An Illustrative Report


FUNDAMENTALS
7

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ASME FLANGE DESIGN AND THE USE OF 1943 EMPIRICAL GASKET DESIGN CONSTANTS
7

ELEMENTS OF BOLTED-FLANGED JOINT DESIGN
7

FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING OF FLANGE DESIGN
7

THE RIGHT TIGHT, TIGHTER IS BETTER: CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTING BOLTING STRENGTH
8

DEFINITIONS
9

COMPONENTS TO THE BOLTED-FLANGED JOINT: PRACTICAL APPLICATION
9

ROLE OF GASKET
9

ROLE OF BOLTING
10

SELECTING COMPONENTS FOR NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
10

COMPONENT ASSEMBLY
10

PRELOAD
11

THE UNCERTAINTY OF TRANSLATING PRELOAD FORCES
11

THE UNCERTAINTY OF THE INITIAL ASSEMBLY PRELOAD FORCE
11

GOAL OF ASSEMBLY: BOLT STRESS
13

PRINCIPLES OF THE TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIP
13

ASSEMBLY METHODS
13

FEEL
14

IMPACT WRENCHES
14

REACTIONLESS POWER TORQUE WRENCHES
14

ANGULAR TURN-OF-THE-NUT
14

MICROMETER
14

ULTRASONIC STRESS MEASUREMENT
14

DIRECT LOADING
14

STEPS TO READING A TORQUE CHART
14

TORQUE CHARTS AND GASKET STRENGTH
16

BOLT STRESS AND BOLTING SUBSTITUTION
16

Bibliography
16

ASSEMBLY
17

EQUAL BOLT TENSION USING CROSS BOLTING PATTERN
17

ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES
17

SETUP INSPECTION
17

BOLT-UP PREPARATION
18

GASKET INSTALLATION AND TIGHTENING
18

TORQUE VERIFICATION
19

SPIRAL WOUND GASKET INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS
19

FATIGUE CONSIDERATIONS
19

Bibliography
19

TROUBLESHOOTING
21

UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS
21

LEAKS
21

BOLT FAILURE
22

Bibliography
22

Development of Piping Codes
24

USS Sultana
24

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
24

B31 Piping Code
24

Bibliography
24

Useful Bolting Information
25

The Screw — A Modified Inclined Plane
25

Stud Bolt, Machine Bolt, and Cap Screw
25

Thread Pitch
25

Machine Bolt and Cap Screw Thread Length - ASME B18.2.1
26

Thread Engagement
26

Thread Protrusion
26

Galling
26

Hexagon Nut Dimensions - ASME B18.2.2
26

Strain Energy - Toughness
27

Domestic Availability, Cost, and Definition
27

Bibliography
27

Useful Pipe Flange Gasket Information
29

Classification, Dimensions, and Styles
29

Spiral Wound Gasket
29

Elastomer Gasket Materials
29

Compressed Fiber Gasket Materials
30

PTFE Materials
30

Bibliography
30

Important ASME Bolting and Gasket Documents for the Design-by-Method Approach to Component Selection
31

BPVC Section VIII, Division 1: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels (Contains Gasket Material Groups #'s, Materials of Construction, and Gasket Design Values)
31

ASME B31.1 Power Piping (Contains Table 112 Piping Flange Bolting, Facing, and Gasket Requirements and General Notes)
31

ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 Metric/Inch Standard (Contains Table 1B List of Bolting Specifications and Table 1C Flange Bolting Dimensional Recommendations)
31

Made with FlippingBook - Online magazine maker