Global Aviator - August 2021

AUGUST 2021 -Vol 13/No 8


The Nauka ISS module Taking flight on another world Dutch squadron finalises F-16 operations

New features for Pilatus PC-24

Newsletter: | Magzter: | LinkedIn: Facebook: | GA Connect blog: Website: Another nine PC-21's for French Air Force 45 dead after Philippines military plane misses runway and crashes


A serene passenger environment is a must in any business aircraft, and the PC-12 NGX doesn’t disappoint. The cabin experience is all-new, with larger windows providing more light, modern fully reclining seats and more headroom. Its innovative propeller low-speed mode even reduces noise without sacrificing performance. A cabin this comfortable speaks for itself.

Contact Pilatus PC-12 Centre Southern Africa, your nearest Authorised Pilatus PC-12 NGX Sales Centre for further information on Tel: +27 11 383 0800, Cell +27 82 511 7312 or Email:


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August 2021 / Vol.13 / No. 8 3



GENERAL NEWS 6 TRAVEL UPDATE 12  Airbus showcases the A350-1000 for the first time at MAKS 2021 20 Belgian Air Force 31 Tiger Squadron reveals its 2021 X-Tiger! 23  The French Air Force Buys Another Nine PC-21s 28 MILITARY NEWS 30 DRONE NEWS 38  Extensive list of new features for the Pilatus PC-24 super versatile jet

Pic: Pilatus Aircraft Ltd -


8  BOEING 727 - One crash per 2 306 300 flying hours 14 The Nauka ISS module 24  Taking flight on another world 32  Dutch squadron finalises F-16 operations 40  Austria is a wonderland of mountains, green pastures, lakes and . . . mountains 54  From the SAAF to SAA to Japan

60  Pilots and their machines 66  Double ended project 68 Dyke Delta 70  Zimbabwe - Air Rally 2021 BOOK OF THE MONTH 64 Secrets from the cockpit IN CLOSING 74 What a tangled web!


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Not all vaccines are acceptable internationally Vaccination has a vitally important part to play in reopening travel to and from South Africa but the growing number of vaccines available are not all accepted in all countries. While it appears that a full course of Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine completed within a suitable time before travelling is the most widely recognised, there is resistance from European and certain Western countries in accepting the Chinese produced vaccine Sinovac. Tested efficiency against Covid has ranged from approximately 51% in Brazil to 91.25% in Turkey in patients with symptoms. The South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) announced early in July that it had conditionally authorised the use of the The EU recently indicated that its member states will start to ease travel restrictions to allow fully-vaccinated travellers using EU-approved vaccines to travel into the region without the need to quarantine, a traveller vaccinated with Sinotec might not be eligible for this quarantine exemption. This can mean travellers having to quarantine at their CoronaVac COVID-19 vaccine, manufactured by Sinovac.

From 1 August, a health pass will also be needed to visit cafés, restaurants, shopping centres over 20 000 sqm, long-distance transportation (aircraft, buses and trains) and hospitals. Good news for those wanting to visit Botswana. The Hospitality and Tourism Association of Botswana has issued a statement confirming that travellers only have to present a PCR negative test result not older than 72 hours on boarding, and do a rapid test at the point of entry. While South Africans are likely to be allowed into Mauritius as from 1 October, Air Mauritius has cancelled all flights between South Africa and Mauritius until 5 November although travel operators seem optimistic that visitors, including vaccinated SA residents, will be welcome on the island come October 1.

own expense. With this in mind anyone intending to travel outside of South Africa would do well to check which vaccine is acceptable. Open and closed The French tourism authority, A Tout France, released a statement earlier last month to the effect that as from 19 July, fully vaccinated residents from South Africa (and of all France’s red- and amber-list countries) are permitted to travel to France without needing a compelling reason to do so, without requiring a PCR test or any test before departure, and without having to undergo any self-isolation or quarantine on arrival in France. According to the release the vaccines accepted by France and recognised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) are: Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson and Covishield, and any others specified as similar by the French authorities. Travellers from South Africa and sub-Saharan countries on the red list and who have not been vaccinated face a different situation. They will need a convincing reason to visit France, have a negative certificate PCR or Antigen Covid test taken within 48 hours of boarding, take an Antigen test on arrival, and undergo 10 days of self-isolation, monitored by the French authorities.

