AHI Newsletter Spring Edition FINAL

ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health SPRING EDITION Stakeholders' NEWSLETTER

Events and Media

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Focus on TWG Members

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Maresa Sheehan Parasite Control Technical Working Group Liam Gannon CalfCare Technical Working Group

AHI Programme Updates P9

CellCheck BVD Johne’s Disease IBR Beef HealthCheck BioSecurity

Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27 Phone 071 9671928 Email nmorgan@animalhealthireland.ie www.AnimalHealthIreland.ie

AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of our stakeholders.

Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health

Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27 Phone 071 9671928 Email nmorgan@animalhealthireland.ie

CONTENTS

04 05 08 09 10 15 16 17 19

Introduction

Events And Media

Focus on Technical Working Group Members

CellCheck

BVD

Johne’s Disease

IBR

Beef HealthCheck

BioSecurity

Introduction

Dr David Graham, CEO, Animal Health Ireland

W elcome to the first edition of our Stakeholders' Newsletter for 2019 which presents updates on our priority programmes and other work areas, with significant progress in a number of areas. As reported by Finola McCoy on page 9 , one focus of the CellCheck during this period has been on encouraging the uptake of milk recording as a routine management practice, with this recognised as a key component of resolving existing high SCC problems andmaintaining low cell counts. In addition, it is a necessary activity to enable selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) to be used at drying off, rather than the blanket treatment that has routinely been used in many herds previously. As reported by Finola, a number of studies are ongoing or planned to help identify and overcome obstacles to milk recording and the use of SDCT. The commencement of Phase 2 of the Irish Johne's Control Programme, as reported by Lorna Citer on page 15 , marks a significant milestone for the programme. Following extensive discussion within the Implementation Group, the details of the programme relating to both structure and funding have been settled. DAFM is covering the cost of the veterinary risk assessment and management plan, and any ancillary testing of faecal samples, while participating processors are contributing toward the costs of whole herd testing of eligible animals. Collectively, these make a significant contribution to the overall costs of participation. The requirement for only one milk or blood sample per eligible animal makes the use of milk recording samples (with a 'sweeper' blood sample for other eligible animals) more practical and has seen an increase in herds stating this as their preferred sampling option at the time of registration. The introduction of financial supports for

milk recording by some processors further reduces the cost of participation for their suppliers. Progress also continueswith thenational BVDeradication programme, as reportedon page10 byMariaGuelbenzu, with the prevalence of PI births in 2019 reduced to 0.03%. A number of measures have been introduced to enhance the programme, and it is encouraging to see reductions in the average intervals between both birth to submission of samples from all calves, and date of first positive result to removal of PI calves. Dr. Natascha Meunier took up the role of Beef HealthCheck programme manager in February this year. Her appointment brings a renewed focus to the collection and analysis of these data, which are again becoming routinely available following resolution of the TVI industrial action which largely stopped collection of carcase information during the second half of 2019. Finally, the 29 th of January marked the 10th anniversary of the launch of AHI by the then Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Brendan Smith, following extensive discussions held with the various industry stakeholders within the agri-food industry. At the time the Minister acknowledged that there a genuine commitment by all interested parties to work together to enhance, in a co- ordinated way, the quality of Irish farm and processor outputs and improve animal health. The activities, and associated progress, reported above is testament to the ongoing commitment of our stakeholders to realise this goal, and of the merits of the AHI model that has developed during this period. We are currently planning a conference later this year to mark this milestone and look forward to seeing many of you at that event.

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AHI STAKEHOLDER NEWSLETTER | SPRING EDITION

Events and Media

Gráinne Dwyer, Communications and Event Manager

CalfCare Events 2019 A nationwide series of 12 CalfCare events were held during the month of January. The events were run in partnership with Teagasc and 10 Dairy Co- ops supporting the events in their region – Arrabawn/Centenary Thurles (joint event), Barryroe, Carbery, Dairygold, Glanbia, Kerry, Lakeland Dairies, LacPatrick and Tipperary Coop. Four topics were discussed: calf scour (Rotavirus, Crypto and Coccidiosis), Johne’s disease – understanding the risks and identifying the solutions; calf accommodation; calf welfare and transportation. Approximately 1,300 farmers attended the events.

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CalfCare Events

Photos from the CalfCare on-farm events around the country.

