of the School from its beginning to the present. The information on this area has come from the records of Biola, consisting of the Lyman Stewart papers given to the School by Mrs. Lyman Stewart; the minutes of the.. Board of Directors from 1908 to the present, correpsondence, reports, publications, and miscellan- eous items and documents. Of necessity, much attention has been given to the people who have made up the Biola community; their personalities, behavior, commitment,

Preface 2 and accomplishments. Through this approach we have learned rnubh about Biola's philosophical, theological, and educational trends and developments down through the years that have greatly influenced th~-- Protestant spectrum of the # Church since 1908. It is our fondest hope that this history will be both interesting and informative to those who read it. ~ ·-;;;._-,;::-.------ -



Historically, in 1908, Biola University was founded as the Bible In- stitute of Los !ffigeles, the name of which was shortened to the acronym Biola; later in the 19SO's, the name was officially changed to Biola Sch- ools and Colleg~s; again, in 1972, to Biola College; finally, in 1980, to Biola University. The progression in name changes suggests that there was a significant development in the historic role of Biola University in church history. Tracing its roots will provide a better understanding of this role. To- gether with its sister schools, various church groups, and missionary agen- cies, it was spawned, historically, by the theological battle waged between liberals and fundamentalists within the Protestant churches in America in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth. A definition of "liberalism" and "fundamentalism" is also neces- sary to understand this role. Webster defines religious liberalism as a "movement in contemporary Protestantism, emphasizing intellectual liberty and the ethical content of Christianity"; and fundamentalism as "a recent movement in American Protest- antism re-emphasizing as fundamental to Christianity belief in the inerrancy of the Scriptures, Biblical miracles, especially the virgin birth and phy- sical resurrection of Christ." In this history the term "fundamentalist" is used to designate those who hold to the historic tenets of Protestantism and who espouse its traditional and historic theological views; and not to identify them with a specific group or church bearing that name. Although historians are not certain of the origin of the word "fund- amentalists," many believe it was coined by the Editor of the Watchman Exam- iner. In his article in the July issue of 1920, he wrote, "Fund.a.mentalists are those men who mean to do battle royal for the fundamentals." Furthermore

2 /. he stated that the term had been made familiar by a series of books called The Fundamentals, published between 1909 and 1915 by the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, now Biola Uni versi_ty .- ·- --Althm.igh his statement attests to the significance of Biola's role in the histor i c battle between the liberals and fundamentalists, there remains some important questions, such as, where did the movement begin, where are its roots, and how is Biola University a part of the historic picture? After the end of World War I , there was a strong resurgence of conserv- ative theological beliefs in America . Although various attempts have been made to explain the reasons for this movement, the concensus seems to be that the internal tensions of that era, together with the inability of pol- . itical leaders to find a satisfactory solution for the world ' s problems, short of war, are largely responsible for this resurgence . Orthodox religion distrusts human nature which liberal theologians are prone to lean heavily upon to solve man's problems, and have no faith in the early twentieth cen- tury optimistic concept of the perfectability of man. Consequently, conserv- ative theologians clung to the doctrine of the depravity of man and his in- ability to reason his way to an acceptable solution to the problems which beset the human race . This theological difference constituted the basis for the battle between the liberals and fundamentalists, and the founders of Biola took the conservative position . Therefore, from its beginning, the Schoo l played an important role in the resurgence of orthodox Christianity : · However , it makes no claim to originating a new set of orthodox teachings . Rather, its role has been, and still is, that of propagating an historic faith which had been known for centuries. How the School came into possess- ion of these historic tenets is of extreme interest .


Although Fundamentalism as a viable movement in America is relatively

3 young, the tradition from which i{ sterns is very old. Some scholars trace the roots of this tradition back to the Protestant Reformation, which began in 1517. While i"h is true 0 -that


