4 MAY 1972




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Graphics Editor NANCY DICK Contributing Editor LARRY FRITZ


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STAFF: Barry Cohen, Eric Chaffee, · Linda De Tine, George Howell, Michael Sajecki, Steve Mackey, Dick Manning, Marcia Rybcznski, Jo Ann Pizzo, Heather Ingram, Mike Kaiser, Dave Schwab, Mary Sullivan, Bill Mallowitz, Jan Nuzzo, Peggy Burke, Pat Bumstead, Jackie Michelin, Pauline Landau, Eric Daughtry, Helene Heit. STRAIT ma11azine ia published fortni11htly by the 1tudent1 of the New Yorlr State Univerail)' Colle11e at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, New Yorlr 14222. Office, are in the · Student Union, room 421; telephone (716) &62-5326 & 5327. · Publilhin11 and operatin,: fund• allocated throu(lh the United Students · Government under the auspice• of Publication• Board and ·throu(lh the adverlilin(I income. STRAIT ii repreaented for national adverti1in(I income by National Educational Adverti,in(I · Service,, 360 Lexin(llon Avenue, New Yorlr, N . Y . STRAIT ii diltributed free to all member• of the Buffalo State Community pnd to other 1tudenla on campu1e1 of the Nia(lara Frontier. Price for all other,: 25 cent, per copy ; $4.50 : per year ( 14 ilaue1). Unsolicited manuscripts wUI be conlidered for publication but STRAIT will not be reaponsible for their return; perso11s not auocialed with SUCB will not be dl,criminated a11ain1t in the terms of · manu,cripl publication. Editorial policy is determined by the editorial board. STRAIT •u bacribe, lo Colle(le Preis Service (CPS) . Denver, Colorado; and Dilpatch News Service International (DNSI) . Copyrif,ht 1972; all ri11hts re.erved: no portion or hi• ma11azine, its pictorial or verbal content may be reprinted in any manner without the expre,a con,ent of the Editor-In-Chief. Printed in the United Stale• of · America by RecordPreu. GRAPHICS CREDITS: Barry Cohen · 23; Nancy Dick • 10, 13, 14, 15, 24, 25; Carol Edmondson • 28; Photo on page 17 . Courtesy of the Mattachine Society. COVER BY KARLA STRICKLAND .


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In This Issue

This is our last issue of our first year. Consequently, there are a few wrap-up columns and a few looking-ahead-tow:ird summer articles to give us a clean break and to give you some summer-ideas. In addition there is an interview with a member of the Mattachine Society that provides much insight into this 'other chapter on human rights,' a pictoral review of the Women In The Arts Festival art show "Feminine Perceptions," and the story of the trial of the Buffalo Five . We'd like to thank everyone for all the support, and especially the constructive criticism, we have received this year . We hope that those of you who have been faithful readers will continue to read us as faithfully next year (you can get a subscription mailed to you • you are going to someplace like Sienna or if you are graduating awa _ from Buffalo althogther) and that those of you who would have liked to work with us this year will help us next year. We'll have a new Editor in the Fall: Beverley Conrad, current news editor. Peace, and be well this Summer.

................................................................editorials Making USG work