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CalfCare Events and AHI Training

Additional photos from the CalfCare on-farm events around the country.

AHI Training Under the Rural Development Plan 2014-2020, which is co-funded by DAFM and the EU, AHI delivered two Johne’s disease TASAH training sessions and one BVD TASAH training session in January.

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AHI STAKEHOLDER NEWSLETTER | SPRING EDITION

Focus on Technical Working Group Members

Name | Maresa Sheehan Profession | Senior Research Officer, RVL, Kilkenny TWG Membership | Parasite Control

Maresa is currently working in Kilkenny Regional Veterinary Laboratory as a Senior Research Officer. After qualifying as a Veterinary Surgeon in 1997 from UCD, she worked for eight years in large animal practice. She started work in Eyrecourt Co. Galway with primarily sucklers/beef and sheep and smaller numbers of dairy herds. A move to large animal practice in Thurles Co. Tipperary meant an increased emphasis on dairy work. She completed her research Masters in Veterinary Medicine, with her thesis entitled ‘Clinicopathological Investigation of Infectious Respiratory Disease of Sheep in Ireland’ in the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Dublin. Since joining the Veterinary Laboratory Service she has provided a post mortem service to vets and their clients and carried out collaborative research with Teagasc, UCD, local PVPs, HSE, DAFM colleagues in other Regional Veterinary Laboratories and AHI. Projects included anthelmintic resistance in sheep and first season dairy calves, the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in sheep, seroconversion to liver fluke in slaughtered lambs, sheep and

dairy calf mortality studies, udder health in cull cows, zoonosis and hypocalcaemia. She was awarded Fellowship of the Royal College of Pathologists in February 2019.

Name | Liam Gannon Profession | Business Manager, Volac TWG Membership | CalfCare

Liam is based in Carlow, and is currently a Business Manager for Volac Ireland (south-east). He graduated with a degree in Agricultural Science from UCD and has an MBA from W.I.T. Volac’s core business is the manufacture of calf milk replacers and animal health products. This activity brings Liam directly into contact with farmers and animal husbandry and health issues on a daily basis. His main areas of interest are animal welfare and calf rearing systems. He feels that “identifying major animal health issues both current and emerging which are of concern to farmers and providing best practice through available scientific research to address these challenges in a user friendly format is a key role for AHI”.

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AHI STAKEHOLDER NEWSLETTER | SPRING EDITION

Programme Update CellCheck

Finola McCoy, Programme Manager

T he CellCheck Implementation Group has been busy over the first quarter of 2019. There has beenmuch discussion and exploration of the idea of developing and trialling a standard support package for farms that have mastitis problems, and that require tailored action plans and support. Work is also underway to progress two of the strategic objectives outlined in the Milk Recording Strategic report; to understand the current barriers to engaging with milk recording and to challenge the value perception. AHI has agreed to fund an intern from UCD School of Behavioural Economics, who will work in partnership with Teagasc for a 3 month period and commence some of the research on behavioural issues and key constraints to engaging withmilk recording. This work will also include interrogation of the National Farm Survey data, which will attempt to identify and quantify the multiple financial benefits from milk recording. As an agreed action from the IG, a meeting has been convened with the Irish Farmer’s Journal to explore the potential to evolve the monthly Milk Price League to reflect on the improvement in the national bulk tank SCC over the last decade. To complement the recent publication by DAFM of ‘Policy on Highest Priority Critically Important Antimicrobials (HP CIA)’ a TWG subgroup has been working on a CellCheck information document, to present these HP CIA guidelines in the context of mastitis management. Work is underway collating udder health metrics from herds that participated in the TASAH-funded Dry Cow Consults at the end of 2018. This observational study will allow us to identify and measure the impact of implementing a selective dry cow strategy on a number of Irish farms. Collation of the bulk tank SCC data from the final four months of 2018 (Sept-Dec) has been completed. The dataset is currently going through the usual ‘cleaning’ steps and being checked for quality control, before analysis can commence. Once complete, both at national and processor level, the findings will be reported back to the relevant industry bodies.

To complement the recent publication by DAFM of ‘Policy on Highest Priority Critically Important

Antimicrobials (HP CIA)’ a TWG subgroup have been working on a CellCheck information document, to present these HP CIA guidelines in the context of mastitis management.