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Air Seychelles to operate ad hoc charters to Mauritius Air Seychelles will operate ad hoc charter services to Mauritius, following the partial reopening of the island nation to international visitors on 15 July, 2021. As the Mauritius market is dependent on connecting traffic, mainly from India which continues to remain closed, plus the stringent entry measures requiring holidaymakers to stay 14 days at an approved COVID-19 facility upon arrival before exploring the island, Air Seychelles will serve the destination based on demand only. The airline will continue to monitor the Mauritius market up to its full reopening by 1 October. With the possibility of increasing flights in line with the gradual return in demand, the airline will then announce the resumption of its twice weekly services to the Indian Ocean island. Additionally, while all Israeli-based airlines have ceased flying to Seychelles,

online travel agency book a trip using different modes of transport, the platform automatically calculates the CO2 emissions of the entire trip. Customers can then offset the calculated emissions during the booking process. "The travel and mobility market is urgently looking for effective solutions to increase sustainability. Our answer to this is the climate tech start-up Squake, which helps companies accelerate their development of sustainable products," says Christine Wang, md Lufthansa Innovation Hub. Companies can integrate the Squake interface into their own online portals. This means they can immediately offer ‘green rates’, or make their entire offering CO2-neutral. "Profitability and sustainability have to work together," says Dan Kreibich, project lead of Squake. "We’re convinced that sustainable products contribute to sales growth." •

Air Seychelles remains committed to serving the vital tourism link between Tel Aviv and Seychelles. The decision follows Seychelles being added to the list of high risk countries requiring quarantine upon arrival in Israel, effective 16 July 2021, as announced by the Israel health authorities. Flights for August have been consolidated to a once per week service, however for September, frequency will be increased with additional charters to be operated to meet the Israeli peak holiday period. API to help offset CO 2 The Lufthansa Group's central digitalisation unit has launched a CO2 compensation platform, Squake, aimed at companies from the travel, mobility and transport industries. By using an API, companies can now calculate and offset the CO 2 emissions of the services they offer. When customers of an

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the airliner, a freighter and a Quick Change convertible version were offered as well. The range of flights it could cover (and the additional safety added by the third engine) meant that the 727 proved efficient for short- to medium-range international flights in areas around the world It also proved The 727 was phased out of production by 1984, Faced with higher fuel costs, lower passenger volumes due to the post-9/11 economic climate, increasing restrictions on airport noise, and the extra expenses of maintaining older planes and paying flight engineers’ salaries, most major airlines phased out their 727s; replacing them with twin-engined aircraft, which are quieter and more fuel-efficient. Modern airliners also have a smaller flight deck crew of two pilots, popular with cargo and charter airlines.

Boeing 727 One crash per 2 30 6300 flying hours

The Boeing 727 is a narrow-body airliner. The first 727-100 rolled out 27 November, 1962, first flew on 9 February, 1963, and entered service with Eastern on 1 February, 1964. Boeing's only trijet is powered by Pratt &Whitney JT8D low-bypass turbofans below a T-tail - one on either side of the rear fuselage and

a centre one fed through an S-duct. It shares its six- abreast upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit with the 707. The 40.5m long 727-100 typically carries 106 passengers in two classes over 4,170km, or 129 in a single class. The 727 was used for many domestic flights and on some international flights within its range. Airport noise regulations have led to hush kit installations. Besides

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22 September, 1968 Avianca Flight 101 was hijacked shortly after takeoff from Barranquilla. The hijacker demanded to be taken to Cuba, landing at Camaguey Airport. 23 November, 1968 Eastern Air Lines Flight 73 was hijacked after taking off from Chicago- O'Hare, en route to Miami, Florida. The four hijackers demanded to be taken to Cuba, landing in Havana. 24 November, 1971 Northwest Airlines Flight 305 was hijacked by passenger D. B. Cooper while en route from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington. After receiving a payment of $200 000 and four parachutes when he was in Seattle, he told the pilots to fly to Mexico, and jumped out of the aircraft from the aft airstair over Washington or Oregon.

while the 727 required two pilots and a flight engineer. Fatalities As of January 2019, a total of 351 incidents involving 727s had occurred, including 119 hull-loss accidents resulting in a total of 4 211 fatalities. In 1965 in the space of three months, the 727 saw three fatal crashes. The aircraft has been the victim of 11 hijackings, or attempted hijackings up to December 2019. Several 727s have also had bombs explode on board. Hijackings, Bombs and theft 1 July, 1968 A hijacker on Northwest Airlines Flight 714 demanded to be taken to Cuba, landing at José Martí International Airport. 4 July, 1968 TWA Flight 329 was hijacked out of Kansas City.

Cooper's fate is unknown. This incident led to the addition of a device named the "Cooper vane" on all 727s to prevent the airstair from being lowered while in flight. The 'Cooper' 727 continued in service until scrapped in the early 1990s in Missouri. 5 May, 1972 Frederick Hahneman hijacked Eastern Air Lines Flight 175 en route from Allentown, Pa, to Miami, Fl. After receiving $303 000 and six parachutes he ordered the pilot to fly to Honduras, his birth country, where he jumped out and went on the run before finally surrendering. 25 May, 1972 An hour after a LAN Chile boeing 727 took off from Panama City, a pipe bomb detonated in the ice water fountain service compartment, causing a rapid decompression. The

