البرازيل.. القوة الصاعدة في أميركا اللاتينية

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$P  \ Y W$M/ $ $Y $(f  a. n  'I a3Q  ¢$…\ C    $ .=: š .$  C „m . &I ?R "m .    ‚ '2 'I @JK  "( 6= . a  # v"I w  )O (2'O bR  &I a3Q  &²= HX*K2 …f    O a3Q  . ),  Q3 12= Žf"$= 7 HX*K  © C  gf 2] $k $;  `(*   ' = @yk   &I  ,  ;2 S;(  D2JK   " K  .   1815 K  L# >2O . +0 D\ f  Ll*  'L 2 " @J  0  L%  6 C(  f  (2'O k9 @JK  q, `f  &Y {X*K  HX*K  6 žm C .   1822 $"( / ^   S:  M ) h(0 ^Q  `f  &Y j  ¿$ 12  9 @JK  (2 ( *  M <= +0  l HX*K  h(0 vž $'f @JK   .  7 C2/   > ? C K' \ $"( /   ) H:   h\  0m „$´\ ^Q  ( 9 @JK  HA \ }0 $'\ HX*K  7 $0 ‰M A 2 ]KR H/ 8 ` 1827   ^$(f $M Af\ «* 3 @JK   {X*$ . ]KV h(0 vž  l  e$= H]/ h3/ C 0 @JK  v# ¤;    ) 1831 Ÿ 1889 ( +fO 12 ¦)2  ',* tAM L# Ž $k  jQ3 HAM À D…"m @ ;'   > QI D\ f  ^$(f  š .$  4 H R ) 1888 (  h*  ! o . C z$  ZX R C &$yO   (2O ›]/ $(f A " 1889 L'o  . C2/  . Ll* C Y$0 2] 20$ @JK  @M\ ^$(f  ‡A "m Q C  C´  $* HY  I L 2 $ f \ ^.m D'Ym D\ f  mR L,  t a(´*   1974 v .* 2  $k  >2*  12= Ž $G L = vY$* $=  A  h(0 12  \m $(f  (G . J/  23/ ‡$0  A  v \ A O L = v)Á= . 9 ^Q  `T= 2 T D2JK  h   h\ JK $k  >2* HAM \ bR  C {: +*$ h(G 1930 }0 1945 C  ";   1951 }0 1954 .

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22

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23

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24

  

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25

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26

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27

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28

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29

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30

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31

 : ● Susanne Gratius (2010) Brazil’s geo-political and geo-strategic conditions for leadership. Unpublished report prepared for Aljazeera Centre for Studies. ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil ● CIA Factbook (2010) Brazil. ● FAO (2010) www.fao.org ● Fausto. B (1999) A concise history of Brazil. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 9-25 ● St. Louis.R, & Draffen.A (2005) Brazil. Lonely Planet Guide. p. 13-62 ● Gomez.M (2005) Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 91-97 ● Sachs.I et.al (2009) Brazil: A century of Change. The University of North Carolina Press. ● Filippo Bof & Filippo Santaniello(2006) The Geopolitics of South America: Venezuela and Brazil. http://www.eni.com/it_IT/attachments/ lavora-con-noi/pdf/GEOPOLITICA-SudAmerica.pdf ● Burns.E, Hull.R &, Lee Ralph. P (1997) World Civilizations, their history and their culture. Norton and Company. p. 775-819

