The 21st C Guide to College - IG

THE 21ST CENTURY STUDENT’S GUIDE TO

STUDY SKILLS

For College & Career Readiness

Susan Mulcaire

ILLUSTRATIONS BY ZAPP!

INSTRUCTORS’ GUIDE

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STUDY SKILLS PRODUCT PREVIEW For College & Career Readiness Instructor’s Guide by Susan Mulcaire

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© 2015 Susan Mulcaire

All rights reserved. The content of this book is protected by intellectual property laws. c21 Student Resources, as the high school imprint of Tween Publishing, grants permission to noncommercial users to provide instruction based on the content of this book. No part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, for any commercial or noncommercial use whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission, write to c21 Student Resources, P.O. Box 8677, Newport Beach, CA 92625-8677, or contact us by email at info@middleschoolguide.com. Comic illustrations by Zapp!

Printed in the United States of America ISBN

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

Message to Educators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Annotated Lesson Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

Chapter 1: What are Study Skills? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Chapter 2: Metacognition: The Self-Aware Student . . . . . . . 12 Chapter 3: A Bit About Brainy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Chapter 4: Mental Throwdown: Effort vs. Intelligence . . . . . . 36 What Did You Learn in Chapters 1-4? . . . . . . . . 45 Chapter 5: What's in Style? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Chapter 6: Learning Resources & Multimodal Learning . . . . . 58 Chapter 7: There’s More Than One Way to Be Smart! . . . . . . 74 What Did You Learn in Chapters 5-7? . . . . . . . . 84 Chapter 8: That’s My Routine and I’m Stick’n to It! . . . . . . . 88 Chapter 9: The Organized Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Chapter 10: Syllabusted! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Chapter 11: Gettin’ Your Schema On! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 What Did You Learn in Chapters 8-11? . . . . . . . . 132 Chapter 12: Active Learning in a Passive Learning World . . . . . 136 Chapter 13: Battle Plan SQ3R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Chapter 14: Hey, Are You Listening? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 What Did You Learn in Chapters 12-14? . . . . . . . 169

INTRODUCTION TO STUDY SKILLS & THE PROCESS OF LEARNING

PRODUCT PREVIEW

LEARNING STYLES & MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

PRE-LEARNING STRATEGIES

ACTION HEROES: LEARNING,

READING, LISTENING

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

Chapter 15: Navigating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Chapter 16: Cornies & Indies & Hybrids, Oh My! . . . . . . . . . 184 Chapter 17: The Hidden Benefits of Outlining Your Textbook . . . . 194 What Did You Learn in Chapters 15-17? . . . . . . . 202 Chapter 18: M.N.E.M.O.N.I.C.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Chapter 19: Meet the Anti-Cram: Time-Spaced Learning . . . . . 218 What Did You Learn in Chapters 18-19? . . . . . . . 227 Chapter 20: Short Answer & Essay Test Tips . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Chapter 21: So Many Choices, So Little Time… . . . . . . . . . 246 Chapter 22: How to Trick Out Your Oral Presentation . . . . . . . 258 Chapter 23: Taming Test Anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 What Did You Learn in Chapters 20-23? . . . . . . . 281 Chapter 24: So Close Yet so Far… Distance Learning . . . . . . . 286 Chapter 25: Ouch My Brain Hurts! Critical Thinking Skills . . . . 298 Chapter 26: Ramp Up Your Research Skills . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Chapter 27: Good Citizens! Perfect Participants! . . . . . . . . . 322 Chapter 28: The Benefits of Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 What Did You Learn in Chapters 24-28? . . . . . . . 348

NOTE-TAKING AND OUTLINING SKILLS

MEMORY AND RECALL STRATEGIES

TEST-TAKING TIPS & STRATEGIES

WRAPPING UP FOR COLLEGE READINESS

Works Cited & Recommended Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

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M E S S A G E T O E D U C A T O R S

Dear Educator,

Thank you for selecting The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills . With this comprehensive program, students learn that study skills are more than practices or strategies occasionally called upon to prepare for a test or quiz. Good study skills apply to all aspects of learning. College readiness is far more than what students know – it’s about how they learn. To be prepared for the academic demands of postsecondary coursework, students must develop productive learning skills and strategies . College remedial rates tell us that many students are not acquiring the academic mindsets and behaviors they need to succeed at the postsecondary level. The goal of this program is to give students the tools and strategies they need to be self-aware, active learners with the ability to successfully acquire, recall, and demonstrate knowledge. PRODUCT PREVIEW For college and career readiness, students must habituate good study skills. To do this, they need consistent skills support. Consider making this program more than just a study skills class. Make good study skills a part of your school culture. Enlist the help of all teachers to encourage and enable students to develop good study skills. Take a moment at the beginning of class to review a skill. Periodically pause instruction to make a “skills check”. Post study skills tips and strategies posters in classrooms and hallways. Allow students time at the end of class to review and correct notes or discuss what they learned. Consistency is key. Please take a moment to review the annotated lesson plan on the following pages. Each lesson in this Instructor’s Guide follows this format. Each lesson includes an in-class activity. Idea Walls at the end of each unit provide additional activities and suggestions for developing a strong study skills culture at your school.