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pilots managed to land safely in Montego Bay, Jamaica. 1972 During an attempted coup d'état, jets from the Royal Moroccan Air Force fired upon the 727 transporting King Hassan II of Morocco while he was travelling to Rabat. After the aircraft survived the attack, the king awarded it a medal of honour. 21 February 1973 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114, a 727-200 flying over the Sinai Desert was fired upon by Israeli air force aircraft as it was suspected of being an enemy military aircraft. Of 113 people on board, 108 died. 15 September 1974 Air Vietnam Flight 706 was hijacked by a former South Vietnamese army officer who ordered that it be flown to Hanoi. The pilots attempted to land at Phan Rang Air Base, but the aircraft crashed just short of it for unknown reasons. It was thought that the hijacker exploded grenades in the cockpit after the crew refused

to comply with his demands. All 75 persons aboard died. 10 October, 1998 A Lignes Aeriennes Congolaises 727-100 (9Q-CSG) was shot down by rebels with a SA-7 (Strela 2) missile and crashed near Kindu Airport while attempting to return following the attack, killing all 41 on board. First accidents 1 6 August 1965 United Airlines Flight 389, a new 727-100, crashed into Lake Michigan 30 miles east north-east of Chicago’s O’Hare Airport. The crew was told to descend to and maintain an altitude of 6 000 feet (1 800m), which was the last radio communication with the flight. Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB, the primary air mishap investigation body in the United States at the time) investigators were not able to determine why the airliner continued its descent into the water. However, it was believed that the crash was most likely the result of the pilots misreading their three-pointer (3p)

altimeters by 10 000 feet. All 30 people on board perish 8 November, 1965 American Airlines Flight 383, a 727-100, crashed on approach to the Greater Cincinnati Airport. Of the 62 people on board, only three passengers and one flight attendant survived. The investigation determined that the probable cause of the accident was the failure of the crew to properly monitor the altimeters during a visual approach into deteriorating visibility condition (The aircraft flew into thick clouds and a thunderstorm after flying toward the airport from the north-west. It descended more rapidly than it should have, without either pilot in the cockpit noticing) 11 November, 1965: United Airlines Flight 227, a 727-100, departed LaGuardia Airport in New York for a flight to San Francisco via Cleveland, Chicago, Denver and Salt Lake City. Flight 227 crashed on landing at Salt Lake City International

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Airport causing the deaths of 43 of the 91 people on board. This accident was blamed entirely on the bad judgement of the captain, Gale C. Kehmeier, for conducting the final approach from a position that was too high and too close to the airport to permit a descent at the normal and safe rate. He allowed the plane to fly the final approach segment (in visual conditions) at a descent rate of 2 300 feet (700m) per minute (triple the safe descent rate). When the plane crossed the outer marker, which marks the final approach segment, it was 2 000 feet (610m) too high Civil Aeronautics Board accident investigation revealed that the captain had a chequered training history. He had failed his initial jet transition training course, and was returned to flying the DC-6. Later on, he also failed to pass a routine annual instrument proficiency check. 31 March, 1986 Mexicana Flight 940, a 727- 200 crashed near Maravatio in the Mexican state of Michoacan. Shortly after take

off and climbing to 29 000 feet (8 800m), an overheated tire exploded in the right main wheel well, tearing through fuel lines and damaging the hydraulic and electrical systems. The resulting fire eventually rendered the aircraft uncontrollable. All 167 people (eight crew and 159 passengers) on board were killed 31 January, 1995 An Angola Air Charter 727-100F touched down 500m beyond the runway threshold at Huambo Airport, Huambo, Angola. Due to heavy rainfall the aircraft aquaplaned off runway 11/29 and became stuck in the mud; the landing gear was torn off. All three crew members survived.

perimeter fences, and barely became airborne. It lost height again about three minutes later, impacted the ground about 10 miles from the airport, disintegrated, and burst into flames. Colombia's Aerocivil reported that five of the six crew members died. The subsequent investigation found that a number of factors, including a take-off weight in excess of the maximum permissible, an incorrect take-off technique and a slight tailwind resulted in the failure of the aircraft to become airborne within the available runway length. Boeing 727 replaced Most of the largest companies have already replaced the old Boeing 727 for more modern planes. United Airlines donated one of its airliners to the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry in 1993. However, this plane is still widely used out of the USA, especially by charter air companies. •

And the last recorded incident with a Boeing 727

20 December, 2016 Aerosucre Flight 157,

a domestic cargo flight, crashed soon after taking off from Germán Olano Airport, in Puerto Carreño, Colombia. The aircraft overran the runway, broke through the airport

August 2021 / Vol.13 / No. 8 11

INDUSTRY NEWS Airbus showcases the A350-1000 for the first time in Russia at the MAKS 2021 International Aerospace Show

Airbus demonstrated its latest technological innovations and projects implemented in Russia at the International Aerospace Show which took place in Zhukovsky from 20 to 25 July. Key attractions were the last-generation widebody A350-1000, which was shown in the country for the first time, and the twin- engine EC145 rotorcraft. The A350-1000 is the largest member of the clean sheet design A350

widebody Family, with a seating capacity of up to 440 passengers in a single class. The aircraft's state-of-the- art aerodynamics, inspired by nature, incorporates a unique morphing technology that continuously optimises the wing profile to reduce drag and lower fuel burn and CO2 emissions. The aircraft is powered by Rolls Royce Trent XWB 97 engines with 15% increased thrust, the aircraft can fly up to 16 100km. More than 70% of the airframe is made from advanced materials, including 53% composites.