The Biblical doctrines which had the greatest influence on Colonial

4 f.. America were those annunciated by John Calvin, who found Luther's doctrines acceptable in most essentials. However, he took them several steps further and developed -a .:theol -o-grc:-ar system which was more rigid in its demands. Cal- vinism came to America in the early part of the seventeenth century by way of the Puritans and Separatists from England. These two groups were both irreconcilable enemies of the Roman Catholic Church. Although both groups belonged to the Anglican Church, their main concern was its procrastination in eliminating the vestiges of Roman Catholicism from it worship. The basic difference between the two groups was how to deal with the problem . The Puritans preferred to remain in the Anglican Church and work from within, hoping to purify it, hence the name Puritan . The Separatists, on the other . hand, saw no hope of bringing about the desired change, and withdrew from the parent body. The main body of Separatists left England and went to Leiden, Holland, where they remained for approximately ten years, after which a small group sailed to America in 1620, and became known as the Pilgrims. Historically, Biola University relates more to the Separatists as its spiritual ancestors than to the Puritans. Until the 1690's, the congregations favoring church-state unity and an intellectual approach to religion were dominant in Colonial America. After that time, some evangelical groups composed of largely non-English stock, such as the German Pietists and independent Lutheran groups, migrated to America. These groups, together with the Pilgrim Separatists and the Bap-· tists ~ created a condition in the Colonies that had a direct bearing upon the American development referred to by some historians as "revivalism." All this contributed greatly to a strong position of orthodoxy in Protestant- ism that was to flourish in America for the next two centuries. The era from 1800 to the A.'Tierican Civil l'lar, 1861-1865, had a great impact on the liberal-fundamental controversy that was to follow . During this era a restlessness manifested itself in every apsect of life, including


. that of religion. After the Civil War a number of utopian schemes with religious foundations were adopted to meet the needs growing out of the War. -The fear-~ 0f-·=-Ror.ran--·catholicism, or "papery" as it was frequently called, rea- ched a new high in America as a result of the immigration of a large number of Irish Catholics to the United States. Mormanism, Adventism, and Spiritual- ism were all born during this era. However, the most important development for the future of fundamentalism was the rise of millennialism to a new prominence. Rev. William Miller was the early leader of this concept because of his strong emphasis on the second advent of Christ, a doctrine that had been dormant in the Church for centuries. While the prediction of an exact date for this advent was in error, nevertheless, his emphasis prompted an extensive study of this subject. As a consequence, the doctrine of the im- minence of Christ's return became prominent in fundamental theology. The period between the American Civil War and 1920 saw a clash between two distinct cultures in America, the spiritual and the secular. New dis- coveries in science revealed the potential of man's mind. Unfortunately, this resulted in the adoption of man's reasoning with respect to biblical truth as well as to the sciences. This new outlook challenged the place of revelation as a source of knowledge. Many churchmen were shocked when col- leges began to replace religious courses with secular subjects. They were more shocked when evolution became an accepted hypothesis in almost every discipline, including religion. Darwin's Origin of Species, published in 1859, transformed speculation into an accepted view in the minds of many scholars, including theologians. Darwin's theory became an accepted scien- tific fact in the minds of modernists in religious circles. To them it con- firmed what they really wanted to believe, namely, that human progress is "always onward and upward." This speculation was one of the roots of liberal ism in the Church. Having rejected the Scriptures as the final authority, the early liberal

6 /. spoke of man's developing religious experience rather than of God's Word to man; of man's quest for truth instead of God's revelation of truth; and ___<---0:E=·Jesus -- as a spiritual or religious pioneer rather than the final revel- atiort of God to man . Therefore, the Bible was robbed of its spiritual ori- gin, and its authority was subjected to secular historical criticism. Much of Protestantism which had previously rejected the authority of the Medieval Church for the authority of the Bible had now rejected all authority unless it could be verified in its own mind. The result of this modernistic trend produced devastating results within Protestantism. Liberals felt they must present Christianity in a way in- offensive to the scientific mind. Natural sin gave way to naturalism, and miracles were ruled out . The virgin birth of Christ was looked upon as an incredible event. Biblical regeneration was reduced to what could best be called religious education. Belief in the supernatural return of Christ gave way to utopian dreams of a perfect society that was to be produced by the works of man. The theory of evolution became, for the liberal, the law of the inevitable progress of the human race. The triumph of modern sci- ence gave man unlimited confidence in his own power and capability. The myth that education could solve man's problems became engrained in their thinking and was widely propagated. Liberalism was utopian in spirit; and before the turn of the twentieth century, it had gone unchastened and un- challenged by the judgement of history. Once it began, liberalism quickly penetrated the stronghold of trad- itional orthodoxy, capturing many of the older theological seminaries. It then filtered down to the pulpit, and then to the pew in many of the Prot- estant denominations . Its conquest began with a plea for "inclusivness" and "broadmindedness . " It ended with the fundamentalists being excluded from the seminaries they had endowed and from many of the denominations they had helped build. It became obvious that to the liberals the term


, .. "broadminded" meant their views were correct, and those refusing to agree with them were usually forced out of the seminaries and denominations. The --- gross neglect of the traditional doctrines of the Bible led eventually to thei:r' virtual abandonment. As a result of this drift, the men who had "crept in unawares soon became masters of the house."