tution intended - in meaningful, personal and humanistic direc- tions. We therefor recommend : FOR PRESIDENT OF USG - TOM PECHAR a man of conscience and perception . Although Tom has not been as active in USG, faculty and administrative committees as his opponent, we feel that what is needed at this point is not a leader whose orientation is toward bureauocratic committee work, but rather a progressive-minded leader whose orienta- tion is toward the students in the classrooms and the students in the Pub. Tom has a very strong social-political sense that is not likely to be subject to compromise. FOR TREASURER OF USG - STEVE BASKIN , current editor-in-chief of the Record and treasurer of Publications Board. Just as we feel that the president needs to be a person with progressive, populist ideals, so too does the treasurer. In addition, Mr. Baskin has the knowledge of finances and management which are so crucial to a job which oversees the expenditure of nearly $500,000. of student funds . It may be fairly and accurately said that Steve is the most knowledgable student on campus in the area of finance . ASE day of sun serve to transpose a brown and gray land into ·that green, green that feels so good beneath the naked toes. But where do the rains and the sun for the inner world originate? Such elements do not simply happen for the indivi- dual as they do for the earth. In the case of the inner world, shielded from the elements by the flesh, it is up to the individual to open himself, to make himself susceptible, and receptive to the elements - and not just the water of the rain, and heat of the sun. In order to find, one must seek. For the world - as it is - to have the elemental effect on the inner self, it is up to the individual to find that world, which does indeed exist, and to seek communion with the many other inner. worlds, or SELFS' It is up to the individual to keep from becomming stag- nant by falling prey to a law of inertia that tends to keep resting objects at rest. To keep from "remaining at rest" one must move. One must exercise his capacity as a human being to raise himself up from a seemingly muddy, or stagnating environment and MOVE. Exercise as a human being. And change mere thoughts and dreams into actions. The capacity of the individual to replenish his inner world is as powerful as is the capacity of the universe to replenish the Earth. One need only KNOW it to learn the technique. One need only DO it, to experience the greening of him- self. BC

The United Students ' Government is approaching the birth of it's second generation. And we , the students of SUCB , are the midwives of that birth. We cast the ballots which will determine the destiny of that body. Less than one year old, the USG has fallen considerably short of the goals which were vocalized at its conception. The intent of the new structure - as the name implies - was to make student government more relevant to , and more representative of, the students. For this, changes were made in the constitu- tional structure; unfortunately these changes were only super- ficial - not realized in deed. This has been, to a large extent, the fault of the current officials who have not involved themselves as actively and as openly as was hoped during this first , important year. The executive branch in particular has often failed to understand or relate to the wills and attitudes of the students and has .a,nphasized too much the administrative and more petty W spects of the governing machine - aspects which are not readily felt by the student population as a whole . We want to see USG function as the framers of the consti-

The greening of the individual Ah, Spring. The time of year when one should take delight in "grazin' in the grass " and running nude through the fields with a butterfly net slung precariously over the shoulder. However. . . It seems that the idea of this budding, greening season is of more value when applied directly to the individual within each of us, rather than simply to the vicarious joy that can be experienced by seeing a budding, greening world. And it seems that a season which pours rain on a world so that that world might conceive of itself and replenish itself, need not have its philosophy (if seasons can have philosophies) confined to only one quarter of the year. Within each of us there is a world. Our thoughts., out perceptions, our senses - the transference and digestion of each of these - form the world within . It is that inner world that composes the SELF as we per-· sonally know it; and it is that innel' world that has the capacity to react with the outer world, and the other inner worlds, or SELFS. But where do the rains come from? In a city such as Buffalo, where the rainy season almost never quits, the sight of a cloudy day has caused many an individual to liken himself to that pervasive, low ceiling of gray. Consider however, the spring rains. One day of it, and one STRAIT 4 MAY 1972 3


THE ATTACHED LETTER : ... AND IF ELECTED ... Dear Editor, I am a serious candidate for the President of the USA. Please encourage all your readers to write me. I have never committed a violent act. John J. Desmond Jr. 19491 Cell 4A2 PS. Hometown : Rochester Graduate, St. Bonaventure, 1953 • To the Editor : I would like to make one small comment about your re- cord reviewer. Some people get their kicks in strange ways. In the last issue of STRAIT , a record review of the "new Earth II " album appeared. It sounded so enticing that I immediately tried to purchase it . After I tried all the stores downtown · with no success - I went to the Record Runner and tried to find it in the British imports. I didn't find it . I inquired of of a couple of people there who told me that it doesn't exist. I'd like to ask Sajecki: What the hell kind of joke was that? Is that any way to run a maga- zine7 Liz Durelyo Here is reviewer Sajecki 's reply:


The attached letter was placed in our Prisoners Mail Box for forwarding to you . The letter has been neither opened nor inspected. If the writer raises a problem over which this insti- tution or the Bureau of Prisons has jurisdiction, you may wish to write to me or to the Director of Justice, Washington, D.C. 20537 . You may write back to the inmate , and ask him questions. Your Jetter will be inspected for contraband , and for any con - tent which would incite illegal conduct. The Bureau of Prisons encourages the press to visit institu- tions, and learn abou't correctional programs and activities. If you wish to do this , please contact me . Inmates may not receive compensation for material sub- mitted to the media. If the person writing you names another inmate or a staff member in his correspondence, we request that you advise us of that fact before its publication . We will provide background information and specific comments when - ever possible . If the writer encloses forward in g correspondence addressed to another addressee , please return the enclosure to me, or to the Director. L.E. Daggett Warden

United States Penitentiary McNeil Island , Washington You are right - the album doesn't exist. I do get my k' in strange ways. But why the hell not 7 By the way , have y heard the new Pluto IV album? . h . ....· ...................· ... ................................mterc ange

To the Editor- In Karen Anderson's letter to the editor in 'Strait' (Buff. State - Mar. 23, 1972), she says, " I don 't think it 's .. . funny to see the women's movement treated as a trivial matter con- sisting only of 'bra-burnings '. I don't think there 's a thing to laugh at when I see . ..the 'komix' showing two tits . . . and no head. (if she wants something with a head , perhaps a penis should have been inserted, instead?) That is supposed to repre- sent WOMEN? Hardly' The women who appear in the 'komix' are not allowed to express themselves -- their worth lies (sic. - not 'lays') only in their bodies .. . women are getting sick of this attitude and a Jot of us are struggling to break out of these bonds. " Their panic is readily understandable when they realize themselves to be an unnecessary evil, readily dispensed with. By 1994, all females could be liquidated, thus easing the popu- lation explosion, and their places taken by test tube babies and 'fucking machines.' These would be clock- work - operated with timers on a dial to set anywhere from one to a maximum of five minutes, and a switch to set to

anywhere between 'FAST' and 'SLOW'. When coin was put in, a latex and India rubber cunt would ooze, open up and a light would flash, -- 'Insert Here '. These machines would be installed in all washrooms, and women, per se, would be a thing of the past , like the dinosaur. Inspectors would be assigned to ensure that no females had disguised themselves as males, through skin grafting, etc. during the mass liquidation. She ends her letter with " .. . the prevalent idea of the 'castrating bitch' is something I can manage to laugh at. A . man's cock and balls are hardly at fault . Lobotomy (sic. She means 'vasectomy'?) would be more to the point, but even I would not go that far." How far would she go? If she is that uptight, she and I should get together to discuss this matter further. If she I put her phone number on her next letter to the editor, show her what she really wants, - and it isn't any social refo n - and she knows it. Randy Hough



they may have to pay a very stiff price for their faith. If the war in South Vietnam has been costly, a larger war in the entire Southeast Asia area - with the threat of Red Chinese invasion - will destroy the U.S . And why is this possible? Because people in positions of power will not break out of their roles as government agents to make moral decisions as human beings, stopping the war and curbing the ex- cesses in economic manipulation by such companies as ITT over small, powerless countries . Our wonder- ful, self-gratifying image of America as a place where individuals have great personal liberties is starting to appear not so accurate to a lot of people who have never stopped to look at it before. I had an encounter at the American Red Cross on Delaware Avenue last week that brought the pro- blem of role vs. self-identity back home. When I wrote my C.O. statement and made my personal appearance, I said a number of times that if a national emergency should arise, whether it was war or whatever, I would feel obligated to do what I could for the people in·this country, and that the means I would choose would be the Red Cross. Lately, I've been thinking that I haven't done any- thing to pursue that course of action, so I went to the Red Cross for general information about services available and the training needed to participate in this public service institution. After this column, I may never be allowed in a Red Cross office but I think it is important that I say what I see and hope that it is understood as a sincere expression. I found myself seated at the desk of the Public Information Officer's desk. She was a middle-aged woman named Mrs. Hughes . I had a bit of difficulty explaining to her what I wanted and after a bit of general talk about the Red Cross, she asked me why I was interested in that organization. I told her about my present hassle with the draft, how I felt I wasn 't doing what I wanted to, and so on . Then, much to my dismay, she leaned over towards me and said "I usually don't make personal statements as a Red Cross Officer but I'd like to say that I think you're making a dreadful mistake. There are so few of you boys refusing induction; don't you know you are ruining your future. The six months or two years you spend in the military aren't all that bad ." I couldn't believe it . I actually expected to be received with open arms and here I was get- ting a typical middle-class rap about ignoring the little unpleasantries of military life for the sake of a better job in the future . Trying not to get all self- righteous and indignant, I explained to her that I had given an awful lot of thought to what I would be expected to do in the military and that I didn't believe that I could . We talked a little longer about conscientious objection and then stepped back to the matter of the Red Cross. (continued on page 19)