Aeroflot already operates 6 A350-900. The Airbus A350-1000 also took part in the flight programme of from 20-22 July. Another highlight on static display was the EC145 helicopter – one of the 5 EC145, owned by the city of Moscow and operated by the Moscow Aviation Centre (MAC). Airbus Helicopters and the Moscow Aviation Centre have been cooperating for more than 14 years. During this period, the MAC AH fleet has contributed to saving

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Pic by Airbus

under the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and International Space Station programmes, as well as cooperation with the Russian OKB “Fakel” in terms of building the satellites for the OneWeb constellation. The Space division of Airbus is the only Western space division that has a proven track record in industrial localisation of production in the Russian Federation. Airbus Defence and Space will demonstrate samples of localised production and future power amplifiers

proposed for further development. Another promising area, both international and Russian, is the global information system and services based on data from Earth Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites. The Defence and Space division will also demonstrate space equipment produced by the joint venture Airbus DS and JSC Russian Space Systems, and the Airbus engineering centre in Moscow, ECAR, will demonstrate the results of its work and current projects (to be confirmed later) •

the lives of more than 6 400 patients in the territory of Moscow. Easy access to the cockpit through wide, side- sliding doors or through the rear doors, a spacious cabin, and high reliability make this helicopter the preferred choice for medical missions. The Airbus Defence and Space division is known for its long-term cooperation with Russian enterprises. Together with Russian colleagues, they implemented several international projects

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Module 1) on NASA's STS-132 will also be used for Nauka. The spare elbow joint for the European Robotic Arm (launched with the module), internal hardware and an experimental airlock will be positioned on one of the side- facing ports at the bottom of the module. It contains crew quarters with life support equipment including atmospheric processing, a galley, and a toilet. Primary research module Nauka will be Russia's primary ISS research module. For some time, NASA's official plans included a second research module around the same size as Nauka, listed to be "under review", but it was eventually cancelled, leaving Nauka to be the only Russian research module besides Rassvet and Poisk (Mini- Research Module 2). At approximately 11m long, and a weight of more than 20 metric tons, the module represents the largest of its kind to be launched since Zvezda, which was launched in 2000. Its primary purpose is to build out Russia’s scientific research capabilities in orbit. Despite the docking of the newmodule, Roscosmos recently confirmed that it is officially leaving the International Space Station after 20 continuous years of international occupation of the aging outpost. According to Russian deputy prime minister Yuri Borisov the space station’s condition left “much to be desired.” Russia also recently showed off the construction of the first module of its own planned space station, set to

The Nauka ISS module

Nauka, also known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module, is a component of the International Space Station. Funded by Roscosmos Nauka was originally supposed to use the Docking and Stowage Module Docking port. Later, the DSM was replaced by the Rassvet module and it was moved to Zarya's nadir port. Long- delayed, the Russian module was finally launched from the space facility in Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 21 July. It was initially scheduled to go up in 2007 but technical problems caused several delays and then in 2013

experts found contamination in its fuel system, resulting in a long and costly replacement. Other Nauka systems also underwent modernisation or repairs. The module is to be used initially for experiments, docking, and cargo as well as serving as a crew work and rest area. Nauka is equipped with full guidance and navigation control including engines and an attitude control system that can be used as a backup by the ISS. It will be docked onto the Zvezda module's Earth facing docking port. Outfitting equipment launched in 2010 with the Rassvet (Mini-Research

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launch within this decade. Testing for safety During the recent tests, scientists at Roscosmos filled the Nauka segment with a helium mixture and placed it in a massive vacuum chamber, according to an update, to test whether it’s sufficiently airtight. This is an important step for any module meant to house astronauts. Crew members on board the ISS last year found a leak on the 20-years-old Zvezda module requiring them to seal it with a special glue. Russia is working on establishing its own space station and recently announced that it was partnering with China on a much smaller outpost orbiting the Moon after turning down NASA and its European partners to establish the Gateway, a similar lunar outpost. Temporary Docking Compartment When the Nauka module is installed it will serve as a temporary docking compartment for ISS functioning in a similar way to former Pirs docking compartment. It will have a passive docking port called Nauka nadir. Since it is a temporary docking port, it will just be used for relocated dockings of Soyuz MS-18 and Progress MS-17. When Progress MS-17 undocks around 24 November 2021, it will remove the module's nadir port docking adapter and both will be de-orbited together into the atmosphere of

Nauka Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM), the ISS module - credit: Wikipedia- author: Katlinegrey.

thereby ending the docking operations of this ISS module. Lastly, a spacewalk will be done and the service module that brought Prichal up will be detached. •

Earth for destruction over the South Pacific Ocean. After this, the final visiting spacecraft, Progress M-UM will be docked permanently to it,

Nauka training mockup at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in April 2012 - Credit: Wikipedia - NASA.