With the capture of the major theological seminaries by the liberals, a new theology emerged on the American scene. First, the proponents of this theology tried to dispose of the doctrine of the sovereignty of God and replace it with a sentimental relationship between God and man, emphasizing the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. The idea of man .as a child of God was flattering, but man as a sinner under the judgment of God was repulsive. In addition to these changes, they remodeled Christ, call- ing him the "Jesus of history." They saw Him only as a human being, thus fitting Him into the mold they had made for Him. The term "rediscovery of Jesus," became common in their vocabulary. Finally, they adopted an ideal- istic doctrine which presented Jesus as a man full of divinity to which all men are capable of attaining. To them conversion was a gradual process rathe then the regenerative work of the Holy Spirit. Therefore, this new theo- logy represented a hundred-and-eighty degree turn from historic Protestant- ism in America. The acceptance of this new theology required a spirit of accommodation on the part of its adherents. Rev. Harry Errunerson Fosdick, an avowed liberal wrote in 1937, "Modernism started by taking the intellectual culture of a particular period as its criterion and then adjusting Christianity to that standard." In stating the opposite view, a writer of the same era said of liberalism, "It becomes over sentimental and naively optomistic. . It accom- modates itself too much to contemporary culture and paved the way for

8 humanism." Another critic of lib~ralism said, "The life of the church has drunk deep of the enthusiasm of the secular world and fallen heavily under the spell of its assumptions and ideals '." Instead of urging men to pass the test God set for them, they changed the test. They presented a Christ made in the image of their own sinful nature and announced Him as a "re- discovery." One critic said of them, "They betrayed Christ, but they did it with a kiss of affection." Perhaps the strongest influence of the new theology in the Western World was that which became known as "German Rationalism." During the post-: Civil War era in America, the German methods of Bible study and interpre- tation became popular and found many eager disciples among American theo- logians . During that era graduate level of education became the norm among American theologians, and German universities were among the most popular for such advanced study. Consequently, many leading American theologians attended European schools to do graduate work. Upon their return they oc- cupied important teaching positions in seminaries and . pulpits of promi- nence. In this manner, German Rationalism was introduced into American theological circles. Those espousing this philosophy used the Scriptures historically and advocated inductive theological thinking. Orthodox leaders of that day correctly singled out the "social gospel" and "higher critic- ism," as German Rationalism came to be called, as the two major corruptives within the Church. This new "higher criticism" immediately filtered down from the semin- aries to the pulpit and then to the pew; and it was responsible for reshap- ing the views of the religious leaders in the main-line denominations. Spir- itual records began to be viewed as the work of human beings in an ancient .. civilization. Whether the Bible "was" or "contained" the Word of God became the debatable question in theological circles. Liberals began to speak THE INFLUENCE OF GERMAN RATIONALISM ON THE NEW THEOLOGY

9 [. about the development of "Hebrew ideals.'' The ethical values of the cross began to take precedence over the traditional view of the substitutionary atonement. Liberal ministers began to cast discredit upon the doctrine of the virgin birth. They appealed more to the "experience of Christ" as the basis for religious authority, than to his deity. The theory of evolution gained recognition during this era so that a "reasonable" gospel replaced a "miraculous" one. Volumes have been written on the issues of liberalism versus fundamental ism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The impossibility of a pro- . ject such as this to present a complete account of the issues limits the presentation to a brief summary. Perhaps the best summary one could use is the one provided by the editor of Christian Century, a liberal publication, in 1924. "Chrisitanity according to the fundamentalists is one religion; Christianity according to the modernists is another religion. Which is the true religion is the question that is to be settled, in all pos- sibility, by our generation. There is a clash here so profound and as grim as between Christianity and Confucianism. Amiable words cannot hide the difference. 'Blest be the Tie' may be sung till doomsday but it cannot bind these worlds together. The God of fundamentalism is one God, the God of the modernist is another. The Christ of the funda- mentalist is one Christ, the Christ of the modernist is another. The Bible of the fundamentalist is one Bible, the Bible of the modernist is another. The Church, the kingdom, the salvation, the consumation of all things: these are one thing to the fundamentalist and another thing to the modernist. Which God is the Christian God, which Christ is the Christian Christ, which Bible is the Christian Bible, which A SUMMARY OF THE BASIC ISSUES