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Programme Update BVD

Dr Maria Guelbenzu, Programme Manager

Results By the end of March 2019 just over 1.1 million calves had been tested, representing approximately half of the anticipated calf crop for the year. At the peak of calving (week 7) alone, over 170,000 calves were registered. Despite these large volumes, turnaround times across the designated labs remained well within specified limits, with an overall average of one day from receipt to reporting. The prevalence of PI births in 2019 continues to decline, with only 0.03% of calves tested in Q1 being found to be persistently infected (PI) with BVDV (as compared to 0.04% in the same period of 2018), with these being located in 0.53% of 83,000 breeding herds (compared to 0.70% in the same period of 2018). This represents a decrease in PI prevalence of more than twenty-fold since the start of the compulsory phase of the programme in 2013, when 0.66% of calves born were PI (Figures 1A, B). At the end of the quarter, there were 65 PIs alive in 35 herds (Figure 1C). Updated programme results are available on a weekly basis online click here . 0.66

Figure 1A. map showing distribution of PI births during 2013. Each hexagon represents an areas of approximately 10km 2 .

Figure 1B. map showing distribution of PI births during 2019. Each hexagon represents an areas of approximately 10km 2 .

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Programme Update BVD

Negative herd status (NHS) The status of almost all animals in the 83,000 breeding herds in Ireland is now known, with the main exception being a decreasing number of animals born before the start of the compulsory programme in 2013 that have neither been tested nor produced a calf. At the end of Q1 the number of these animals was approximately 5,600, representing 0.09% of the entire breeding herd population. The majority of these animals are in beef herds, and the majority are also male. It is important that these animals are tested in the coming months. Reflecting the reduction in both PI births and the number of animals with an unknown status, the number of herds acquiring negative herd status (NHS) has increased. Herds qualify for negative herd status (NHS) by meeting the following requirements: 1. Existence of a negative BVD status for every animal currently in the herd (on the basis of either ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’ results); 2. Absence of any animal(s) deemed to be persistently infected with BVD virus from the herd in the 12 months preceding the acquisition of NHS By the end of March 2019, over 90% of herds had acquired NHS, with a further 7,000 only being ineligible due to the presence of a small number of untested animals. While an important programme milestone for any herd, NHS also brings with it an economic benefit, with the number of laboratories that use the RT-PCR test method offering testing at reduced costs to herds with NHS click here .

The prevalence of PI births in 2019 continues to decline, with only 0.03% of calves tested in Q1 being found to be persistently infected (PI) with BVDV (as compared to 0.04% in the same period of 2018), with these being located in 0.53% of 83,000 breeding herds (compared to 0.70% in the same period of 2018)

Figure 1C. map showing distribution of PI alive at 29 th March 2019. Each hexagon represents an areas of approximately, 10km 2 .

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Programme Update BVD

Key programme measures for 2019 The key points for the BVD programme in 2019 include measures required to further accelerate progress towards eradication, with a focus on prompt testing of calves, removal of PIs, prevention of onward spread from positive herds and testing of animals of unknown status. 1. Tissue tag testing remains compulsory for 2019 . A list of suppliers of approved tags and of the laboratories approved to test each tag type is available from click here . 2. Tissue tag-test calves as soon as possible after birth. Where positive or inconclusive results are obtained, these should be removed promptly to obtain the higher level of financial support provided by DAFM and to avoid herd restrictions. 3. Where veterinary advice is to re-test the calf, this must be done by means of a blood sample (this also applies to testing of dams). DAFM will meet the costs of the visit by the herd’s veterinary practitioner and of testing the calf (and dam if sampled at the same time). 4. DAFM supports for removal of PI calves are revised to the following rates and periods: a. BEEF HERDS: i. €220 for beef breed animals removed with a registered date of death on AIM within 10 days of the initial test, reducing to €30 if removed between 11 and 21 days after the initial test. b. DAIRY HERDS : i. Dairy heifers and dairy cross calves: €160 if removed within 10 days of the initial test, reducing to €30 if removed between 11 and 21 days after the initial test. ii. €30 for removal of bull calves within 14 days of the initial test. For full terms and conditions click here. 5. Restriction of herds retaining PI calves and notification of neighbours . DAFM will automatically restrict movements into and out of herds that retain PI animals for more than 21 days after the date of the initial test (in the absence of a recorded date of death on AIM). Ensure PIs are removed in time to allow the death to be recorded before 21 days elapse. Restrictions are automatically lifted following removal of PIs. Neighbouring herds will also be notified, advising them to take appropriate biosecurity measures to minimize the risk of accidental introduction of infection. 6. Enhanced veterinary investigations of all herds with PI calves born in 2019. These investigations, funded through the Rural Development Plan, and delivered by a trained private veterinary practitioner, must be completed within 3 months of the date of the first positive result. Targeted sampling to detect any unidentified PI animals will be conducted and advice to prevent sale of pregnant animals (trojans) that may be carrying PI calves provided. Tracing and investigation of herds that sold trojan dams will also be conducted. For details contact Animal Health Ireland on 071 967 1928 or follow click here .