ROLES Talking about paranoia . With the stepup in the war these past few weeks there has been an equal amount of grumbling and indignation about this seemingly endless war . Now, student complaints don't count much anyway . Talk of a nationwide strike brought back memories of the "Great Strike of '70" that was supposed to halt business as usual. With the exception of getting a lot of heads busted and student loans cut, nothing was really ac- complished; the war is still with us . If students • lly wanted to affect the war, they would refuse · uction on a mass basis or do highly illegal things like draft-file disruptions, or whatever . The legal means of putting a halt to the war are obviously non-existant, but then maybe so too are the illegal. The Buffalo has been found guilty of disrupting government machinery, something they have never denied. They haven't slowed down the machine at all, and while a lot of people have been witnessing the trial of the Vietnam war in Buffalo, and maybe having second thoughts about it finally, these five people are going to suffer for being decent, respon- sible citizens . But before we get into a deep despair, we should look at the noticable amount of "estab- lished" figures who are suddenly feeling rather im- potent in their own security. In last week's issue of Newsweek Stewart Alsop, in his usually very pro-big business column, wrote a very alarmed article portraying Richard Nixon as a scared little man so afraid of embarass- ment at the hands of the North Vietnamese and loss of next year's election, that he may order an am- phibious invasion of North Vietnam, thereby starting another Korean War . When the Buffalo say these kinds of things, America can turn a deaf ear because they're just kids, law-breakers at that, and probably Aimie sympathizers. But when Stewart Alsop says ll!"you better believe that something is wrong. Suddenly, people who were so confident in the institutions of American government are seeing that



craftsman who performs a needed function. Our de- finition of the artist spans the whole arc; from the dancer who forms space into time with his bod~,. the poet, the painter, the sculptor, to the pla who forms time into space with a line. But it a so includes all other creators whose work is life-forming whatever it may 1 be. The socalled re-creating artist is no less devoted to his mistress the violin, the stage, the laboratory. It has become commonplace to distinguish be- tween the professional and the amateur; customarily the former received money and the latter some s~orn. We propose a somewhat different categoriza- tion: The amateur, dilletante, the layman, and the professional. In a recent Czech film this could easily be ob- served: in a small village a string quartet is being played in which money does not matter at all. The first one, an older man is an excellent player, he could play in every . good orchestra or chamber music group and would be well paid he is the pro- fessional. The second one is a dilli;ante, he plays very well indeed, but he could not play and in fact would not play in an orchestra (but Webster calls him a trifler); he en joys himself, and brings joy to others (dilettare); the third one is an amateur, he plays the cello because there is no one else arou• he knows, and they know that he is not of thw,I class, but they put gladly up with him; the fourth one is the layman, a boy who wants to be close to his girl who is the daughter of the dilletante. The role of the layman is not well defined in this country, but it could be a very important one; lay-chorus . and lay-dancers without professional polish or ambition but with honest devotion to the art, could enrich and enliven a whole community. Instead they are being downgraded in their and so- ciety's eyes. Rather than study for years in some drama school or conservatory to earn money and, perhaps, gain fame; or even worse, learn the unteachable from the unknowledgable, the sincere attempt of the layman to help himself and possibly also to bring some joy to others should be encouraged and furthered. We find instead continuous harping on polish, accompanied by coddling even the lightest talent way beyond its possibilities and potentialities; one can only applaud Pearl Bailey, a real pro, who recently said on TV: What is being tooted about nowadays, we used to call .talent shows. ... It is a difficult and still a rather moot quese . to determine the quality of an artwork, even moTt to determine the quality of an artist. Recent attempts at non-verbal quantitative criteria for the