10 church, which kingdom, which /. salvation, which consummation, are the Christian church, the Christian salvation, the Christian consummation? The future will tell." This ·then is the picture as it appeared in the first quarter of the twentieth century. This was the reason for the battle between these two groups, and it was this situation that gave rise to the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, the predecessor of Biola University. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth, two major influences militated against orthodoxy in the Protestant churches in America; secularism and liberal theology. Because fundamentalists had failed completely in their efforts to eliminate these influences from their churches and denominations, a spirit of frustration prevailed throughout their camp, which reached its peak in the first decade of the twentieth century. All efforts to unite fundamentalists had been spasmodic, fragmented, and disorganized. Many left their denominations for one of two reasons: either they could not tolerate the theological changes taking place, or they were forced to leave because they refused to remain silent about the matter. As a result, those who left their church bodies found themselves on the outside looking in. They were lonely men, like sheep without a shepherd, who desperately needed fellowship with others of like mind. This need manifested itself in various ways, and in due time resulted in a concerted effort on their part to take corrective action. One of the first sparks to light the fire of unification among the funda · mentalists was the publication of the twelve-volume set of books known as The Fundrnentals. The publication of these books, according to one historian, "Was the first orgainzed protest against modernism." Another historian re- ferred to the porject as the first "real orthodox manifesto," and as "a test THE RISE OF FUNDAMENTALISM

. 11 /. of Christian loyalty and corrective to the position of the liberals." These books served as a unifying force and provided the fundamentalists with an aggressive policy and consciousness of a solidarity in their ca.~p which they - had not experienced before. Stuart Cole, in his History of Fundamentalism, said, "Fundamentalism, as a movement, was the organized determination of con- servative churchmen to continue the imperialistic nature of historic protest- antism within an un-hospitable civilization dominated by secular interests and a progressive church idealism." The above publications reveal the significant role Lyman Stewart, a co-founder of Biola, played in the liberal-fundamental battle. First, he was an avowed and dedicated conservative. Although he was not as aggressive as . some were, nevertheless, his friends knew where he stood on the issues of the day, and he wanted to do all he could to counter apostasy in the Church. Consequently, he gave both himself and his resources to defeat it. Mr. Stewart's interest in the publication of literature on the fundamenta teaching of the Scripture was aroused at a Bible Conference he attended at Niagra-on-the Lake in 1884. There he heard some of the finest Bible teach- ers of the Day. Among them was Rev.James Brooks, editor of a small magazine entitled The Truth. Mr. Stewart found this publication very instructive and helpful, because it sounded a clear warning against apostasy, calling attent- ion to men who had previously been strong in the pulpit, but were then teach- ing error. Mr. Stewart considered sending this magazine out on a mass basis - to ministers throughout America, but was not able to do so at that time, having hardly sufficient funds to carry on the projects in which he was al- ready involved. However, he continued to be impressed with the possibility of such project to "help stay the tide of apostasy." It was these thoughts that eventually led to the publication of The Fundamentals. Fifteen years later Mr. Stewart's vision became a reality. Dr. A. C. Dixon, a highly respected Bible Teacher, was in the Los Angeles area con- ducting a Bible Conference. Mr. Stewart attended these meetings and felt