32

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34

J bR '0 ^g \ &(f   12 Z, @ ;'  u0  S X* ^/ &²= , $fk Q3 @  D\ \ ^. ?k, A9/ 'O   m  ?k" 0 J 7 &* CQ  hLfk"/ h3 S k  m  D2; &/ 8 I 6. nf* s$(* C =M @ ;'  " C   ?k,   "  A/ m  + @(I D2JK  D\ f  E,2 .gO 2yO jQ3 @G A f  $] ¡R . D3 $IQ   \ 2(P'2 @0 C F)   3Y 0$ O $;I/ @  af,   G h%  + 6'o 12 Z, ‡,   M bR * w  >2* m2 …O  .  <*  \ f  ‡0: 6\ =  $  jQ3 v È*   SX  m   fM C  ‰$* . ›,  ›$ O > Q aÁI   }0 SX  m   t R I$ s\g* &/ ‡0: 12  &( f= S3'o e. C 6\* . ST ›$ O Q3 @; C( W$M: 0$ O C j & @ (P  ]  H  ¨] nR bR Y” . E,   ,  QY SX* B     2J$ (0 / $* / ‡ /   2f  b* (G @(P* &/ $ [: > ? ŽD\ f   kf Lfk" 4  &$\ [²=  $P* …" m [²= {  Žh%. 3   L \( 3 k* . Y S X* / 0A9R Z$YV Df  Qƒ, 0  *  " . E,   ,  QY SX* / 0A9R Z$YR 9 hT > ? 6 S X* ^/ Š•  "/ ¨ m Q3 &²= D2JK  D\ f  Ÿ r   Ÿ Q, R H)  + 7O C   HA…= ŽD7O &$   , "c  D]$ U  E,  b 6J* R &B# C  =$XY $;  6J* R C " @JK  L# $;  Ÿ  f  $ k  C ,'L= 'I Ÿ ?k,  I$  $M h\ ´ &/ m  + D\ f  S-B  . 9V Y/  = 9$= C$P  &$   , f* 62   K 2  0A Q…* v"I w  I$P  C S;I @ " S k  m   ';\A  Y D.$P  H'P  H'P  LY bR t    ,X  m  C ) I$¬ š], $ = $;I: m  (  ^: uM C k\m  L,  T   \ 2 ¢‚ C =  62f  /  I$'o YG C G  zf   Z 2 .

35

8 ;(* š$] C m  jQ3 Z$ k (G '3 6 , > ? ± ¡  6PO H/ «7  P O hL7/ +fž bR =t  'Ym “K    dk,  mx  0 f   .  %L,  2’ v"(= ) n  6 P*  S k  m   ';\m 12   Í‚ (  2k  S-B  Y J &/ Z$- $;I: m  j$(ž v"I  3   k  (G  m  jQt  = {  " v2)2ž "  E,  Ay W0R D2JK  D\ f . Z,  &/ ST  ‰$,\ @JK   D\ f  Z, 2 O Y: 0/ W\ s { k  W$M: Y: <     f  .  !  S;I 82¥ m ƒ 3 hIr  C  2JK   %y  E,O 8 B* y. Y @I  0A9 D$t L2(# W$M:  %y  E,O @´Y C  % '(r  2 H '(r  2 '(r A   Y = Ž  H hE   2  %y. ƒ 3  2 $(f ... ÎR . @JK   Zy  C  . DX ,  C(  '*  %y  f\gO &/ C hT$  12 "/ 3 Ÿ H  š \ 'I Ÿ ,  mR 3 bR $ k* fk" v.   "/ "  k  " " 0/ ,\ y  z$Xf*  =  Y”  2JK   %y  f\gO &²= Qt ŽL = v  h &/ @ . L2'IB   * w  @JK  "( a\, ^R D$P* ¨L ›A9R $ * bR    ' 2.R  ,* .   "   9 ^Q  { k  \  12 @JK    G  \ f   G vf\B*  1988 ^Q  D]$.U  H)  - C $-/ &I \  Q3 &/ hT   A  *L# 21 {'P  ^$(f  h(G C  ) 1964 Ÿ 1985 ( "/ mR ‡$ 7m A=0 H m  z$X\m y Ly ‰ w  ,  $;I AB  Sfk  †½$½#  n.  a f* w  ‡L\V X  @ 9k  &"  ZL = s  \ f  HY h3 \  Q3 aI ^Q  &: > ?