August 2021 / Vol.13 / No. 8 15


Pratt & Whitney Canada Advances Sustainable Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Technology, Contributing to Canada's Green Recovery Plan

aerospace investor in research & development, having invested $500M CAD annually, we are driving economic growth, innovation and workforce expertise to benefit the environment. Hybrid- electric technology has an important role to play in enabling the next step- change in efficiency for aircraft engines, and we are uniquely positioned to demonstrate this potential." The new hybrid-electric propulsion technology will drive significant improvements in aircraft efficiency by optimizing performance across the different phases of flight, allowing the demonstrator to target a 30% reduction in fuel burn and CO 2 emissions,

compared to a modern regional turboprop airliner. P&WC is working

Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC), plans to advance its hybrid- electric propulsion technology and flight demonstrator programme as part of a $163M CAD investment, supported by the governments of Canada and Quebec. "Pratt & Whitney Canada is proud to be a leader toward ever more sustainable aircraft propulsion technologies and be an integral part of Canada's green recovery plan," said Maria Della Posta, president, Pratt & Whitney Canada. "With a long-time commitment to sustainability and as Canada's top

with De Havilland Aircraft of Canada

Limited (De Havilland Canada) to integrate this hybrid-electric technology

into a De Havilland Canada Dash 8-100

flight demonstrator. This demonstrator will include an advanced electric motor and controller from Collins Aerospace, also a Raytheon Technologies business. As part of Canada's green recovery plan, the Government of Canada's Strategic Innovation Fund is backing the technology demonstrator, which will help put Canada's aerospace industry at the

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The aerospace industry will relaunch with vigor. Your government will be there to reinforce our leadership and ensure a strong future for Quebec's aerospace industry," says François Legault, Premier of Quebec. "Quebec's aerospace industry is a key sector in our sustainable economic development plan. We will differentiate ourselves by relying on new technologies and innovation. Quebec will be in a stronger position to conquer new markets, increase productivity and foster the electrification of transportation with the projects announced today by Bell Textron Canada, CAE and Pratt & Whitney Canada," explains Eric Girard, Minister of Finance and Minister of Economy and Innovation. "The aerospace sector is a pillar of the Canadian economy, providing good jobs for Canadian workers from coast to coast to coast. It's essential that we support the long-term growth of the sector and help make Canada a world leader in greener, more innovative technologies. The investments announced will help the aerospace sector increase its research and development efforts so that innovative, greener, more sustainable aircraft can be built right here in Canada for decades to come, creating good jobs for hard-working Canadians," states the Honourable François- Philippe Champagne, Minister of Innovation, Science and Industry. •

forefront of global efforts to make aviation more sustainable. The Government of Quebec is supporting this project through Investissement Québec and the Ministère de l'Économie et de l'Innovation, as part of an initiative known as, "Aéronef pour la mobilité numérique et verte de demain" (Green and Digital Aircraft of Tomorrow). Combining advanced technologies developed by P&WC and Collins, this project is a successor to Project 804, launched in 2019 as a joint development programme between the two companies and provides a solid foundation for this new demonstrator programme to build upon. P&WC will target ground testing in 2022, leading to flight testing of the Dash 8-100 demonstrator in 2024. Developing hybrid- electric propulsion technology is a core element of Pratt & Whitney's strategy to make aviation more sustainable. The company is also committed to continually advancing the efficiency of gas turbine engines across its portfolio, while supporting the wider use of sustainable aviation fuels, and pursuing alternative fuels. All these elements will be critical for the aviation industry to meet its goals to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions by 2050. The company will continue to work with industry partners globally on a wide variety of projects targeted at increasingly sustainable aviation to benefit our customers and the environment.

The company supports the industry's efforts to coordinate and accelerate the development of green aviation technologies in Canada, bringing together stakeholders from the Canadian aerospace ecosystem, from supply chain to academia to government organizations. This will help ensure Canada's aerospace sector is in a strong position to play a leading role in the global drive to innovate new, low carbon technologies. "Canada has an opportunity to demonstrate environmental leadership in the aviation sector," said Dave Riggs, Chief Transformation Officer, De Havilland Canada. "De Havilland Canada has a legacy of innovation that has supported aviation in Canada and around the world for more than 90 years and we are immensely proud to be the first manufacturer of regional aircraft supporting the development of hybrid-electric propulsion technology. We look forward to collaborating with Pratt & Whitney Canada and governments in Canada to further the development of alternative, climate-friendly technology that holds much potential to contribute to more sustainable aviation." "These are major projects that will drive Quebec into the future! We will develop tomorrow's helicopters and airplanes today, in Quebec. These aircraft will contribute to the economy, while reducing CO 2 emissions.