. 12

;.. impelled to speak to Dr. Dixon about his burden of publishing Christian lit- erature. He outlined his ideas and the method by which he thought they could best be carried out. After hearing this plan, Dr. Dixon said, "I- be-l:iev-e--- rr-- is o~ the Lord; let us pray." Upon his return to Chicago, he organized the Testimony Publishing Company for the purpose of publishing The Fundamentals. Mr. Stewart, with the help of his brother Milton, provided the funds. The Editorial Committee of The Fundamentals met for the first time, November 5, 1909, and the first volume was published early in 1910. After volume nine was published, Dr. Dixon left the Committee to go to London, England to pastor Westminster Chapel. Rev. Louis B. Myers succeeded Dr. Dixon as Chairman of the Committee. The plan for the project was to publish a total of twelve volumes, and to send them, free of charge, to Protestant ministers, evangelists, missionaries, theological professors, theological students, and YMCA Secretaries. The three-fold purpose of the publications was "The strengthening of the saints, the defense of the truth against the insidious attacks of the present day, and the conversion of sinners." There- fore, all the articles were written to meet these needs. The impact of The Fundamentals on the origin of the fundamentalist move- ment can best be evaluated by the fact that a total of 2,300,000 copies of the first nine volumes was published, or approximately 255,000 copies per volume. With the completion of the twelfth volQme, the number reached four million copies. These were translated into several different languages, and · some articles in them were reprinted in tract form. A m~~ber of the Editor- ial Committee said, "Thus there can be no doubt that The Fundamentals have done a unique work, one might say, a work unique in the history of the Christ- ian Church." This evaluation agrees with that given years later by Stuart Cole in his History of Fundamentalism, when he gave these publications credit for "the clear emergence of fundamentalism." Because of the influence of The Fundamentals, together with the public- ation of Jesus is Coming, a classic in its day, by N. E. Blackstone, who was

.13 f also associated with Biola, the School played a vital role in the battle between the liberals and fundamentalists. These two projects had a substant- ial influence on the rise of fundamentalism, because they w€re--recrdoy a very select group. They developed in their readers an anxiety for the well-being of Christianity~ This, in turn produced a fear for the preservation of the historic Christian faith, and motivated a spiritual defense of the Gospel~ Another feature in the above publications was their use of the dispen~ sational system of biblical interpretation. This doctrine which proved to be one of the major unifying forces on the new fundamentalist movement, cut across denominational lines and served as a magnet to attract conservative Bible scholars from various Protestant groups, affecting the movement in its early history in several ways. First, this view of biblical interpretation prompted the convening of numerous Prophetic Conferences in the period from 1875 to 1925. A list of the important scholars participating in these con- ferences, either as speakers or listeners, constitutes a "Who's Who" of the first generation of the present-day fundamentalists. Second, it influenced the publication of the Scofield Bible, published in 1909, which had a great influence on the propagation of dispensationalism. Third, it helped to form the doctrinal beliefs of the World Christian Fundamentals Association, which in turn greatly aided in the unification of fundamentalists. All the aspects of the fundamentalist movement helped to fan the fire of religious discontent among the conservative leaders into an open flame of reaction and had a leavening influence on the war psychology that followed World War I, generating a religious militancy within conservative circles. As a result, the conservatives of that day became the early leaders in the new fundamentalist movement. Their method of appeal was two-fold. First, they directed their energies toward gaining control of evangelism for the purpose of reinstating Christian orthodoxy. Second, they undertook reform- ative measures beyond the local church, with the view of checking the stand- ards of secular faith.

14 Because of the new spirit emerging within fundamental circles, many leaders and institutions; Biola among them, rose to challenge the liberally conceived teaching of that day. state in the Union and Canada met at Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, for the purpose of studying what was considered "neglected truths and their bearing on the apostate church." This Conference acted as a needed stimulus to the new movement. As a result, additional conferences were held in other major cities, such as New York and Philadelphia. The spirit and momentum generated by these conferences is summed up by Rev. Courtland Myers in a statement, "We ought to make war, stre.rJ!uous war, and fight to the finish, against foreign innovations into our religious world. Go back to the fount~ ain head, and you will find that our crimson stream has its source in the rank German theology that has been forcing its way into the veins and arter- ies of all our religious life." As a result of this new spirit, another group met in Montrose, Pennsylv- ania, in 1916, and concluded that the time had come for concerted action and a consolidation of the orthodox conservative forces yet found within the churches. From the spirit generated at this meeting came the World Christian Fundamentals Association, an organization which came on the scene before any of its sister societies and the one which played a major role in the fundamental-liberal controversy. It survived long after many similar organizations had fallen by the wayside. During the next two years this Association attracted great men of kindred spirit, including Dr. R. A. Torrey, Dean of Biola; and, Dr. William Bell Riley, a prominent fundantental- ist of Minneapolis, Minnesota, who became its President. Another meeting of this Association was held in Philadelphia in 1918. Approximately five thousand delegates concentrated on two main themes: Mil- lennialism and the great threat of liberalism to orthodox Christianity. They issued a pamphlet entitled "Light and Prophecy," which emphasized the return