Sincerely,

c21 Student Resources

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A N N O T A T E D L E S S O N P L A N

LESSON AND NUMBER TITLE

SLIDE References the webslide corresponding to the lesson segment. (Access slides at www.c21student.com) WORKBOOK References the corresponding chapter in The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills (the “workbook”)

MATERIALS Lists materials and information needed to prepare the lesson.

OBJECTIVES Identifies the skills and strategies students will learn in the lesson. GAINING ATTENTION Lessons begin with a brief review of the previous lesson, and an informal discussion related to the skills and strategies students will learn in this lesson.

COMMUNICATE LEARNING GOALS Students are told their learning goals for the lesson.

PRESENTATION OF CONTENT Instructional Content. Most lessons are based on a Direct Instruction model, followed by skills practice.

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A N N O T A T E D L E S S O N P L A N

ACTIVITY Each lesson includes an in-class activity for skills practice. Activity worksheets are contained in the student workbook.

THE BIG PICTURE Summarizes key points at the conclusion of the lesson.

READING AND HOMEWORK References the workbook pages students read to prepare for the next lesson, and the Application of Skills (homework) for this lesson. At the end of each Unit, students complete an assessment What Did You Learn?

IDEA WALL PRODUCT PREVIEW PRACTICE, PRACTICE Additional skills practice and activities.

BLOG-DEBATE-DISCUSS Suggested study skills and college readiness issues and topics for the blog, debate, discuss activity.

IT’S A TEAM EFFORT Ideas for making good study skills and college readiness school- wide goals. COLLEGE READINESS CORNER Suggested activities for developing college and career readiness skills.

BLANK Where possible, we’ve left a blank space for your own ideas.

TECH CONNECT Fun and useful apps to help students develop good study skills.

UNIT SOURCES Cites books, papers, articles, and website sources used for unit lessons. Update this as new apps come online.

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INTRODUCTION TO STUDY SKILLS & THE PROCESS OF LEARNING PRODUCT PREVIEW What are Study Skills? Metacognition: The Self-Aware Student A Bit About Brainy Mental Throwdown: Effort vs. Intelligence By the end of Unit One the student will be able to: preview course materials and progression. state a simple definition of learning . recognize the application of study skills to all aspects of learning. describe the benefits of good study skills. define metacognition . identify traits of the metacognitive student. complete a survey of their personal metacognitive skills. label parts of the brain involved in the learning process. describe how the brain converts sensory data to knowledge. make a plan for maintaining a healthy brain. compare the roles of effort and intelligence in learning.

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4

O B J E C T I V E S

identify as a fixed or growth mindset learner. list the traits of a growth mindset learner.

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L E S S O N 1 What are Study Skills?

SLIDE 1A

Textbook This lesson corresponds to Chapter 1 of The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills .

Materials • Computer/whiteboard display with internet access. • Webslides 1A-E (www.c21student.com) • The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills (“workbook”) • (Optional) Go to a reliable blog hosting site, such as edublog.org or classpress.com and create a Study Skills course blog. • (Optional) Flashcards (www.c21student.com) PRODUCT PREVIEW Objectives By the end of this lesson the student will be able to:  preview course materials and progression.  state a simple definition of learning.  recognize the broad application of study skills to all aspects of learning.  describe the benefits of good study skills.

Gaining Attention Welcome students to class. Advise them of course details:

Course Description: This is a comprehensive course in study skills. The skills you learn in this class will provide a solid foundation for the study skills and learning strategies you need for success in college and career. Materials: Distribute one copy of The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills (“workbook”) to each student. Advise students that the workbook contains the reading, worksheets, and homework for this course. Students should bring their workbooks to every class.