August 2021 / Vol.13 / No. 8 17



Causeway Aero Group has received an EASA European Technical Standard Order (ETSO) authorisation approval for the lightweight Pitch PF3000 economy seat for the Antonov AN-148-201 and AN-158-100 regional jets (carrying 92 and 102 passengers respectively) and the derivative AN-178 medium military transport aircraft . Gaining ETSO authorisation means the seat has successfully met all 16g testing requirements. This had already been achieved for Airbus A320 Family aircraft. The work is part of an

agreement signed in 2019 between Pitch Aircraft Seating Systems (acquired by Causeway) and the Antonov Company of the Ukraine, which plans to offer the PF3000 as line fit and retrofit. Antonov Aircraft has ordered three shipsets so far, while South American Aircraft Leasing (SAAL) has ordered four shipsets. While Causeway carried out all the design, stress, engineering and production, the ETSO (A) process was managed by Inter-Tec Group, a long term partner of Causeway, that has used its EASA Part-21J Design Organisation Approval to assist with a number of interior and seat projects.

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Michael Rice, CEO of Causeway Aero Group, explained that the Antonov aircraft have a 3+2 configuration, compared to 3+3 on the Airbus (although twin units had also been developed for specific locations in the cabin). In addition, the layout of the seat tracks is slightly narrower. This presented a new dynamic in testing. He commented: “Once again the Causeway integrator, engineering and production teams, in partnership with the Inter-Tec certification team, demonstrated tremendous agility and competence in this programme by developing

and producing revised components within a few days, enabling the testing to be completed with minimal delays.” The next step will be for Causeway and Inter- Tec to work closely with the Antonov Company to get approval for the Supplemental Type Certificate from the State Aviation Administration of Ukraine. Valeri Kostiuk, Chief Designer Airframe at the Antonov Company, commented “The Antonov Company has been very impressed by the tremendous customer service, expertise and rapid response of

Causeway throughout and is looking forward to working together on the market launch of the Pitch PF3000 on Antonov aircraft in the near future.” He added, “The Pitch PF3000 not only improves passenger comfort but reduces weight and hence fuel burn. The Antonov team loved the comfort and durability of the seat and that it also gives the cabin a very smart appearance. This will enhance the marketability of the overall aircraft.” • Contact: Ian Harbison, PR Consultant;

T: +44 (0) 1494 871426; M: +44 (0) 7395 805350

August 2021 / Vol.13 / No. 8 19


Belgian Air Force 31 Tiger Squadron reveals its 2021 X-Tiger! Pic and copy by: Gert Trachez

On Friday 16 July, 2021, in rather dull weather, the newly painted Belgian Air Force F-16AM FA-136 X-Tiger was revealed at Kleine Brogel Air Base, Belgium.

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one of the highlights of the XT-ROAR-DINARY Tiger event at Kleine-Brogel Air Base from 7-14 September, 2021 and the 42nd Sanicole Air Show from 10-12 September, 2021! •

many beautiful designs in the past.Traditionally it was painted by the 10th Tac Wing paint-shop/

A special occasion, as it depicts the 70 years 31st Tiger Squadron and 60 years NATO Tiger association. The design for the paint- scheme was done by Johan Wolfs who has completed

plotter section who did an excellent job!

The aircraft might be

August 2021 / Vol.13 / No. 8 21


pro-democracy marches." Among their political and economic grievances, the demonstrators sought the lifting of a ban on all opposition political parties that has been in effect since 1973, the AP reported. Vid- eos on social media showed people burning tyres and barricading streets in Man- zini, the country’s largest city, and the central town of Matsapha. The UN said it was aware of allegations of “disproportionate and un- necessary use of force” by security forces in Eswati- ni, including allegations that police have fired live rounds at protestors. The UN’s said it was aware of internet blackouts, which are believed to be a deliberate move by the gov- ernment to suppress infor- mation, the Times reported. Nkosinathi Zoro Kunene, a nurse at Hlathikhulu Government Hospital in Eswatini, told the Times that if the “re- gime does not accept that people want change, I think it’s possible that our country might get into civil war.” U.N. officials expressed concern over the situation in Eswatini after reports of internet blackouts and al- legations of what a spokes- person for the organiza- tion’s human rights office called “disproportionate and unnecessary use of force,” including harass- ment, intimidation and the use of live ammunition by government security forces. Dozens have reportedly been killed or injured in the clashes, the U.N. said. •

Marines bolster embassy security after unrest in tiny African kingdom of Eswatini

A team of 13 Marines were deployed from Quantico, Virginia, on 30 June to the U.S. Embassy in Eswatini as pro-de- mocracy protests erupted in the streets of the small African country. The Marines deployed as part of the Marine Security Augmentation Unit, accord- ing to a Marine Corps press release, which was created in the wake of the attack on the U.S. embassy in Beng- hazi in 2012 which left four Americans dead. The de- ployment to Eswatini is the unit’s 106th mission; past missions include a deploy- ment to the Middle East on the first anniversary of the attack in Benghazi; then to Bangkok, Thailand, during political unrest in 2013-2014; and Paris, France in 2017 at the beginning of what was later known as the Yellow