Art for Man's Sake


Much has been said and written on Art and her relationship to life - to personalize art in the femi- nine is deliberate - it is almost audacious to try to press into one brief column the quintessence of her wondrous being. Nevertheless, a few defining words may be dared? "The world of art, long thought to be dedi- cated to dreams and to the Gods, derives from the very heart of the human" says Malraux and con- tinues: "For it is not the association with the idea of beauty that makes of it the most efficient instru- ment of civilization which the wisdom of the ages has seen in it, it is the fact of its being humanism in the most vital meaning of the word ...the great artist is not the recorder of the scheme of things, he is its competitor." "Unconsciously every true artist is always gripped by the beauty of lines and colors and their mutual relationships much more than by what it represents ... consciously contrariwise the artist follows the form of the object." (Mondrian) . . Thus, we consider art as a phenomenon of equi- librium between artist, artwork and audience. We see the artist compelled by an inner force, and for his soul's salvation reproduces the world symboli- cally in a material upon which he decides, in order to circumvent death. And we see the audience perceiving the artwork as equiiibrium both individually and in groups; a wish for balance and hopefully achieving the eternal balance of tension-and-solution. In the French tradition it has been customary to distinguish between arts and metiers, between the creative artist, useless as a societal luxury and the Art for Man's Sake is the title of a book on art and Society on which Professor Bunzel has been working for many years, parts of which have been published elsewhere.



standable to be art, they will merely find the audience illiterate. And indeed, there is a certain curse put upon literacy. The very fact that someone can read and write makes him a literary critic; hardly would the same person dare to speak with the same lack of self-consciousness to a chemist about his formulas. The fact that somebody in his youth had to practice on an old downtrodden piano three hours daily through four years makes him now judge orchestras and conductors, vitruosi and composers . Producers and agents for artwork like dramas and other art products derive their infallible and unappealable judgements after having partici- pated in three high school plays and seen a number of Broadway successes. In fact such is the state of our present day art criticism and our understanding and appreciation of the arts that an uneasy audience is exposed to self-conscious attempts by money ridden artists at some low common denominator be- tween their work and the people's patience. The humility of the public is astonishing . But is shows at the same time the deep gulf between the arts and the people; a dangerous gulf, because in its slumbers insecurity, leader-longing panic; fear, anxiety , fright; terror, wrath, ire and the desire for atonement. look. This approach requires us, then, to discard rigid extremism in our thought processes and be- havior and to carefully analyze the poles as well as the content in between. This is not to say that we must condemn our- selves to eternal indecision. It does mean that we must prevent ourselves from being trapped by mythical absolutes. One looks, for example, at poli- tical extremists, right wing or left, with some degree of incredulity because we can more or less see unan- swerable questions that have been treated casually with a rhetorical veneer. The fact remains that when we adopt a position and then proceed to wrap in- vincible chains around it, the mobility of the thoughts which compose that position ceases. The ideas are then, not ventilated, but smothered. The reaction of those who see great value in dogma may very well be repulsed by my charge, however, it is not an indifferent, unopinionated po- sition that I support. On the contrary, an intense dedication to the refinement of thought is now just as necessary as ever. I am in no way opposed to strong opinions and/or values of some kind, I am merely making a plea for serious-minded re-evalua- tion of the beliefs at hand in a continual cycle. If the world were to stand still for us, we might be more apt to operate easier under the influence of blinders. But when we are forced to deal with con- stant variation, we must join in on the activity. All of the questions with which I have dealt in (continued on page 19)