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Assessment: The best way students can demonstrate that they have learned the skills taught in this class is to use them! Habituating good study skills means making them a consistent part of their daily routine. Good study skills improve grades and academic confidence, and reduce stress levels. In addition to adopting and demonstrating a good study skills habit every day, your grade in this class will be based on: (Insert your grading plan i.e. worksheet/exercise completion, quiz/test scores, class participation, etc.) Blog/Debate/Discuss: College readiness is about more than mastery of content. College readiness refers to the level of preparation a student must have in order to enroll and succeed at the postsecondary level without remediation. The fact is, too many students fail college courses because of poor and unproductive learning skills. Depending on the source, the remediation rate for first year college students is anywhere between 25-40% No matter what the rate, remediation is costly. Students (or their parents) shell out for courses for which the student receives no credit. Statistics indicate that a students who takes a remedial course is far more likely to drop out without earning a degree. Remediation rates and consequences are high. As part of this course, students will blog, debate, and/or discuss issues related to study skills, academic success, and college readiness. Students are expected to participate in discussions and debates, whether conducted in class or by blog post. Comments should be relevant and reflect careful thought about the topic. (Demonstrate how to access and post to the blog.) Check for understanding and proceed to Communicate Learning Goals. Communicate Learning Goals Your learning goals for this lesson are to be able to state a simple definition of learning, recognize the application of good study skills to all aspects of learning, and describe the benefits of good study skills. Students will also preview the course materials.

Presentatation of Content

SLIDE 1B

How is a successful student like a winning athlete? Engage students in a discussion: What does it take to be a winning athlete? Is talent enough? Physical ability? Stamina? What about the mentality of a winning athlete? Does that play a part in success? (Anticipated/Guided answers are: skill, hard work, practice, focus, dedication, ambition, devotion…) Athletic success doesn’t happen by luck. Winning athletes practice techniques and skills over and over. They focus on perfecting their skills. They set goals, identify and correct mistakes. Hard work and focused practice make athletes faster, more efficient and more effective at their sport. Being a successful student also takes practice, skills and techniques. These are called study skills . Good study skills make you a faster, more efficient, and more effective student .

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What are study skills? The term study skills is misleading because it implies that theses skills are just for studying – like reviewing for a test or quiz. Study skills are not limited to reviewing for tests and quizzes. Study skills have a broad application. They apply whether you are studying for a quiz or test, in class listening to your teacher, participating in a lab or other learning activity, taking a test, reading a textbook or doing homework. How you learn is just as important as what you learn. Study skills are practices, strategies and techniques for all aspects of learning. SLIDE 1C

What is learning?

SLIDE 1D

Learning is the Acquisition of Knowledge Engage students in a discussion: What is learning? You spend much of your day trying to do it. Do you ever give any thought to what learning is and how it happens? Learning is a complex concept. There’s a large body of psychology devoted to what learning is, and how it happens. There are many ways to learn. Some learning is automatic. For example, when you were a small child you may have learned not to touch a hot stove by touching it once. (Ouch!) That’s learning by “conditioning.” Other learning, like memorizing the names of the U.S. presidents or how to find the area of a prism is not automatic. It takes time and often a great deal of effort. The result of learning is the acquisition of knowledge. Good study skills improve a student’s ability to acquire knowledge. PRODUCT PREVIEW Learning is the Retention of Knowledge Engage students in a discussion: Have you ever spent hours studying, were sure you knew the material but couldn’t remember it when you needed to? Did you not learn it as well as you thought? Why did the knowledge slip away? Some things you learn are not meant to be remembered for a long time, so the brain quickly lets go of the information. Other information, like the kind you learn in school, is meant to be remembered for a long time. If you forget this information too soon after you learned it, you did not learn it successfully. Good study skills include practices and strategies for retaining more information for a longer period of time. Good study skills improve a student’s ability to retain knowledge. Learning is the Demonstration of Knowledge Engage students in a discussion: Students are required to demonstrate what they’ve learned. What are ways students demonstrate knowledge? (Answers include: tests, quizzes, class participation, reports, essays, verbal reports, presentations, group presentations, etc.) Learning is measurable. Students must be able to successfully demonstrate what they’ve learned so their knowledge can be accurately measured and graded by their teachers. Demonstrating knowledge can be as simple as answering a question in class, or by test or quiz. Tests and quizzes can be essay, multiple choice, true or false, fill-in-the-blanks, short answer, oral response, or other demonstration. Good study skills improve a student’s ability to successfully demonstrate knowledge.