Vest Movement. “Since it was established, the MSAU has deployed on average every eight days,” the statement said. The tiny mountain king- dom of Eswatini is ruled by Africa’s last absolute monarch, King Mswati III, who protesters accused of human rights abuses and running a repressive gov- ernment, The Associated Press reported Mswati’s family, includ- ing 15 wives, live a lavish lifestyle while most of the country’s 1.1 million people are impoverished, human rights groups say. "Unrest first began ... in May, when students took to the streets to call for ac- countability for the death of a 25-year-old law student, allegedly at the hands of the police," the United Na- tions said this week. "In late June, these protests grew into daily

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TheFrench Air Force Buys Another Nine PC-21s

In 2017 the Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace purchased 17 PC-21s and has successfully trained its future military pilots on the world’s most modern training system since then. The Air Force has now ordered a further nine PC-21s to reinforce its training programme with additional Pilatus training aircraft. The Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, one of the world’s most prestigious air forces, has ordered a further nine PC-21s, proving with this additional contract how efficient the Pilatus training system is. The PC-21s will be deployed to train future military pilots who will subsequently step up to the nation’s multi-

role lead-fighter. The PC-21s will replace the twin-engine jet trainers which were previously used for pilot training. authority, the Direction générale de l'armement (DGA) , signed the agreement with F-AIR 21 (Cognac Formation Aero SAS France), with Pilatus acting as the exclusive subcontractor for the supply of the nine PC-21s and other groundbased training The French procurement systems and spare parts. The order will secure jobs in Switzerland, where the PC-21s are produced. Markus Bucher says of the agreement: “French evaluations are highly professional, which again proves to us that we offer the world’s best training system in this market. I am delighted that the Armée de

l'air et de l'espace has opted for further PC-21s. Nous vous remercions de faire confiance à Pilatus et à notre PC-21 – L’Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace pourra toujours compter sur notre meilleur service client!» The PC-21s will be stationed at the Cognac- Châteaubernard air base from 2023, where PC-21s have been in use since 2018. The first pilots concluded their training in 2020. With the latest order, the PC-21 fleet will increase to a total of 26. Besides Switzerland and Spain, France is the third European nation to adopt the PC-21, the world’s most advanced training system. Over 230 PC-21s are now in service with nine air forces worldwide. The PC-21 is also used to train future test pilots at the Empire Test Pilots’ School in Boscombe Down, England. •

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TAKING FLIGHT on another world

The Mars Helicopter, Ingenuity, is a technology demonstra- tion model to test powered, controlled flight on another world for the first time. It hitched a ride to Mars on the Perseverance rover. Once the rover reached a suitable "airfield" location, it released Ingenuity to the surface so it could perform a series of test flights over a 30-Martian-day experimental window. Ingenuity, which became the first machine to fly like an airplane or a helicopter on another world, took off for the fifth time. It made a successful one-way trip to another flat patch of Mars more than the length of a football field away. The spot where it landed will serve as its base of operations for the next month at least, beginning a new phase of the mission where it will serve as a scout for its larger robotic companion, the Perseverance rover. Ingenuity retraced the course of its previous flight, heading south for 423 feet at an altitude of 16 feet. But instead of turning around, it stopped and climbed

higher, to 33 feet, to take some pictures of the area. It then set down, 108 seconds after it had taken off. Design Ingenuity is a small robotic helicopter operating on Mars as part of NASA's Mars 2020 mission. On 19 April, 2021, it successfully completed the first powered controlled flight by an aircraft on a planet besides Earth, taking off vertically, hovering and landing. With nine successful flights as of 6 July, 2021, the solar- charged battery-powered coaxial drone rotorcraft is serving as a technology and operations demonstration for the potential use of flying probes on future missions to Mars and other worlds, and will have the potential to scout locations of interest and support planned driving routes for the Perseverance rover. Ingenuity was intended to fly up to five times during its 30-day test campaign scheduled early in the rover's mission. Ingenuity, which can travel up to 50 m (160 ft) downrange and then back to the starting area, uses autonomous control during its short flights, which are telerobotically planned and scripted by operators at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

It communicates directly with the Perseverance rover after each landing. Ingenuity travelled to Mars attached to the underside of the Perseverance rover, arriving at the Octavia E. Butler Landing site in Jezero crater on February 18, 2021. It deployed on 3 April, and after unloading the drone Perseverance drove approximately 100 m (330 ft) away to allow it a safe "buffer zone" in which it made its first flight. Ingenuity is designed to be a technology demonstrator by JPL to assess whether this technology can fly safely, and provide better mapping and guidance that would give