36

^\  . \ f  HY Ÿ 2 3 'I Ÿ heZ'" hL = h()* hL'(ž  Y : he   \ f  heLY*  G . &/ $Xf C( h2= Qt . Y S;I \ A* + 7O C   HAM \  Q3 LP L'x N2 ?R ŽL = ‘X®  £ 2  * 61 A* .   jQ3 @( 1kI . D2JK    ^/$  &/ CE´ . C(  A A  C O ^,*  2JK  S3'o H* m ?R Ž> ? ST   G "G  …"m A'G @¬ h E,  2O ,   9M \   "OK  ) &" 2 k ~ H'/ \'O "G ‡,  < @Xf .( C( C S;I &/ 2(PO  0 h%  6.  D\ f  hL2 f   . + \ f  C ž .  2 f 0A9R / &/ &  h[²= ˆ C Ž 2    @( S X \ f  …,  12 dXy2 D2JK    ^/$  I$ &²= Qt h3?k" H \ \  . ,  "(R \   H*  @;'*  =7R  $P*  0A9 s %$  q .g  \% h \$ 9R 12 *   . \  2 \  jQ3 q'f* &OK  š* 12 H)2 E"m & = Y $P* Cf s %$2 . š0  * @ af)= 6$P  š0 s %$2 .gO  \%$  h \$O jQ3 q,¬ m B  &OK  ,Y/ 12 $# O S- . &"  12 š   &OK  @P= ?R ,Y:  / @) ^= @(P +"  jQ3  *  +-A- HAM o LP., &OK  @XP, w  W$M: y  @r @ž  "OK  . \2  ] \%$  \$O &²= D2JK   d = …f´ &/ a¡ $E,   0,  C v.gO D mG jQ3  ] n¸$PO •   2'   0,  C &I &R L,  m0 . C  * 1 2* &/ a¡ .gO h \$O jQ3 @; &/ > ? 6 §0AO C @ ª. C L0$. Q, $;I: 12  +-A- &yT  `$p(  s %$  . C  D\ f  $ \m ¤OK  8 )  &²= ˆ C Ž$k  jQ3  2= q * h \$O jQ3 @; 12 š2 & 0  &,y  ³ .  \  @JK    ]$.U  \ Q, "²= $:   0  1988 ž Z, C +…,O Z\i$  6  C(¬   2T: C $ f H  8 

37

h(G Z/ C H Wf š ž  \%$  …"m ‡ /   "OK  h(G  k )O ‡0: @ . C Y   HAM C > ? .  Y m ` C  w  $k  >2* W\ Z,;\ > ? 1990 $I/ }0 1992  %$  h(0 @¦  9M =A% (0 @ (P* bR Bo ^Q   I ""S= s H´  Zf'2 ‰¸$* “L,  Qt  *  "  D…" `\/ 12 h * &OK  C $   , C .  2JK   $P  ƒ t 8 B* ) `$X"(  ( +f2x C : H: : s2x _ P  C 8 B 81 y ) m @I C Zy/ -A- ( 8 B ‡,  s2x ¤;   C 513 y ) 1 ( . s2x &/ 12 h f   Q3 Z  \\: $(k   * aP  ' ‡,  s2x  = @;U ^Q  v.   m  Å @;U _ P  . L f2  $P  ƒ t C('* m :   C ‡,  _ P  12 š k )  fO C   2]  2' +"  jQ3 $¬ &/ & +"  ^/ 12     2'  @¡ ^Q  $: +f2º @M  \ f  @(  + q * {   B , &/ 0: C(U m   T   Bf &". , 3  2   \ f  ‡0: jQt @Y: S.  y  ÅO . 2(P C ¤*  2JK   G  G &/ ,'2 ?R 2 +   " S X*  G Zm  " jZ'" SX &/ ,   0 '%. 12 J= q#$O C(U ?R Ž ^Q  $: &OK  @M  ,  D\$I 12 \2Y = DG v  @Y " 2\ " DG Z'"m  " =$0 " L% C ‡,  < af( . D%y  E,  / D2JK  D\ f  E,   ,  j &OK  C Q3 Ž@IP A "/ ¨ m Q3 C( HA \m 3,  S I 0 bR 6' =  h3J Y  y  + * h F 0 &/ D\ f  E,  H•  9  M C    D\$I 12 3 ,ƒ'  2¡  "'y  C D7 2 @k(  "(R  y  37  w  k*$O a*$  > ?   O    ,LO „$P hLk ~  -  mR ‚ C hL2= . ) 1 (  $-) " +"& " "  ( / 0   ( $/1 23 .