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Think of learning as a three part process: the acquisition of knowledge + the retention of that knowledge + the ability to effectively demonstrate the knowledge in a variety of ways . If you are deficient in any one of these areas, you will not be a successful student. Good study skills and learning strategies increase your ability to succeed in acquiring, retaining, and demonstrating knowledge. Learning and habituating good study skills and strategies is critical for college and career readiness Check for understanding and proceed to the activity. Activity The purpose of this activity is to familiarize students with the course organization and materials. Direct students to the Table of Contents in the workbook. Review the chapter titles. Note that there are 28 chapters, clustered in 8 units. Each unit presents a related set of skills. Select and preview a workbook chapter. Guide students to note: • Each chapter begins with a comic and introduction of a skill. • Learning goals are identified in the goal box on the first page of each chapter. • Chapters 1-4 explore the process of learning . It’s beneficial to know a little about the process of learning and thinking in order to be able to reflect on and improve your own thinking and learning! • Chapters 5-7 expand students’ awareness of learning styles, multi-sensory resources and strategies . Recognizing, developing, and using your unique abilities and compensating for your weaknesses makes you a more effective student. • Chapters 8-11 explore pre-learning strategies. Students learn about habits and practices that set the stage and prime the brain for successful learning. • Chapters 12-14 explore active learning, active reading and active listening. Learning is not a passive process! Students learn strategies and techniques for active engagement in the process of learning. • Chapters 15-17 present note-taking and outlining skills students will need for success in high school and college. Students learn that notetaking and outlining are particularly effective and useful tools for learning. • Chapters 18-19 investigate memory and recall techniques and strategies that can be used for retaining and recalling information in all subjects. • Chapters 20-23 review test-taking strategies to improve the ability to successfully demonstrate knowledge on short answer, essay, multiple choice and true/false tests, and oral presentations. • Chapters 24-28 preview high school and college readiness skills to enable students to gear up for long-term academic success. They will be applying to college in just a few short years, so preparing for college should now be an academic priority.

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Review the activity worksheets. Guide students to note: • The workbook contains the worksheets for all in-class activities.

• Turn to Application of Skills. Unless directed otherwise by your teacher, the Application of Skills worksheets are completed as homework. These exercises require significant thought and reflection. Students should allow 25-30 minutes for completion. • Turn to What Did You Learn? At the completion of a unit, students take a summary quiz called What Did You Learn? • Blog, debate, discuss. At the completion of a unit, students blog, debate, or discuss a study skill or college and career readiness topic. (Demonstrate how to access and post to the blog.) The Big Picture Learning is a three part process: the acquisition of knowledge + the retention of that knowledge + the ability to effectively demonstrate the knowledge. There are many different ways you can be asked to demonstrate the knowledge you have acquired. To be a successful student, you must be proficient in each of these areas. College readiness refers to the level of preparation a student must have in order to enroll and succeed at the postsecondary level without remediation. Habituating good study skills and strategies – that is making them second – nature to you, is critical for college and career readiness. Display the slide on the whiteboard. Read aloud. Guide students to verbally complete the blanks. PRODUCT PREVIEW 1. Learning is the acquisition of _____________________, which can occur in many ways. 2. Some knowledge is intended to be short-term, but most of what students learn in school is intended to be remembered for a long period of time. If you forget what you learned soon after you studied it, you did not learn ___________________. Learning includes the _____________________ of knowledge, which is the ability to ___________________ what you learned. 3. Good study skills make students _____________________ , more __________________________ , and _____________________ learners. 4. Study skills are not limited to _____________________ for tests and quizzes; They are skills, practices and strategies for all _____________________ of learning. 5. Learning is measurable. As part of the learning process, students must be able to successfully ______________________ their knowledge in a variety of assessment (measurement) formats. demonstrate Reading and Homework • Students read chapter 2 in the workbook to prepare for the next class. • Students complete page 6 in the workbook Application of Skills (What are Study Skills?) Collect for assessment. knowledge successfully remember/recall effective studying aspects faster efficient retention SLIDE 1E

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U.B. Smart School’s

U.B. SMART STUDENTS STUDY HOW TO STUDY

by Jason

discuss study skills and college readiness topics. All students must _______________________________ in the discussions, debates and blogs. On the first day of class, students learned that learning is really a three part process: the _____________________________________________, __________________________________, and ability to _________________________ knowledge. A.J., a 10th grader said “I really need to learn these skills. Even though I study a lot, I forget what I learn. I have a hard time _____________________ what I studied. Elena wants to learn good test-taking skills so she can better demonstrate her knowledge. “There are so many ways my teachers ask me to show what I know, such as: ___________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________. essay test, multiple choice test, true/false test, oral presentation, short answer test Students compared the traits of successful stu- dents with the traits of successful athletes. “These people have many traits in common,” said Mr. Skillsworth,” (List five – your choice.) ___________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________. Assisting Mr. Skillsworth are Miss Loveless, Mr. Viejo, and everyone’s favorite science teacher Ms. Pell. (Student’s discretion) participate acquisition retention demonstrate remembering

Big news from Rm. 400. Mr. Skillsworth’s study skills class is underway. Students are learning that good study skills take time, practice and discipline, but they’re worth the effort.