"worth" of an artist or an artwork have failed miserable and rightly so. However, there are certain objective characteris- ,cs which must be introduced in art criticism if it shall elevate itself above the irritating statement: I don't know what art is, but I know what I like, to which Whistler is said to have replied: "So do the monkeys, Madam." We may admire the works of a man whom we detest; we may find the work of our favorite neigh- bor trite and of poor craftmanship. But more than to only invoke techniques we must, at least, try to establish some kind of standards. In the field of music this is at the outset fairly simple: you have to know how to write notes and what they mean, to learn some theory and counterpoint; in the fileds of fine arts it is already far more difficult as is evi- denced by recent discussions in the magazines and dailies; works of world-reknown artists are com- pared to children's babble and the offerings of in- mates in insane asylums. In the field of literature a certain amount of readibility is the essence, but an admirer of T .S. Eliot will not agree that his writings must be under- -'IIND'S EYE


FINISHING UP "Loyalty to petrified opm1on never yet broke a chain or freed a human soul." Mark Twain This is the final issue of Strait until next fall, and with this in mind, this column shall be an at- tempt at summarizing the concept behind the pre- vious ideas presented here. I One hopes that a continual effort will always be de to search and sift through our observations, deductions, and intuitional abilities in order to in- tegrate these and thus create a more balanced out-



Claude says that Interpol's post-World War II crackdown on heroin manufacture, especially in Marseilles, has hurt the French traffic in South east Asian drugs Heroin factories were set up then in Ba kok. Now they have been moved up northern Laos and Burma, where the Frenchmen do not have any influence. The Chinese drug merchants in Vientiane run the show. American money and influence brought new alliances, mainly between the businessmen and the U.S.-supported military regimes in Saigon, Vientiane, and Bangkok. Claude learned what it meant to be on the outside of this new alliance; he spend three years in a Saigon jail for opium smuggling. What does Claude think of Washing- ton's current attempt to stop the traf- ficking of heroin by shifting a fleet of agents from the Bureau of Narcotics to Southeast Asit? He chuckled over his cup of Italian coffee; "Hell, this business goes on because there are big people who per- mit it and profit from it. If they wanted to, they could stop it--and without your agents. Your agents can make little differ- ence--except to reduce the supply just enough to force prices even higher. They have the power only to catch the small traders. Claude claims to have retired to the babble of comely Vietnamese girls • keeps at his bar for a clientele of Ind. chinese military officers and American pilots, officials and agents. He admits that the French , having lost their Indochina Empire, are now losing their underworld heroin trade. "It is hard to live on your own." he said sadly . "Things are not like before."

"Things are not like hefore"

Claude is a professional dope smuggler who has been in Indo- china twenty-six years. But for him and the other members of the Corsican underworld who origi- nally controlled the heroin route from Burma , Laos and Thailand, business is not what it used to be. Chinese businessmen from Vientiane have cornered the supply and set up their own international syndicate. People like Claude are being squeezed out of the business. Claude (not his real name) is fiftyish and balding, speaks Vietnamese,Lao , Thai, Cambodian and English. He has a wife and children. He runs a small hotel on one of the crumbling rose-washed streets of Vientiane. The hotel is near the Mekong River, in a section of the city as mellow with colonial past as the whe-Jls of old cheese that hang in the two Vien- tiane food shops run by aging French ex- patriates similar to Claude. It always was the Chinese businessmen here who really controlled the local busi- ness. They dealt with the drug caravans of the mountain road, (northern Burma, Laos and Thailand), and they controlled the sales of opium to Southeast Asian ad- dicts.


McGovern: Moral and legal

Presidential candidate George McGovern has stated that he intends to use the "moral and legal" authority of his office to guarantee first-class citizen rights for homosexuals. He proposed a se- ven-point program aimed at ending job, housing and governmental discrimination against members of the homophile com- munity. He expressed a hope for the day when liberty and justice would include minori- ty groups which he named as blacks, Chi- canos, American Indians along with wo- men and homosexuals. "No one should have to fear re- pression from society because he does not share the assumptions of the majority," he said in a prepared statement.