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Programme Update BVD

7. Test animals of unknown status to obtain NHS. Around 7,000 herds contain animals that either have not produced a negative calf or do not have a valid result on the database. The presence of these animals prevents herds attaining NHS and accessing lower cost testing. 8. Review biosecurity to minimize the risk of accidental introduction of BVD virus, leading to the birth of PI calves, through movement of animals, people (including the farmer) or equipment or across boundaries click here . These measures have had an impact both in reducing the period from birth to test and of removal of positive calves when compared to the previous year. Analysis of the time in days from birth to test during January and February for both 2018 and 2019 showed that in 2018 this took in average 14.3 days whilst in 2019 took 9.6 days. Whilst in 2018 it took an average of 17 days from test to removal of positive calves, in 2019 (up until 11th March) it took an average of 5.6 days. While this demonstrates good progress, it is critical that calves continue to be tested as soon as possible and that positive animals are removed without delay in order to deliver further During 2018 all herds with positive results were offered an RDP-funded TASAH herd investigation by a trained veterinary practitioner. These investigations seek to review herd biosecurity, identify a plausible source or sources of infection, ensure that the herd is left free from BVDV and agree farm-specific measures to prevent its re-introduction. Investigations have now been completed for over 700 herds with positive results in 2018 and preliminary analysis of the results carried out. In 73% of herds, the veterinary practitioner was able to identify one or more plausible transmission pathways (in 43% of those, a single pathway) leading to the birth of PI animals. Of these, 57% were considered to have been from sources external to the herd, while 43% reflected within herd sources. progress in the programme and to achieve the goal of eradication by end of 2020. Targeted Advisory Service on Animal Health (TASAH)

Of the within herd sources, the introduction of transiently infected animals without appropriate biosecurity measures such as quarantine, was the most commonly identified (38%), followed by retained PI animals (20%) and the presence of Trojan dams (purchased dams that are not themselves PI but are carrying PI calves) (24%). Of sources external to the herd, direct contact with cattle at boundaries (36%) was most frequently proposed, followed by indirect contact with cattle by either the herdowner themselves (21%) or other personnel visiting the farm (19%). Based on their findings, the veterinary practitioners and the herdowners agreed up to three biosecurity recommendations designed to prevent re-entry of infection into the herd.

... it is critical that calves continue to be tested as soon as possible and that positive animals are removed without delay in order to deliver further progress in the programme and to achieve the goal of eradication by end of 2020.

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Programme Update BVD

Herds that have acquired NHS can be confident that they no longer have BVD virus circulating, and analysis shows that they are much less likely to have PIs subsequently, relative to herds without NHS. However, inadequate attention to biosecurity to prevent introduction of infection from outside sources may lead to reinfection. Based on the findings in 2018, measures to address the following pathways should be put in place, particularly in the coming months when the majority of cattle will be in the early stages of pregnancy: • Movement of personnel (including the farmer) without adequate attention to hygiene. Only essential visitors should contact cattle, particularly in early pregnancy, and all personnel, including the farmer, should use farm- specific boots and clothing or take steps to ensure that adequate disinfection procedures are followed. • Contact with cattle across boundaries. Cattle up to 120 days of pregnancy are at particular risk and where possible should not graze at boundaries where nose to nose contact with other cattle is possible. Boundaries should be sufficient to prevent cattle breaking in or out and provide a gap of at least 3m (even if only on a temporary basis using an electric fence). • Purchased cattle, or those returning unsold or from shows should go through a quarantine process on entering the herd. They should be held in a quarantine facility (building or paddock) for at least 28 days, with particular care taken to avoid them coming in contact with pregnant stock. • Movement or sharing of large or small items of equipment should be avoided where possible. Otherwise adequate disinfection should be in place. More generally, herdowners are encouraged to discuss biosecurity, including any potential changes to their vaccination policy, with their own veterinary practitioner. Further details on biosecurity, including quarantine, are available at click here . BVD Technical Working Group A key activity for the TWG during this period has been to provide support and input to the modelling work that is going to test different surveillance strategies that will be applied in the post-tag testing phase of the programme. The TWG also met to discuss the biannual testing of bulk tank milk samples for BVD antibodies during 2019 by DAFM which is due to start this spring.