“How you learn is as important as what you learn” says Mr. Skillsworth

“As you move up through high school and into college, good study

skills are very important to your success as a student.” said Mr. Skillsworth. “They help you be a faster, more efficient and effective learner and contribute in a big way to ___________ and ___________ readiness.” His students totally agree. Alison, a 9th grade student, said “Good study skills take a lot of the frustration and _____________ out of learning. The skills, techniques, and strategies I learn in this class will be part of my normal study routine.” stress college career

SUSAN MULCAIRE

Students are using The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills . They must bring it to _____________ class. It contains the _______________ they need for class activities and homework. worksheets every

THE 21ST CENTURY STUDENT’S GUIDE TO

STUDY SKILLS

For College & Career Readiness

ILLUSTRATIONS BY ZAPP!

STUDENT WORKBOOK

Grades are based on in-class activities, homework completion, and consistent, everyday use of the skills learned in the class. At the end of each unit, students ____________, debate or blog

stress

every

acquisition

true/false test

retention

demonstrate

oral presentation

worksheets

short answer test

multiple choice test

blog

college

essay test

participate

remembering

career

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APPLICATION OF SKILLS

Name: _____________________________________________________________________________

What are Study Skills?

1. The term study skills is misleading. Why? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What does being a faster, more efficient and effective student mean to you? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What are your three worst study habits ? What problems have they caused for you? Student’s discretion. (Example: Using time more effectively; improving comprehension and recall; getting better grades; preparing for high school and college; experiencing less stress in school.) PRODUCT PREVIEW _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are your most productive study habits ? How have they helped you be a more successful student? _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. “ How you learn is just as important as what you learn.” Comment: _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. What’s the most frustrating and stressful part of learning for you? Acquiring, retaining or demonstrating knowledge? How does it make you feel about your abilities as a student, and your academic future in high school and college? Student’s discretion. Example: There are strategies and techniques for learning. Using them makes learning more efficient and improves a student’s ability to learn successfully. If you don’t know how to learn, it matters little what you learn. You must be able to acquire, retain and demonstrate the knowledge. _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ _ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. What grade would you give your current study skills and habits ? A+ A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D D- F Student’s discretion. The term is misleading because study skills are not limited to studying. They apply to all aspects of learning: Studying, homework, test-taking, participating in labs and learning activities, etc. Student’s discretion. Student’s discretion.

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NOTES

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NOTES

PRODUCT PREVIEW

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L E S S O N 2 Metacognition: The Self-Aware Student

SLIDE 2A

Textbook This lesson corresponds to Chapter 2 of The 21st Century Student’s Guide to Study Skills .

Materials • Computer/whiteboard display with internet access. • Webslides 2A-D (www.c21student.com) • Workbook pages 7-16. • (Optional) Flashcards (www.c21student.com) Objectives By the end of this lesson the student will be able to:  define metacognition.  list the traits of a self-aware student.  identify poor metacognitive skills in a series of examples.  complete a survey of their personal metacognitive skills.

PRODUCT PREVIEW

Gaining Attention In the previous lesson, students explored the concept of learning . Learning includes the acquisition, retention, and ability to demonstrate knowledge. To be a successful student you must be proficient in each of these areas. Good study skills and learning strategies increase your ability to succeed in acquiring, retaining, and demonstrating knowledge. College readiness refers to the level of preparation a student must have in order to enroll and succeed at the postsecondary level without remediation. Learning and habituating good study skills and strategies is critical for college and career readiness. The term study skills is misleading, because the skills apply to every aspect of learning, not just studying for a test or quiz. How you learn is just as important as what you learn.

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Engage students in a discussion: In the previous lesson, the class discussed the traits of winning athletes. Successful athletes practice long hours to perfect their skills and techniques. What goes through the mind of a good athlete when they are training? Are they thinking about what they watched on TV the night before? Are they wondering what to wear to school the next day? Do they just go through the motions of practice? (Take answers). Communicate Learning Goals Your learning goals for this lesson are to define metacognition , list the traits of a self-aware student, identify poor metacognitive skills in four examples, and complete a survey to determine whether you are a metacognitive student.