-Heads to come together for pot conferenee As part of the grassroots movement to legalize

Stroup said the conference will be made up of workshops concentrating on topics that have been suggested by the participants. "That's why it is es- sential that people write us with their ideas. It's a people's meeting so the program will be planned by Suggested topics for workshops to date include: how to effectively reach a straight public (or should we?), new projects for heightening public awareness, raising bail money for those busted and involving members of the medical and legal professions to work on their behalf. Interested persons should worte to Norml Co. ference, 1237 22nd Street, N.W., Washington, D. , 20037 and include their suggestions for speeding up pot reform. it's participants ... "

pot, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), is holding a heady con- ference in the countryside, a stone's throw from Washington, D.C., to plan strategy for the 1972-73 campus pot offensive. The weekend conference, planned for earlt August, is free to all interested persons, with food and music provided. The meeting is intended to bring together the ideas of persons who are now working or who are interested in working for pot reform, NORML direc- tor Keith Stroup said. "We need to put our heads together," Stroup continued, "so that those projects that worked in one community can be transferred to other com- munities. Next year we hope to have working forces in every state and strong movements on the campus- es ..."



GOP convention problems Although the City Council of Miami Beach voted to formally extend an invitation to the Rep- ublicans to come to their city with the National Convention in August, it was by a slim four -to-three margin, suggesting they may not be as welcome in Miami as they were in San Diego. Some fear was expressed that the influx of long-haired protesters might result in open conflicts with the Miami Cuban population, which is n nearly half-million strong and decidedly anti-Communist. A wee-known activist stated that the situation will re- quire a lot of sensitivity on everybody's part if they wanted to avoid trouble. He added, "We want to make a clear political statement, and the last thing we need is a race riot." Other problems expressed included the fact that non-delegate demonstrators attending the Democrat- ic Convention might decide to remain in the area during the three or four week interim before the Republican convention in order to attend them both. Facilities for camping in the Miami area have not been developed to the extent that they could accomodate a long seige by thousands of non-del- egates.


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azine, the charge is made that today's food tech- nologists and industrialists, with the aid and abet- ment of the Department of Agriculture, are looking forward to more and more of the high-profit "miracle" food of the present, only with higher profits and more miracles . The foods of the future, being developed today by the "food industrial com- plex", are not going to be the kind of high-protein, high-vitamin, inexpensive variety so badly needed by the undernourished two-thirds of the world's pop- ulation. Americans are steadily increasing their con- sumption of sweet snacks, soft drinks , pre-sweet- ened cereals and non-dairy "cream" and "whipped toppings", the Ramparts writer observes . He also pointed out that the average American eats his or her own weight in sugar every year ." Of all the new foods developed each year, ap- proximately 80% don't succeed on the consumer market. This means that the other 20% have to be priced high enough to cover the failures. Future developments in the "miracle" food in- dustry variety include edible wrappings for snack • ods, freeze-dried ice cream, and foods with "col- eral functions, such as edible books, fabrics, etc., according to Max Brockman of the U.S. Army Lab- oratories, a noted food technologist.

MUNtH. . . .

Another development, according to the article, will be something called "spun vegetable protein." This is a substance containing inexpensive, high pro- tein products, such as soy beans, textured to re- semble meat, with artificial coloring and flavoring. One flavoring manufacturer now offers 41 different artificial mear flavors. Such products are already on the market in the form of Bae-Os, Saus-Os, or Strip- ples, an imitation bacon. The products are not only far more expensive than the vegetable from which they're made, but even more than the meats which they are supposed to taste like .



