XC Printable PDF

Let’s go!

Earth Structures

The Changing Land

? ESSENTIAL QUESTION

What are some processes that cause the land to change?

Build Science Power

Earth Structures You will be learning about changes that happen on planet Earth. Watch the video blog for a quick introduction.

Build Reading Power

Main Idea And Supporting Details You know that informational text usually has a main idea . The main idea is the most important thing that the author wants you to learn. Supporting details give you information about the main idea.

TEAM WEBBING You will need writing tools and a sheet of paper.

• Draw a web. Write “The Changing Land” in the middle. • Look through the texts for clues about what you will learn. • Each person should write or draw one idea. • It’s okay to ask each other for help!

1

The Changing Land • Engage

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Build Your Word Knowledge

You will see these words in your reading. Create word cards for the words. Include a sentence or drawing to help you remember each word. Use the flip cards or a dictionary to help you. Use your cards to review, practice, and own these words.

Earth’s core is the center part below the mantle. The inner core is solid. The outer core is liquid.

core

The solid, outermost layer of the Earth is the crust.

crust

earthquake The movement of the Earth’s plates bumping or rubbing together can cause an earthquake.

Erosion happens as rocks and soil shift from one place to another. A hurricane is a very strong storm with winds over 74 miles per hour and often heavy rains. Natural features of the Earth’s surface like mountains or lakes are landforms. The Earth’s mantle is the zone between the crust and the core.

erosion

hurricane

landforms

mantle

weathering Weathering is the breaking down of rocks on Earth’s surface into smaller pieces.

2

The Changing Land • Engage

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Weathering and Erosion Read and Explore 1 LEXILE: 540

MAIN IDEA AND SUPPORTING DETAILS Use Printable 00: Main Idea Web to jot down important details. After reading, think about the main idea, or the most important thing the author wants you to know.

Weathering 1 The surface of the Earth is always changing. Some changes are gradual. A gradual change happens slowly, over a long time. 2 Weathering is a natural process that causes rocks to break down. Weathering a natural process that causes rocks to break down. Water, wind, heat, cold, and even plants can cause weathering. For example, imagine a beach with big rocks on the shore. The waves crash into the rocks, over and over. The energy of the waves causes parts of the big rocks to break away. Over time, the shapes of the rocks change.

Watch the video to see one type of weathering.

3 Weathering can change tall mountains. Over many years, wind, water, and ice can wear down mountains, making them less steep and more rounded. If you see a mountain with a smooth, round top, it is probably very old. Weathering has caused the mountain to look that way.

3

The Changing Land • Weathering And Erosion

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

These mountains are not very old. They are very high with steep sides. The tops are pointy.

These mountains are in Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. They are old and rounded.

Erosion 4 Erosion can also cause slow, gradual changes in the land. First, rocks are broken into smaller rocks by weathering. Then, wind and water move the smaller rocks away. This movement is called erosion. 5 Erosion can reshape Earth’s surface, producing new landforms. A landform is a natural feature or shape of the land.

The Lighthouse is a landform in Big Bend National Park, Texas. It was made by gradual erosion of the rocks around it.

The Lighthouse is a landform in Big Bend National Park, Texas. It was made by gradual erosion of the rocks around it.

4

The Changing Land • Weathering And Erosion

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Flood waters move very quickly. All that water carries soil, rock, and other materials along with it as it moves.

6 Erosion can also happen quickly. Sometimes, large amounts of water suddenly cover the land. For example, a flood can happen quickly, covering the land with water. When the water goes away, it takes little pieces of the land with it. 7 Weathering and erosion usually change the land slowly, or gradually. However, erosion can sometimes happen quickly, such as during a ood.

Get Together

TURN AND TALK With a partner, take turns answering these prompts. Point to evidence in the text to support your answers. • What is the main idea of “Weathering and Erosion?” • What is weathering? • Does weathering happen slowly or quickly? • What is erosion? • Erosion usually happens slowly. Name a time when erosion can happen quickly.

5

The Changing Land • Weathering And Erosion

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Fast and Slow Changes Read and Explore 2 LEXILE: 540

MAIN IDEA AND SUPPORTING DETAILS As you read, think about the main ideas the author wants you to know about fast and slow changes to land. Use Printable 00: Main Idea Web to jot down important details that support the main ideas. 1 Our land changes all the time. Some changes are sudden. They happen quickly. Other changes are gradual. They happen slowly. Fast and slow changes are caused by processes that can begin above or below Earth’s surface. Erosion is the movement of rock material from one place to another. Erosion can happen quickly or slowly. Slow Changes 2 Erosion happen slowly and take many years. It happens when water or wind carries away small bits of land.

This canyon was formed as the river carved a path through the surface of the land. Over a very long time, the water slowly wore away the land.

This cavern, or cave, was made by water dripping through the surface of the land. The water slowly moved sand, dirt, and bits of rock. The erosion took many years.

6

The Changing Land • Fast and Slow Changes

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Fast Changes 3 Sometimes, changes in the land start deep, below the surface. The surface is the part of the Earth we can see. The rocky part of the surface is one of Earth’s many layers. 4 The crust is the top layer. It is made up of rocks. The crust floats on top of a deeper layer called the mantle. The mantle itself has layers. It is mostly solid. The core is made up of two layers. The outer core is liquid and very hot. The inner core is also very hot, but the pressure on it makes it solid.