Presentaion of Content

SLIDE 2B

What is metacognition? Good athletes do not just “go through the motions” of practice! Successful athletes focus, laser-like, on their skills. They set goals to know what they want to achieve. They control their body movements, adjust speed, motion, and strategy for optimal performance. They gauge their progress by timing themselves, tracking completions, and assessing their performance. A good athlete is self-aware . Self-awareness is an important trait for students too. Successful students are self-aware learners who consciously monitor and focus on their learning as they learn. They think about their thinking. Thinking about thinking is called metacognition and it’s an important study skill.

What are the traits of a metacognitive student?  FOCUSES ON TASK

The metacognitive student focuses on one task at a time . Multitasking means trying to pay attention to, or work on several tasks at the same time. Neuroscientists (scientists who study the brain) have found that humans simply cannot focus well on more than one task at a time. Trying to focus on several matters at once (like watching TV or talking to friends while doing homework) creates a lot of conflict within the brain. When the brain is forced to switch back and forth between tasks, it constantly struggles to focus and refocus. It is an inefficient and unproductive way to learn. Laser- like focus on a single task is a trait of the metacognitive student.

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 IDENTIFIES LEARNING GOALS Studying is not unlike many other activities you engage in during the day. If you stop at the store on the way home from school, you generally know why you’re there, and what you want to get. Before starting a learning task, such as homework, reading, or studying for a test or quiz, the metacognitive student takes a minute to identify the information their brain should be retrieving from the task. Identifying specific learning goals is kind of like creating a shopping list for your brain, telling it what information to pick up as you study. The identification of specific learning goals is a trait of the metacognitive student.  ASSESSES ENVIRONMENT Physical surroundings impact a student’s ability to meet their learning goals. A metacognitive student assesses their learning environment and makes adjustments to enable them to control and manage their learning. Environment can include where and when you study, with whom you study, and how you study. The metacognitive student is able to recognize a poor study environment, adjust it, or seek out a new environment which better facilitates learning. Monitoring and adjusting their learning environment to optimize learning is a trait of the metacognitive student.  ADJUSTS THINKING PRODUCT PREVIEW Metacognitive students are alert to changes in thinking, such as when their mind wanders off task, or when they don’t understand something. They are aware of attitudes or thoughts that distract them from their learning goals. They adjust their thinking and refocus. If a learning strategy isn’t working, the metacognitive student adjusts to use a different strategy. Actively monitoring and controlling their thought processes as they learn is a trait of the metacognitive student.  GAUGES PROGRESS The metacognitive student checks progress toward their learning goals by testing their knowledge as they learn. They pause to check their comprehension of reading material. They restate concepts in their own words . They check whether they understand the big idea of a lesson. They check their answers for accuracy. They reflect on their learning. Metacognitive students know that it is important to test themselves before they are tested by their teacher. When metacognitive students don’t understand something, they ask for help instead of ignoring it, or assuming they’ll figure it out later. The ability to gauge progress toward their learning goals is a trait of the metacognitive student.

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What is metacognition in action? Read the following profiles aloud. Direct students to listen and observe the metacognitive skills of each student. Compare and contrast the metacognitive traits. Engage students in a discussion: “Who are you most like?”

Issa, a high school sophomore, is in her room doing homework . She keeps her cell phone out of her work space because she knows she gets distracted by texting. She’s reading a chapter in her science textbook, learning about gravitational force, specifically Newton’s Laws of Motion for a quiz on Wednesday . She comes across a word she doesn’t understand. She pauses and thinks “Uh oh, I don’t understand that word. I will need to know what it means , or the rest of this chapter probably won’t make much sense.” She checks the definition, then rereads the sentence, inserting the definition in place of the actual word. She asks “does that make sense? Do I understand now?” When she’s sure she understands, she continues reading.

Assesses and controls her learning environment.

Focuses on a single task.

Identifies specific learning goals.

Monitors and adjusts her thinking.

Gauges progress toward her learning goals.

By contrast, here’s Chris:

Chris, a classmate of Issa’s, is on the sofa in the family room. He’s doing his homework – sort of. Books and papers are spread out around him. As he reads he keeps an eye on the sports channel, makes a couple of phone calls, texts his bros’ about plans for the weekend , and throws the ball for his dog. He’s working on a chapter in his science textbook – something about gravity and Newton – maybe Einstein – he’s not sure . Anyway, it’s boring. He’s in a hurry to finish because he’s meeting his friends at the movies. He notices that there’s this one word that keeps showing up all over the chapter. He doesn’t have a clue what it means. He’s gotten tripped up on that word before. He ignores it and keeps going assuming he’ll figure it out eventually.

Multitasking. Not focused on a single task.

Poor control of his learning environment.

Needs to adjust his thinking to refocus.

Doesn’t know his learning goals.

He does not check progress toward goals.

Check for understanding and proceed to the activity.