.15 /. of Christ, and a "Statement of Belief" in which they listed all the trad- itional doctrines to which they adhered. A warning was issued against the dangers inherent in the drift taking plac€v~t:oward~


( Finally, the delegates recoITu~ended the formation of a permanent organization to combat modernism and evolution. As a result, in 1919, the World Christ- ian Fundamentals Association -was=- --ef-f'-rcially organized, with Dr. W. B. Riley as ifs President. Later they were able to organize branch conferences in the United Sates and Canada, thus arousing popular support and enthusiasm for an assault upon apostasy in Protestant churches. The World Christian Fundamentals Association continued for some time on the momentum generated in its formative years. Their 1920 Convention was perhaps the most significant in many ways. The President, Dr. Riley, set the tone in his keynote address, insisting upon an end to "infidelity" in the churches. In addition to adopting a doctrinal statement patterned after those of previous years, the delegates clarified the purpose of the organiz- ation. Any Bible Conference, school, church, or society could become a mem- ber of the Association provided it subscribed to their theological beliefs. The Association broadened the scope of its campaigns, and their activities reached at least twenty-five states and Canada. In due time the Association began to lose some of its momentum which was very -n9tic~able at its 1926 Convention in Toronto, Canada. At that time there was a definite shift of interests and emphasis from the battle with liberals to an anti-evolution campaign. In 1927 it received a new stimulus when some sister organizations, which had also lost their momentum, decided to merge with them. The merger of several organizations with the Association in 1927 gave it such a strong spirit of confidence that it prepared a series of resolut- ions outlining its grandiose assault upon evolution. They prepared a uni- form anti-evolution bill for presentation to the various State Legislatures, and requested that sponsors of fundamental measures clear such with the As- sociation before taking action in order to avoid diffusion of their conserv- ative power. They recommended that a standard propaganda line be followed

.17 /. in the defense of anti-evolution bills. Proceeding from these decisions, they declared themselves ready to lead an ambitious anti-evolution campaign. The above --action s-ig-rr.i£h~d--Ehat the Association had definitely shifted its emphasis from the traditional modernist-fundamentalist controversy to that of an anti-evolution crusade which was needed at that time. However, this ran counter to the main issue, and illustrates the old proverb, "Let not the good become the enemy of the best." The question, at that time, was what was most essential to counter liberalism in the churches? They had allowed their attention to be drawn to what, by comparison, was a peripheral issue. Satan had used a clever feint to lead their army in the wrong dir- ection . This proved to be a great detriment to the Association, and con- tributed greatly to its eventual demise. Although the Association continued to convene annually, hear speeches, and pass resolutions, it became evident a change had taken place . In its earlier years it had been an aggressive opponent of liberalism; now it had bogged down in the struggle over evolution, and had become just another evan- gelical organization . It continued for several years in form, but not with tr substance and vigor it once had . After its demise several unsuccessful at- tempts were made to resurrect it. It had served its purpose, namely, that of a magnet to draw a nucleus of fundamental churches and orthodox Christ- ian leaders together to perpetuate the teaching of biblical truth . Although Biola and its sister institutions were spawned by the liberal ~- fundamental controversy, they became vitally involved in the latter phase of the conflict . Their main role was that of providing sound biblical instruct- ion which was vital to the success of the fundamentalist movement at that time, and without which it could not have succeeded . First a.~ong these sch- ools was the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, founded in 1889 . Since it was the first of its kind, it naturally played the role of the "bell cow" and led other institutions in this direction . Its conservative creed, together with its modest educational requirements for admission, made it attractive

. 18 to fundamentalists of that era; a~d thousands of its graduates had been fun- neled into orthodox channels to aid the movement. Prior to World War I. Moody -had notA).een~ ·d±rectly involved in the movement, per se. However after the War, Dr. James M. Gray led the School into a more active role in the theological war being waged at that time. Moody's facilities were made available for rallies, conventions, and Bible conferences of an orthodox nature. Thus, Moody became a center of action for fundamentalists. On the West Coast Biola played a similar role to that played by Moody in the Middle West. It, too, became a center of activity in the early phase of the fundamentalist movement. Mr. Lyman Stewart and Rev. T. C. Horton, cofounders of the School, and Dr. R. A. Torrey, its dean from 1912 to 1925, were all active in the early phase of the movement. Although this historic sketch of Biola University's heritage and back- ground is far too brief, because of the limitation of space, it is hoped that sufficient light has been shed on the subject to enable the reader to develop an appropriate appreciation of some of the events and conditions that brought this great institution into existence and to evaluate its role in the past as well as its present ministry and usefulness to the funda- mental spectrum of the Christian Church throughout America and on the var- ious mission fields of the world to which God has called its graduates.