38

 E,  C ,;0 hŒ W C $\ )'2 @JK   D\ f "  P  IPO  =kP  " `. v2M w  ;G )2 O C ³ "  #$  h(G ."  `B m  =kP  C . @k( D2JK  E,  &/ šG= &(* &/  L4    $0 [ / t(#/ „AM 12 AV @%\= > ?  2Xf =k# a%$y  D= H/ $;  6J  2O @%fO v"$"V L   AV @%\ C   . /  2* ^ ´* m [/ 'I 7  * [R @ D\ f  ›A9V ,O   6 @   "PM P  ZY/ J*    Ï > ? C ›'  & [/ q )9  =k hI$  &/ Sf* D\ f  ›A9V 2 &B +,]O $P´* @.: 12 L,( D" SX* bR v.  $ ^g \ D'(  . S 2 k2…O  'Ym I$G / Hº q  D\ f  E,  &/ 'I $3E  ‰$m š0 L),U Lfk" C  \ f  ‡0à    @k(*  ,o h\  „$´* …"m  .$O ,o @ (P* " …"m   " D3 L,   k  ef =( …"m 12 „$#V C  ƒf 2 f ,o L3" &'y  %m  . Y* w  AyO A(PO C H   @I hT  D\ f  E,   ,2. ?R  G C  " m . ,"/ mR k" 3,7$\ w  @JK  : E" "R Q3  ]$ U & *, fž *, v'I$* v.   2 ¸$ '2I Cf) DL,* &/ / @.$* &/  G  2JK  ',  $2 C('O C &I E,  $  ‡)9/ ¶ W$M/ H   ',* ‡4 v#A* 'I 1#A*  ‡P  C4 h2= D\ \ 3 ' „$  ¸yT ^. 3  L = ST E"m C ,\ " q$  < . ."

39

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  1835 @JK  bR S C $IJ &M: @9  ,  $ \ @JK  bR  $ $3 H/ > Q +2–f S"Y ^  . / *  > ? hT Q,'= Ž$P 6\  &$   ,  \  W\    ‡$  C$YLO / @JK  ‡$ D f,  &J  J «  > ?  ¼'L ‘'®2Ì 2¹(# h®- Cª    >2* «* . ZY CQ  + ) fO C @JK  bR C=  ‡$  C$YLO a2T/ &I &,  \ C ) 1 (  Zmg3 a2T/ &I 2 2. hL,  +'2fO / v"I a3QO D–,´\ +'2fO .  }0 1908  †'o )2 v"I @f* $kf  ƒ=  ‡$  C$YLO " ^$M/  f,Y "  f,o vž hL2f* v"I ‘" 0/  "  I$  " /  " †$*/ Ÿ‡$ " /  " †$*/ Ÿ & \ ." &/ bR > ? ¸½$½ &I  †Q"  "';   2 7M v"I h ./ C ZY C=  ‡$  hE .  ‡$  @ f* / L,  @; L, ½*®/ w  H  , vž " : \ "" &, "  , /  f,Y / C'7 2½f´ &/ & A  2M . hL, Ð=m &/ hT ¨L u¥ /  =$XY . +$O + , f2k  C @ 2.  †,3 &I C$YLO + C  ‡ \: vk2M + .$  + ": v"I &R h[]/ XO hL= w

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