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Activity Direct students to page 12 of the workbook. Divide students into four groups. Assign one Metacognitive Muddle student profile to each group. Students read and discuss their assigned student profiles to determine whether or not the student exhibits the traits of a metacognitive student. Groups present their profiles and findings to the class, answering the questions below. Alternatively, group-read the student profiles and discuss the student’s self-awareness traits. 1. Is the student focused on the task of learning, or just going through the motions? Are they multitasking? 2. Has the student identified their specific learning goals? Do they have a clear understanding of what they are supposed to retrieve from their learning tasks? (What is the student doing right/wrong?) 3. Does the student recognize a poor learning environment? Does he or she monitor and make adjustments to their environment to optimize learning? (If so, how? If not, what does the group recommend?) 4. Does the student monitor their thinking, and adjust their thinking or learning strategies to focus and optimize learning? (If so, how? If not, what does the group recommend?) 5. Does the student gauge their progress? Do they check for accuracy? Do they self-test, or restate concepts in their own words? (If so how? If not, what does the group recommend?) (Answer key below.) PRODUCT PREVIEW Answer Key Is Alison a metacognitive student? Answer: No! Ali is not focused on the task of learning . Doing homework at the coffee house while sipping a latte is not necessarily a bad thing, but for Ashley it may not be the ideal place. She admits to being distracted by the noise and conversations going on around her. She’s so distracted she hasn’t identified the learning goals of her math homework. She is actually multitasking, because the chatter around her causes her to pay attention to many things, requiring her brain to focus and refocus. It is a poor learning environment . Whether you’re in a cafe, carpool or just hanging out with friends, a chatty social environment is not conducive to learning. Ali needs to adjust to her learning environment , by waiting until she gets home to do her homework. The fact that Alison’s “relieved” because she’s merely passing her class indicates a problem with her ability to gauge her progress. She’s just squeaking by. Math is a subject requiring mastery of one skill before moving on to the next. An accurate gauge of progress (such as by self-testing or restating big ideas) would tell Ali that she is headed for trouble in this class. Is Max a metacognitive student? Answer: No! Max’s attitude about the class is a distraction . Attitude is a component of thinking and it impacts learning. Max needs to make an adjustment to his thinking to improve his attitude. His mind wanders, affecting his focus . Max needs to identify his learning goals to understand the objectives of the lab . Metacognitive Muddle SLIDE 2C

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METACOGNITION: THE SELF-AWARE STUDENT | LESSON 2

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(“What specific knowledge and facts should I take away from this task when I finish?”) He should adjust his learning environment to better control and manage his learning. How about doing his homework earlier in the day before practice and gaming? He should set a goal to get through all of the reading and gauge his understanding of the material by pausing to reflect on and restate concepts . Max should definitely avoid studying on his bed. It’s a poor study environment. Is A.J. a metacognitive student? Answer: Partly. A.J. identifies tasks and follows directions. He does his homework and studies for tests and quizzes. But is A.J. just going through the motions of studying? His mind wanders while he’s reading. He loses focus, but doesn’t adjust his thinking or strategies to refocus. He doesn’t have a clear understanding of his goals . His low test and quiz scores indicate that, although he thinks he’s doing well, he is not accurately gauging his progress . He should test himself before his teacher tests him . If A.J. were a metacognitive student, he would ask his teacher for help to understand why his scores are not reflecting his effort level. He can make adjustments to his learning environment by adding study time or breaking his time into smaller more frequent study sessions. He should also adjust his learning strategies by trying different study techniques to assure he is meeting his learning goals. Is Elena a metacognitive student? Answer: Yes! Elena is aware that literature is a struggle for her. She assessed her learning environment and realized that she needed a quiet place to study in order to improve her focus. By studying at the library twice a week she’s adjusted her learning environment to improve her ability to focus. Elena identifies and understands her learning goals . Aware that she’s confused about literary devices, she’s adjusted her thinking and learning strategy to help her learn . She creates samples (which is like restating concepts) and has a measurable goal to learn three devices/terms per week. To gauge her progress , she checks in with her teacher and tracks her scores. She’s awesome. She thinks about her thinking. She is a metacognitive student.

At the conclusion of the activity, check for understanding and proceed to The Big Picture!

The Big Picture Metacognition means thinking about your thinking. Focusing on a single learning task and knowing what your learning goals are as you study are traits of a metacognitive student. Metacognitive students manipulate their environment to optimize learning and gauge their progress toward their goals. Don’t just go through the motions of learning. When you are in the process of learning something, be acutely aware of a) what your learning goals are and b) whether you are accomplishing those goals. If not, make necessary adjustments. Being a self-aware, metacognitive student goes a long way toward college and career readiness. SLIDE 2D

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Display the slide on the whiteboard. Read aloud. Guide students to verbally complete the blanks.