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constrained by the available energy but by the waste heat that heats up the motors duThe helicopter uses a Qualcomm Snapdragon 801 processor with a Linux operating system. The Qualcomm processor is connected to two flight- control microcontroller units (MCUs) to perform the necessary flight-control functions. It also carries a cellphone grade Bosch BMI- 160 IMU, a Murata inclination sensor SCA100T-D02 and a Garmin LIDAR Lite v3 laser During its fifth flight, a navigation camera aboard NASA’s Perseverance rover captured Ingenuity. The helicopter ascended to a new height record of 33 feet and flew 423 feet to a new landing site. Credit...NASA/JPL- Caltech As with the previous four flights, Ingenuity flew autonomously, with no help or communication from people on Earth, executing a flight plan that had been sent hours earlier. Engineers had to wait more than three altimeter. Missions hours after Ingenuity had already landed before news of the success — relayed from Ingenuity to Perseverance to an orbiter passing overhead and then to Earth — arrived. Ingenuity, 1.6 feet tall and weighing four pounds, is an $85 million add-on project to the $2.7 billion Perseverance mission, which is searching for signs of past life on Mars. The helicopter traveled to Mars tucked under the belly of the rover, which landed on Mars in February. In NASA’s original plans,

future mission controllers more information to help with travel routes planning and hazard avoidance, as well as identifying points of interest for the rover. The helicopter is designed to provide overhead images with approximately ten times the resolution of orbital images, and will provide images of features that may be occluded from the cameras of the Perseverance rover. The helicopter uses contra- rotating coaxial rotors about 1.2 m (4 ft) in diameter. Its payload is a high resolution downward-looking camera for navigation, landing, and science surveying of the terrain, and a communication

system to relay data to the Perseverance rover. It also includes radiation-resistant systems capable of operating in the frigid environment of Mars. The inconsistent Mars magnetic field precludes the use of a compass for navigation, so it uses a solar tracker camera integrated to JPL's visual inertial navigation system. Some additional inputs include gyros, visual odometry, tilt sensors, altimeter, and hazard detectors.[47] It was designed to use solar panels to recharge its batteries, which are six Sony Li-ion cells with 35–40 Wh (130–140 kJ) of battery energy capacity. The flight duration is not

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rock formations — called contacts, in geology lingo — make for some of the most scientifically intriguing targets in Perseverance’s hunt for fossilized microbial life. Sending a tiny drone across a potentially dangerous field of thick sand to scout for cool Mars rocks is a huge time- saver for the Perseverance team. “When scientists can get those images of that contact early, we can start the science process much earlier than we would otherwise, and start to make observations and interpretations and understand what those rocks are,” Williford says. NASA leadership approved Ingenuity’s mission expansion on the condition that it doesn’t perturb or interfere with Perseverance’s core mission, Williford said. A small “interface” team combining engineers from Perseverance and Ingenuity, serving as the operational glue between the two missions, has since been expanded to include Perseverance scientists as Ingenuity proves itself more scientifically useful than On the 91st Martian day, or sol, of NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mission, the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter performed its sixth flight. The flight was designed to expand the flight envelope and demonstrate aerial-imaging capabilities by taking stereo images of a region of interest to the west. Ingenuity was commanded to climb to an altitude of 33 feet (10 meters) before translating 492 feet (150 meters) to the southwest at a ground speed of 9 mph (four expected. Anomaly

after the helicopter was dropped onto the ground in early April, the Ingenuity team had a month and up to five flights to demonstrate that controlled, powered flying was possible on Mars, where the atmosphere at the surface is just 1 percent as dense as Earth’s. Ingenuity was to have been left behind, and Perseverance would have headed off to conduct its scientific explorations. That opened the door to using Ingenuity not only as a proof of the basic technology but also to provide aerial econnaissance of the surrounding landscape for the Perseverance scientists, who have decided that they want the rover to explore the neighboring areas for several months. The fourth flight scouted a new location for the helicopter to land. “The digital elevation maps put together by the Ingenuity team gave us confidence that our new airfield is flat as a pancake — a good thing when you have to land on it,” Mr. Ravich said. During the fourth flight, Perseverance, parked more than 250 feet from

the helicopter, successfully recorded the sound of Ingenuity’s rotors slicing through the Martian air. jump across Séítah was Ingenuity’s ninth flight on The quick 5 July morning Mars so far, but it marked the first time the chopper lent a helping hand to Perseverance in its hunt for ancient signs of life at the Red Planet’s Jezero Crater. The four-pound helicopter arrived on Mars on February 14th, attached to Perseverance’s underside, and became the first object to take powered flight on another world on 19 April. Its initial set of flights served as increasingly complex practice tests to demonstrate how off-world rotorcraft can buzz around places that wheeled rovers can’t go. NASA engineers pushed Ingenuity’s limits further than ever. In 166 seconds, Ingenuity flew roughly 11mph for almost a half-mile, or 2 050 feet — a far greater distance than its most recent flight in June, which tallied 525 feet. The copter buzzed around different corners of Séítah and snapped photos of its borders, where junctures between different

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