B A

The crust is the top layer. It is made of different kinds of rocks. The mantle lies below the crust. It has layers, too. Closer to the core, pressure increases and it gets hotter.

A

C

B

D

The outer core is very hot and liquid.

C

The inner core is solid.

D

5 The crust has large sections, called plates. The plates can move apart, press together, or slide past each other. Moving plates can cause an earthquake. An earthquake can change the land quickly.

This land was changed very quickly by an earthquake.

7

The Changing Land • Fast and Slow Changes

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

6 Sometimes, erosion can happen quickly. A hurricane is a large storm with strong winds and rain. The winds of a hurricane reach speeds of at least 74 miles per hour or more. On the coasts, these winds can cause large waves. These waves can quickly cause beach erosion.

Storm surge and waves from Hurricane Michael completely eroded and crossed this part of Cape San Blas on the Gulf Coast of Florida.

7 In summary, some changes to the land happen quickly. Some happen slowly. Our land is changing all the time.

Get Together

TURN AND TALK With a partner, take turns telling what you learned about fast and slow changes to the land. Point to details in the text that support the main idea, including details in the photos. Try to use the highlighted words as you discuss the text.

8

The Changing Land • Fast and Slow Changes

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Show What You Know

Answer these questions and prompts to show what you have learned about changes to the land.

1. What is the main idea of “Fast and Slow Changes?”  Changes to the land can start below the Earth’s surface.  Erosion can happen quickly.  Changes to the land may happen slowly or quickly.  Water and wind can move small pieces of the land. 2. Circle the word that best completes each sentence. Rocks are broken into smaller rocks through a process called _________. erosion weathering flooding Wind and water move away small bits of rock through a process called _________. erosion weathering flooding 3 . This question has two parts, Part A and Part B. PART A: According to “Weathering and Erosion,” how can weathering change mountains?  Young mountains are very high with steep sides and pointy tops.  Weathering can be caused by wind, water, ice, and plants.  Over many years, the mountains become less steep and more rounded. PART B: Which sentence from “Weathering and Erosion” best describes a weathered mountain?  Erosion can cause new landforms, or shapes.  Weathering can change tall mountains.  If you see a mountain with a smooth, round top, it is probably very old.

9

The Changing Land • Wrap-Up: Show What You Know

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

4. Draw a line to match a cause with its effect.

earthquake

plates of the Earth’s crust moving

cavern

water dripping underground over many years

canyon

wind, waves, and heavy rains from a hurricane

quick erosion

a river running through land over many years

5. How are “Fast and Slow Changes” and “Erosion and Weathering” alike?  They both describe how weathering and erosion can change the land over time.  They both describe how earthquakes and hurricanes can change the land.  They both describe changes to the land that can happen quickly or slowly.

10

The Changing Land • Wrap-Up: Show What You Know

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

What are some processes that cause the land to change? ? RETURN TO ESSENTIAL QUESTION

Build Your Word Knowledge

Circle the words you know. Underline the words you still don’t know well.

core crust

earthquake erosion

hurricane landforms

mantle weathering

INSIDE-OUTSIDE CIRCLE Choose one of the words. Write the word on one side of a slip of paper and the definition on the other. Form inside-outside circles with classmates. Hold your paper so that you are looking at the word. 1. Inside: Read the definition on your outside-circle partner’s paper. Name the word. 2. Outside: Confirm or correct your partner’s response. Then read the definition on your partner’s paper and name the word. 3. Inside: Confirm or correct your partner’s response. 4. Inside: At the signal, step to your right to face a new partner. Repeat the steps.

11

The Changing Land • Wrap-Up: Show What You Know

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Extend

Build Your Word Power USE WORD PARTS: GREEK ROOTS Knowing Greek roots and word endings can add to your vocabulary power and make you a stronger reader. It will give you clues to the meanings of new words. For example, knowing the greek root geo, which means earth, and ending -logy, which means study, can help you understand the word geology, which means the study of earth.

+

=

geo

logy

the study of the land

Meaning of root

Meaning of Word

zoology

biology

meteorology

Choose from these root meanings:

Life

animal

atmospheric events

Read More About It If you would like to know more about changes that happen on Earth, read one or more of these articles: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Rock It! Three Kinds of Rock Under Pressure: Crystals and Gemstones

12

The Changing Land • Extend

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Choose Your Challenge! Research Options

1. Research State Landforms Find a physical map of your state. Choose one landform from the map. Do research to answer questions about the landform.

Possible questions • What caused the landform to look this way?

• Has the landform changed quickly or slowly? Explain. • What kinds of rocks and soil make up the landform? • How is the landform important to the people who live nearby?

2. Research Careers This article is about the branch of science we call earth science. There are many careers in earth science, such as geologist, groundwater protection expert, and meteorologist. Choose one, and do research about it. • First, list a few questions. • Then, use reference sources to answer your questions. Possible questions • What do people in this career do each day? • What changes do they see in the land? • How are reading and writing important in their job? • How are science and math important in their job? • How did they prepare for this career?

13

The Changing Land • Extend

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Choose Your Challenge!

Presentation Options

1. Share Your Knowledge Present the information you found to classmates. Encourage them to ask questions about it. If you don’t know the answers to their questions, you can do more research.

2. Media Connection Create and post a video blog to share your findings with classmates.

For more option , see the Presentation Idea Bank.

14

The Changing Land • Extend

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14

Made with FlippingBook Online newsletter