CellCheck Newsletter September FINAL

September Edition 2018

CellCheck ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND NEWSLETTER Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health

www.AnimalHealthIreland.ie

PROGRAMME

NEWS P3

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR P4

CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH P6

RESEARCH UPDATE P8

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27

AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of Teagasc and all our stakeholders to the CellCheck programme.

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie

CELLCHECK PROGRAMME UPDATE

September News

Finola McCoy, Programme Manager

W elcome to this month’s edition of the CellCheck newsletter. While this summer has presented us with challenges in terms of grass availability, it may also be responsible for an increased risk of new mastitis infections. See our monthly tip to learn more about this, and how to reduce this risk. Our guest contributor this month, Bernadette O’Brien from Teagasc reminds us about some of the most important factors that can influence milking efficiency. The research study referred to in her article is our featured research article this month. We would also like to draw your attention to the establishment of the ‘CellCheck Partner Lab’ list on the AHI website. Any commercial laboratory that is delivering milk sample services for mastitis management to an agreed standard and undergoing continual evaluation in this area is recognised as a ‘CellCheck Partner Lab’. For more details, click here .

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR How many cows can one person milk ?

Dr. Bernadette O’Brien, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork

T he milking process should be recognised as the most important operation on the dairy farm. From a labour perspective it is the most significant task of the day, accounting for approximately 33% of total labour demand, irrespective of herd size. While all farmers aspire to an efficient milking process, the outcome will be a function of people, cows and capital investment, and thesemust interact correctly to give optimumperformance. Milking parlours are run most efficiently when the capacity of the milking equipment matches the capacity of the labour person(s) milking the cows. The milking operator should not be waiting for the milking equipment (e.g. cluster) to become available and the equipment should be fully utilised, not idle and waiting for the operator to catch up. Thus, efficiency is maximised when the equipment and labour are balanced. Three important factors in this equation are

Milking parlours are run most efficiently when the capacity of the milking equipment matches the capacity of the labour person(s) milking the cows. The milking operator should not be waiting for the milking equipment (e.g. cluster) to become available and the equipment should be fully utilised, not idle and waiting for the operator to catch up.

• the work routine of the person;

• number of milking units and presence of automatic cluster removers (ACRs) (to prevent over-milking);

• stage of lactation (which influences individual cowmilking time).

A further important factor is the length of time the operator may wish to spend in the milking parlour or how long the operator can remain efficient at the milking task, which is generally considered to be not longer than 2h. In order to add clarity to this issue, a research study at Moorepark investigated the effect of milking cluster number, pre-milking routine and stage of lactation onmilking rowtime, over milking and operator idle time, in a side x side parlour. As cluster number increased, row time and duration of over-milking were increased and idle time was reduced. The type of routine practiced, largely dictates the number of clusters one operator can handle. In a one-person milking process, when a minimal pre-milking routine is

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR

applied, 22milking clusters may be operated without experiencing over-milking of longer than ~2min in the absence of ACRs, resulting in a milking time of 2.0 h and 1.6 h in early and late lactation, respectively, for a herd of 220 cows (e.g. 10 rows, 12.0 min milking row time). The presence of ACRs would allow a cluster number of up to 26 to be managed due to the ACRs effect in eliminating over-milking in late lactation, thus enabling a 260 cow herd to be milked in 2 h and 1.8 h in early and late lactation, respectively. Alternatively, when a full pre-milking routine is applied, milking cluster numbers of 14 (early lactation) or less (late lactation) may be operated without experiencing over-milking of longer than ~2 min in the absence of ACRs. However, ACRs would prevent over-milking with increasedmilking units. Additional units (>14) would allow greater cow numbers to be milked within a specified time of, for example ~2 h, but row time would increase, e.g. to 16 and 19 min with 22 and 26 units, respectively). Thus, informed decisions and choices need to be made with regard to desired milking performance, since actual performance will be influenced by a number of inter-dependent variables, such as herd size, preferred pre-milking routine, preferred milking time and available investment capital.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH Don’t let those bugs sneak in! M astitis is not a mystery disease. It occurs when bacteria get into the quarter, through the teat end. Generally when cows are out at grass, there are fewer bacteria in the environment and so the risk of new infection is lower. However, conditions this summer may have challenged this ‘norm’. On many farms, cows are being housed for blocks of time, for feeding purposes. As a consequence of the hot weather, cows may also have been congregating around water troughs or in areas of shelter and so these common areas may be dirtier than normal. As a result, teats are being exposed to more dirt and bacteria than usual. This, coupled with heat stress which may lead to a lowering of the cow’s defences against mastitis-causing pathogens can result in an increase in newmastitis infections. [Click here] for previously published tips

Clean cows + Clean milker + Clean environment = less mastitis!