I of two dedicated men of God, Mr. Lyman Stewart and Rev. T. c. Horton. The circumstances which God used to bring about the establishment of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, now Biola University, are similar in some ways to God's speaking to Moses concerning the building of the Taber- nacle. He said to Moses, "See, I have called by narne Bazaleel, • . And have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and all manner of workmanship. . And I have given him Aholiab, • • and in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee. II (Exodus 31:2-6) It is signally interesting that among all the thousands of Israel- ites involved in building the Tabernacle only two were called by name and given special instructions. In like manner, God working through very spec- ial circumstances,called these two men to the special task of establishing this great School. At the Constitution Convention, in 1787, in Philadelphia, the delegates of the large and small states had reached an impasse Neither group was will- ing to give ground. When it seemed as if the Convention would break up without achieving its purpose, Benjamine Franklin, the elder statesman, arose and in his aged and frail voice said, "When a carpenter wishes to fit two boards together, he must do some cutting on both." The delegate~ gbt the ·point, and immediately settled down to work out a compromise which produced The old adage, "Great oaks from small acorns grow," has been vividly illustrated in the history of the origin, growth, and development of Biola University. Such institutions never begin spontaneously, nor do they emerge full bloom. First, a seed-thought is planted in a fertile mind, it sprouts, takes roots, and ultimately grows into an organization or institution. In like manner, the idea that gave birth to this University began in the minds

· 20 one of the greatest documents of its kind_ in history, the Constitution of the United States. In like manner, God the master carpenter did the neces- --~-sary--cutting on Lyman Stewart and T. c. Horton to fit them together to form the task which He set before them. Although they came . from completely dif- ferent backgrounds and had totally different temperaments and personalities, God used each of them to complement the skills of the other. To learn how God brought this about, we need to look into the backgrounds of these two men LY.MAN STEWART Lyman Stewart was born July 2, 1840, in the small community of Cherry Tree, in the Venango Valley in Northwestern Pennsylvania. It was said of him, "He was born to oil," since his birthplace was only ten miles from Titusville, where the first oil well in history was drilled in 1859. The Stewarts were devout Presbyterians. Lyman's father helped raise the funds to erect - the first Presbyterian church in the Titusville area, and occasion~ ally preached in the church when bad weather prevented the appearance of the "circuit-riding" pastor. Mrs. Stewart read the Bible to the children every evening, after which ' prayer officially ended the day for the family. This training and background had a strong and lasting influence on Lyman for the remainder of his life. Lyman Stewart's father was one of the Valley's two tanners. Lyman, the second of seven children, was chosen by his father to carry on the family business which he disliked very much. Nevertheless, in accordance with tra- dition and his father's wishes, he began his apprenticeship at an early age, working among the vile smelling hides and vats. One of his chores was rid- ing over the hills and through the valleys of Northwestern Pennsylvania, pick- ing up hides from the farmers for tanning. This experience proved to be a valuable asset later when the oil boom began in the area, because he knew the . terrain of the Venango Valley, first hand, as few others knew it. The seepage of oil to the surface along the banks of the streams in