Thinking

thinking

1. _________________________ about _________________________ is called metacognition and it’s an important trait for a self-aware student. 2. The metacognitive student does not __________________________ , which means trying to pay attention to other tasks while learning; they ___________________ on the single task of learning. 3. A metacognitive student identifies their specific ________________ goals, so their brain knows what information to retrieve as they study. 4. A metacognitive student monitors their __________________ environment and _________________ processes, and makes ____________________ to optimize learning. 5. A metacognitive student gauges _________________________ toward their learning goals by checking comprehension, self-testing, and putting concepts into their own words. A metacogntive student tests themself before their _________________tests them. Reading and Homework • Students read chapter 3 in the workbook to prepare for the next lesson. • Students complete pages 14-15 in the workbook Application of Skills (Metacognitive Homework Survey.) Collect for assessment. PRODUCT PREVIEW multitask focus learning learning adjustments progress teacher thinking

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METACOGNITION: THE SELF-AWARE STUDENT | LESSON 2

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CLASS ACTIVITY WORKSHEET

Name: _____________________________________________________________________________

Metacognitive Muddle Metacognition means thinking about thinking . Metacognitive students are self-aware students. They focus on learning as they learn. They identify their learning goals and monitor progress toward their goals. Metacognitive students assess and adjust their learning environment to keep it free from distractions. Read the profiles below and tell whether the student is a metacognitive student . 1. Is the student is focused on learning ? Are they multitasking ? (How can you tell?) 2. Has the student identified their learning goals ? (How can you tell?) 3. Does the student make adjustments to their learning environment to overcome problems? (If so what? If not, what changes do you recommend?) 4. Does he or she make adjustments to their thinking or learning strategies and optimize learning? (If so, how? It not, what do you recommend?) 5. Does the student accurately gauge their progress ? (How? If not, what do you recommend?)

“Hi! I’m Ali. I usually do my algebra homework at the coffee house after school. It’s crowded and noisy, but I like listening to everyone around me as I work on problems – it makes it less boring. I have a quiz tomorrow, so today I reviewed some stuff that might be on the quiz. I hope I remember! I totally never feel like I have a good grasp of what I’m supposed to know before my teacher moves on to the next chapter, but so far this semester, I’m passing the class.” Is Alison a metacognitive student? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________ _ _____________________________________________________________ See answer key.

Alison

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

“Hey, I’m Max. OK, well bio is by far my worst class. For one thing, it’s super hard. My teacher gives us way too much homework. Also, it’s first period which starts at 7:45 and it’s hard for me to stay awake that early in the morning. Agggh I am so tired. I especially struggle with the labs, because I don’t get what’s going on or what the point of it is. I usually start my science homework about 9:00 at night because I have lacrosse practice from 5:00-7:00. Then I have to eat dinner and do a little gaming. I study on my bed. I don’t get through much of the reading before I’m asleep.” Is Max a metacognitive student? Why or why not?

Max

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CLASS ACTIVITY WORKSHEET

See answer key.

Elena __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ “I’m A.J. OK, overall, I’d say I’m a pretty good student. I’m pretty good about doing homework. I follow directions. I do all of the assignments and reading for my classes. My mind wanders a lot. I lose focus but I do my homework without complaining. I don’t even think about it – I just get through the reading and worksheets and that’s what counts, right? I study a lot before tests and quizzes. I always think I’m prepared, but it’s really weird, because my scores are low. I don’t get it. It’s kinda discouraging.” Is A.J. a metacognitive student? Why or why not? _ _____________________________________________________________ See answer key. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ PRODUCT PREVIEW “I’m Elena. My “problem” class is literature. I totally struggle with all those long, boring “thou” and “thee” 19th century poems. I was getting low quiz scores. I needed to improve my focus and concentration to work through those difficult passages. I was doing my homework with friends, but we talked a lot. Personally, I need total quiet to get my work done – no distractions. So I started going to the library twice a week to do the reading. That really helped. The unit on literary devices was so confusing. Allegory, allusion, alliteration – OMG they all sound the same! My teacher said that we have to be able to define the device and use it in our own writing. Now I learn three devices per week, and make three examples. I show the examples to my teacher to make sure they’re right. I ace the quizzes.” Is Elena a metacognitive student? Why or why not? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ See answer key. A. J.

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METACOGNITION: THE SELF-AWARE STUDENT | LESSON 2

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