Reducing the number of bacteria at the teat ends reduces the risk of mastitis: 1. Milk clean cows a. Keep tails and udders clipped.

b. Put cups on clean, dry teats. Teats may not be as clean as usual because of current conditions....if so, wash and dry them! Pre-milking teat disinfection with a registered product will also help reduce the bacterial load on teats. c. Always disinfect teats after milking-the whole teat, every cow, every milking! 2. Clean up your act! a. Wear clean gloves when milking. b. Wear clean overalls and aprons for milking. 3. Work in clean surroundings a. Keep the parlour clean during milking-be careful with that hose while the cows are still there, or you will create a shower of bacteria! b. Clean concrete yards between each milking to ensure cow standing areas are clean. c. If cows are being housed, even for short periods of time, don’t forget to clean and lime cubicles and mats daily.

For more tips on reducing the risk of mastitis see the CellCheck Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control, particularly Guidelines 1, 8, 27 & Management Note L.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH

Always milk with clean gloves

Ensure collecting yards are clean

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

RESEARCH UPDATE Journal of Dairy Research (2012) 79 216–223. © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2012 doi:10.1017/S0022029912000088.

Milking parlour size, pre-milking routine and stage of lactation affect efficiency of milking in single-operator herringbone parlours

Bernadette O’Brien 1 *, Jennifer Jago 2 , J. Paul Edwards 2,3 , Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos 3 and Finola McCoy 1

ABSTRACT Efficientmilking systems, in terms of labour demand, capital investment and cowudder healthare critical to successful dairy herd expansion. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of two primary influencing factors on efficient milking performance, i.e. parlour size (number of milking units) and pre-milking routine (full and nil) of spring-calved cows, in a single-operator side-by-side, swing-over milking parlour. Efficiency parameters investigated in a 5×2 factorial design included milk-flow and yield, row time, over-milking duration and operator idle time. Five combinations of parlour size (14, 18, 22, 26 and 30 milking units) each with two different pre-milking routines (Full: spray, strip, wipe, attach clusters, and Nil: attach clusters) were examined with one milking operator. The trial was carried out over 40 milking sessions and cows (up to 120) were randomly assigned to groups (n=14, 18, 22, 26 or 30) before eachmilking session. Rowwithin a milking session was the experimental unit. The experiment was carried out at both peak and late lactation. The data were analysed with a mixed model using GenStat 13.2. The full pre-milking routine reduced time to milk let-down and milking time, increased average flow rate but did not affect milk yield. As milking unit number increased, the duration of over-milking (defined as time at milk flow rate <0·2 kg/min) increased more with a full compared with nil routine. Thus, the use of pre-milking preparation decreased milking time per cow but as parlour size increased, milking row times, as well as the proportion of cows that were over-milked, also increased, thereby reducing overall efficiency. These results have implications for milking management in single- operator swing-over, tandem and rotary parlours with seasonally calved herds. 1 Livestock Systems Research Department, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland 2 DairyNZ, Cnr Ruakura & Morrinsville Roads, Newstead, Private Bag 3221, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand 3 Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, College of Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand Received 20 June 2011; accepted for publication 11 January 2012; first published online 28 February 2012

Key words: Milking parlour, milking efficiency, pre-milking routine, dairy cow.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

CELLCHECK REGIONAL COORDINATORS

A Resource and Point of Contact for CellCheck Activities in your Area

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Tom Starr 087 6697010

Mícheal Guinan 086 3511852 micheal.guinan@aurivo.ie Mayo/Sligo Aurivo

tstarr@arrabawn.ie Tipperary/Limerick National Co-op

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John Fitzpatrick 086 0426567

John Murphy 066 7163200 john.murphy@kerry.ie Kerry/Clare Kerry Agribusiness

fitzpatrickj@glanbia.ie Kilkenny/Laois/Carlow/ Kildare/Dublin Glanbia

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Sinead Treanor streanor@carbery.com 023 8822369 West Cork Carbery Group

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Andrew O’Neill 086 1836505 aoneill@tipperary-coop.ie Tipperary Tipperary Co-Op

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Tom Downes 087 2564669

Denis Guiry 086 8098639 dguiry@dairygold.ie Cork/Tipperary/Limerick Dairygold

downest@lakeland.ie Longford/Monaghan Lakeland Dairies

Brendan Dillon 087 2626851 BrDillon@glanbia.ie

Cork/Waterford/ Wexford/Wicklow Glanbia

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | September Edition 2018

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