21 I the Venango Valley began to attract the attention of people other than the local residents. It seemed obvious to many that this was evidence of a greater deposit beneath the surface. This interest led to the organization of th~ Senaca Oil Company in 1859, by a group of business men in New Haven, Connecticut, for the purpose of drilling for oil in the Valley. They engaged a Mr. Edwin L. Drake, a retired railroad conductor, to do the drilling. Their choice was due to his being entitled to a free railroad pass, and not to his experience in drilling '!,¥ells. Working with "Uncle Billy" Smith, a local blacksmith and tool maker, Drake began drilling the first oil well in history. At a depth of only 69 feet Uncle Billy peered into the stove-pipe casing and saw a black substance only a few feet from the surface. They had struck oil and had ushered in a new era in the history of man. Little did they know how this would revolutionize · the transportation system of the world. With the discovery of oil in the Venango Valley began Lyman Stewart's business career. At nineteen years of age he had accumulated a savings of $125 . 00, a sizable sum in 1859, for a young man not yet of age. Influenced by the "oil fever" which had gripped the people of the Valley, he invested his total savings in a one-eighth interest in a lease on the Benninghof f farm. Unfortunately, the investors spent all their capital in the purchase of the lease, and had nothing left to finance the drilling of a well. Con- sequently, they lost their entire investment. Interestingly, six years later others drilled on this farm and struck the first 300-barrel per-day well in the history of the oil industry. Mr. Stewart had lost the possibility of a fortune in his first business venture. Undaunted, young Stewart tried again. He and several others leased the Boyd farm near what was called Petroleum Center. Having learned from their previous mistake, they held back enough capital to drill their first well. Unfortunately, when it seemed fortune was within their grasp, several new wells were brought in, producing an oil glut, and the bottom dropped out of

22 " the market. The price dropped so low they could not afford to pump the oil from the ground, and they lost their lease. Later, this same farm became one of the richest producing areas in the Venango Valley. Shortly after Mr. Stewart's second business venture failed, the Civil War broke out. Putting aside his dreams of success and riches, he joined a group of volunteers from the Venango Valley and enlisted in the 16th Penn- sylvania Cavalry. According to him, he spent the most of the next four years as a "valet of horses, with the rank of Private." He often remarked that his only claim of military fame and distinction was that his "unit was at Appomatox Court House when Lee Surrendered to Grant," ending the War. After his release fran the Atmy, Mr. Stewart returned to Titusville, to find that the oil lx:x:>m had increased the population of the quiet little town fran 400 to 6,000, and it was still growing. Lacking capital for investment, but determined to shake himself free from the life of a tanner, he enrolled in an accelerated course in Eastman's Business College, in Pougr.keepsie, New York. This training pro- ved to be a great asset to him the remainder of his life . Returning to the Venango Valley, Mr. Stewart opened an office on Pion- eer Run, near Titusvill, and began buying and selling oil leases. Suddenly, his boyhood experience of roaming over the hills and valleys, began to pay dividends, because of his first hand knowledge of the area. Hardly had he opened the office when a major boom hit Pioneer Run. Speculators, promoters, financiers, and drillers arrived en masse. Young Stewart was ready for them. Negotiating leases with the local farmers and then selling them to specul- ators, he began to make money. With his brother Milton, he started investing in wells already producing. In this manner he spread his meager capital over a maximum of opportunities and increased his investments considerably. The Stewart brothers were known in the Titusville area as Christian gentlemen. They dressed immaculately and were always courteous and soft spo- ken . A profane word never crossed their lips. Consequently, they earned an

23 ;. enviable reputation in business circles. Milton was not a good mixer, and stayed close to the office looking after the financial and administrative end of their business. On the other hand, Lyman could mix with the toughest and most foul mouthed men and still command their respect. He was in no way hypocritical, and ~en soon learned to respect him. Together, these two brothers made an excellent business team. The Christian character of the Stewart brothers so impressed one pro- ducer in the area, a Mr. Frank Andrews, that when he was in the process of forming the Claremont Oil Company, he invited them to join him in the project As partners in this venture, they made a substantial fortune. Mr. Andrews was so impressed with their business ethics that he also invited them to join him in the purchase of a lease on the Tallman farm. Within two years the oil produced from the wells on this farm had sold for almost a million dollars, and their net profit from this lease was quite large. In the six years, from 1866 to 1872, Lyman Stewart accumulated a private fortune of some $300,000 dollars, a sizeable amount in those days. He and his brother held shares in many oil wells considered to be good producers. While riding the crest of the wave of financial success, together with a friend, he agreed to underwrite the expense of a company to manufacutre and market agricultural equipment. He related later he had been "fast talked" into this venture without .investigating it thoroughly. Unfortunately, the business was a complete failure, and he and his friend had to make good its - losses. W4en the indebtedness was liquidated, Mr. Stewart had lost not only his money, but also his home and most of his oil leases. He was forced to take a job at a small salary to provide for his family. The old proverb, "the darkest hour is just before the dawn," was true in the life of Lyman Stewart. The statement in Ecclesiastes "Cast thy bread upon the waters: for thou shalt find it after many days," also proved true in his life and testimony. While he was in the high income bracket, he had

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