Cerebrum Winter 2021

WINTER 2021 | VOLUME 2, ISSUE 1

FEATURES 12 His and Hers: Sex Differences in the Brain The neurobiological sex differences in the male and female brain remain largely a mystery. Our author—an acclaimed neuroendocrinologist at Northwestern University—tells us what we know and why we don’t know more. By Catherine S. Woolley, Ph.D. 18 The Promise of Big Data Imaging for Mental Health Knowledge gleaned from big data and advances in neuroimaging have provided new insights into the workings of the brain. Our author, founding director of the Center for Translational Research in Neuroimaging and Data Science, traces the evolution of these two evolving fields. By Vince Calhoun, Ph.D. 26 Psychedelics: Weighing the Healing Power New research suggests drugs like psilocybin may help treat neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from depression to opioid addiction. But what do we really know about how psychedelics influence the brain? By Kayt Sukel 30 Your Brain on Food Science is increasingly unpacking the ways that diet influences cognitive function and emotional well-being. Growing evidence suggests that the right diet may in fact mitigate some of the ill effects of stress on the brain, while the wrong diet may worsen the effects. By Brenda Patoine 36 The New Science of Spaces How can the new field of environmental neuroscience, which is aimed at analyzing the use of physical and social spaces, help architects, urban planners, and policy makers improve psychological and physiological states? By Seimi Rurup

POINTS OF INTEREST NOTABLE FACTS IN THIS ISSUE 4 One of the most widely cited reasons for studying the brains of both sexes is that the incidence of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders varies by sex. His and Hers: Sex Differences in the Brain , Page 12 4 Have we learned anything about diagnosis or mental illness from the vast trove of neuroimaging data that has been collected over the years? The Promise of Big Data Imaging for Mental Health , Page 18 4 Despite the continuing legal barriers involved, several unique research centers are actively studying the effects of psychedelic drugs, both from basic science and clinical perspectives. Psychedelics: Weighing the Healing Power , Page 26 4 Recent evidence suggests polyphenols are involved in cellular signaling pathways that mediate inflammatory processes in the brain. Your Brain on Food , Page 30 4 Our brains are wired to seek out and remember patterns within our environments, and imageability determines how specific physical elements and their arrangement will capture attention, evoke feelings, and create a lasting impression. The New Science of Spaces , Page 36

SECTIONS 5 Briefly Noted • By the Numbers, Brain on the Web 6 Advances • Notable brain science findings

7 Bookshelf • A few brain science books that have recently caught our eye 8 Neuroethics • Marijuana: Young Minds and Other Concerns, By Philip M. Boffey 10 In Memoriam • Duane Alexander, Leslie Ungerleider, Pat Quinn 10 Clinical Corner • The Sound of Healing, By Abdul-Kareem Ahmed, M.D. 35 Talking Neuroscience • A Sampler of Cerebrum Podcast Episodes 40 Awards • And the Winner Is: Neuroethics Essay Contest

2 Contributors | 4 From the Editor | 42 Advisory Board | 44 Cerebrum Staff

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