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Programme Update Johne’s Disease

Lorna Citer, Programme Manager

P hase Two of the Irish Johne’s Control Programme (IJCP) has commenced and 350 farmers have registered since 1 January. This brings the total number of farmers registered with the IJCP to 1,282 herds which represents 8% of dairy herds and 12% of the dairy cows in Ireland Interest in the IJCP continues to grow and there is renewed interest in milk testing following the modification of the testing protocol to one milk or blood sample from each eligible animal. Approximately two thirds (66%) of the registered herds have nominated milk testing as their preferred sampling method. This is an increase on the 40% of herdowners who had nominated milk testing during Phase One. The database development work has been completed to enable the commencement of JD TASAH investigations for ancillary test-positive herds. The purpose of the investigation is to establish the level of infection within herds and to develop a customised control plan for each herdowner with the primary aim of reducing within-herd prevalence of infection. Registration of herdowners is to open in late in April and AHI will contact eligible herdowners directly. Two TASAH training workshops were presented during this quarter and further workshops are scheduled for Q2 of this year. Work has also commenced on programming the Johne’s Herd Indicator (JHI) which is an objective measure of the progress that each registered herd is making in controlling Johne’s disease. The JHI is calculated taking into account test results, the number of Whole Herd Tests completed and the number of stock introductions. It is to be made available individually to participating farmers through the ICBF. The JD Bulletin continues to be published monthly and provides information on current issues which have been raised by herdowners and stakeholders. All stakeholders are encouraged to subscribe to this and other AHI newsletters by following this link click here .

The database development work has been completed to enable the commencement of JD TASAH investigations for ancillary test- positive herds. Registration of herdowners for JD TASAH investigations will open in late in April and AHI will contact eligible herdowners directly.

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Programme Update: IBR

Dr Maria Guelbenzu, Programme Manager

D uring the first quarter data obtained through the First Phase of the IBR Pilot Programme being run in conjunction with the Better FARM Beef Programme has been collated and is currently being analysed. A webinar for participating veterinary practitioners took place on the 20th February where the results of the Pilot programme were presented and options for participating herds were discussed.

Development of a national IBR model Work is currently under way to develop an animal-level model that will form the base for both the BVD and IBR modelling work. During this quarter, the team continued gathering data on the actual production systems in Irelandbeforeprogressing todisease-associated information. As mentioned previously, it is intended that the model will support the development of a sustainable national IBR programme by allowing testing of different strategies and their effects on the success, duration and cost of such a programme. This in turn will provide options for a consultation on progressing to a national programme. IBR Technical Working Group The IBR Technical Working Group met in February to discuss the outcomes of the Pilot programme and to review the outcomes of several studies that have been carried out to address knowledge gaps. Results for these will inform the model that is currently under development. The new Animal Health Law, which sets out the requirements for national IBR control programmes to be recognised at European level, is likely to come into force in 2021. The TWG is reviewing any changes that this new law may bring to align proposals for a national programme with it.

Work is currently under way to develop an animal-level model that will form the base for both the BVD and IBR modelling work... it is intended that the model will support the development of a sustainable national IBR programme by allowing testing of different strategies and their effects on the success, duration and cost of such a programme.

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Programme Update Beef Healthcheck

Dr Natascha Meunier, Programme Manager

T he year began with my appointment as the new Beef HealthCheck programme manager. I have a strong background in data analysis and population health and will be contributing in the future to more detailed analysis of the Beef HealthCheck data that has been collected to date and also to the work of the Parasite Technical Working Group. Since the beginning of the programme, data from over 1,500,000 cattle have been collected. 2018 saw a major hurdle in data collectionwith the unfortunate circumstances of the work-to-rule by temporary veterinary inspectors (TVIs). As a consequence of this, essentially no reliable data had been submitted between June 2018 to January

2019. With an agreement reached between DAFM and Veterinary Ireland on behalf of the TVIs in January this year, data collection and submission from the abattoirs has resumed once more. A small number of factories that had not been submitting for various reasons have been followed up, with these expected to come online shortly. The first quarter of 2019 captureddata froman average of 5,100 animals and 1,150 herds per week as part of the Beef HealthCheck programme. This is a decrease from the same period last year of owing to difficulties as the programme comes back online after the TVI industrial action. Within these data, levels of liver fluke, liver abscesses and pneumonia were similar to previous years despite reduced numbers of animals recorded. However, the data may be less representative of the national herd than in 2018. The liver and lung results for the first 12 weeks of the year show that nationally 15.6% of livers recorded were damaged by liver fluke and live fluke were observed in a further 3.06% of livers. Figure 2 shows these trends per week. At the individual county level, the northwest counties show the highest percentage of fluke (Figure 3). When considering the actual numbers of animals processed through the factories, the number of animals with any liver fluke pathology is highest in Donegal and Cork for this quarter. Abscesses were seen in 3.4% of livers reported. Pneumonia lesions were seen in 0.9% of cattle slaughtered (Figure 4).

With an agreement reached between DAFM and Veterinary Ireland on behalf of the TVIs in January this year, data collection and submission from the abattoirs has resumed once more.

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Programme Update Beef Healthcheck

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Figure 2. Weekly liver results from the Beef HealthCheck programme (Q1 2019)

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Figure 3. Weekly lung results from the Beef HealthCheck programme (Q1 2019)

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Figure 4. Liver fluke results from the Beef HealthCheck programme by county for Q1 2019. Leitrim, Longford and Dublin slaughter numbers were under-represented and so excluded. The spring edition of the Beef HealthCheck newsletter is now available online click here . This edition features an excellent article on antimicrobial resistance by Julie Bolton, DAFM, highlighting the practical steps for antimicrobial usage that will decrease the likelihood of resistance forming. John Mee from Teagasc summarised the first results of the National Contract Heifer Rearing project and Rebecca Carroll, DAFM, contributed a vaccination year planner for spring suckler calf herds.

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Programme Update: BioSecurity

Lorna Citer, Programme Manager

H erd biosecurity continues to be an important component of AHI’s animal health programmes. The biosecurity TWG continues to contribute to the development of programme-based materials on specific aspects of biosecurity which are central to the effective delivery of the Johne’s, BVD and IBR programmes. The Biosecurity TWG met late in 2018 to develop a workplan for 2019 and to receive updates from the project leaders for the Contract Rearing project and the Surveillance, Welfare and Biosecurity of Farmed Animals project. The Contract Rearing project is well advanced with the collection of data from a cohort of farmers identified by Teagasc. The data is to be analysed in the coming months and the findings of the project will form the basis for guidelines on the management of stock on contract rearing farms. As a result of requests from farmers who are participating in the project, the Biosecurity TWG is to develop a short ‘guidance’ document on the biosecurity risks which can occur and ways to minimise the risk of disease introduction onto the contract rearers farm.

The Surveillance, Welfare and Biosecurity of Farmed Animals project is utilising a consortium of research organisations from within Ireland and the UK and is currently planning the detail of the various sub-projects. The recent Calf Management Practices Survey undertaken by Teagasc identified aspects of management practices which could be modified to improve calf health and reduce morbidity. After discussing these findings, the Biosecurity TWG has identified a body of work to develop materials in conjunction with Teagasc and AHI to provide advice on cleaning andmaintaining calf feeding utensils. During this quarter the most recent information leaflet entitled Cattle Vaccination was launched and is available from the AHI website click here . An article relating to Biosecurity and calf rearing was also submitted to the trade journal 'Its Your Field'.

[DOWNLOAD]

Further information about the incorporation of biosecurity into daily farm management practices biosecurity visit the AHI website, click here .

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