Students in Europe



, The hapless travelers turned to the Embassies for help , and in most cases their parents ended up sending over money to pay for the ride home. There are several warning signs of an illegal charter flight. Failure to identify the airline being flown is one method. So- licitation for the charter flight, by mail or media advertisement, to people who are not members of the organization is another. Charter operators are not allowed to organiza groups for flights, and they can- not sent prospective passengers to organi- zations that "just happen to have a few seats available." Backdating the member- ship credentials is a dead giveaway that the flight is an illegal charter. In the past t"ew years, surveillance by the CAB and legitimate air carriers has resulted in court action against charter vi- olators. Last June , the American Society of Travel Agents obtained a Federal Court injunction which stopped 23 illegal charter flights to Europe. But before you cancel your vacation plans, consider the fact that most chartA operated by U.S. and foreign-flag airli. are ligitimate, and consider that you get wh~t you pay for, usually.

•TERENCE WRIGHT Want to be stranded in Europe? That 's what happened to several thousand college students who were "taken for a ride" last summer by unscrupulous charter flight operators . The students had flown to

Union of Students" are among those formed solely for the purpose of illegal charters. One young man flew to Europe last summer as a member of the "Anglo- -Saxon Political Club," while his return flight was under the auspices of the " Interplanetary Research Association." The reason that the operators engage in these practices is fairly obvious. They hire a non-scheduled (supplemental) air- line plane at a low price, fill it with stu- dents who are attracted by their seemingly lower rates, and earn a cool $5,000 to $15,000 per flight . In many cases the student doesn't even know where he's sending his money. Sometimes he isn't told any details about the flight until shortly before it's going to depart. This is especially true with the re- turn trips. Some illegal operators go bankrupt during the summer either deliberately or due to large fines levied by government agencies who catch them, leaving the stu- dents stranded. They had paid for what they assumed was a round trip, and dis- covered that the charterer had only hired a plane for the trip over.

Europe on illegal charter flights, and when they were ready to re- turn home, they found the charter operator was out of business or that government agencies had found out about the illicit flight and grounded the plane . Only recognized organizations, formed for reasons other than travelling, can arrange charters and take advantage of the "affinity group" discounts on plane fares. This affinity chartering is strictly regulated by the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). To travel on the charter flight, passengers must have been members of the organization for at least six months before flight time. In the past few years, many sleazy o- perators have slipped into the charter business. They enroll students in phan- tom groups to comply with the CAB rule, and they backdate membership cards to make it appear that the student has be- longed for the required six month period. Such groups as the "University Stu- dent Organization " or the "American



TRASH For whatever good things can be said about the festival's promotion, the opposite can be said about trash col- lection at the festival. By the time we arrived on the second day of the festival the concentration of litter was noticable - when we left four days later, the site was a gigantic dump. In many areas it was nearly impossible to walk without stepping on pop or beer cans. The concert area was especially hard to hit and it was difficult to sit in the grass without havinq to clear away refuse . No containers for trash were provided at the festival - an obvious economy move by the promoter. TOILETS The toilets were almost never cleaned. DOPE There was none except for some bad acid and downers . It was like a football game without a football . Nearly everyone, fearing customs inspections, left their stashes at home hoping to score at the festival. Stark reality faced those poor souls. BANDS Savoy Brown, Fleetwood Mac, Roberta Flack, Poco , and Black Sab- bath didn't show up. However , some good things did happen surrounding the festival. A certain brotherhood was established between the Spanish speaking Puerto Ricans in atten- dance , about half of the crowd of 30,000, and the Americans. The two groups mixed well and few problems developed. At two points the festival approached reality. "Puerto Rico 2002," a local la- tin-rock group brought most of the Puer- to Rican audience to their feet when they played songs of national liberation, many chanting along with the music as a spot- light focused on a 1 O X 20 foot Puerto Rican flag displayed in fromt of the out- door stage. John Lennon and Yoko Ono, who re- cently faced deportation by the U.S. go- vernment, addressed the crowd via a tape recording. First in English, then in Spanish, the pair bemoaned their inability to attend or perform at the festival and then offered their wishes for a pleasant festival and Easter holiday. Are festivals dead? What did we learn? Festivals may not be dead just yet and I think we learned a lesson. Never again put ourselves at the mercy of these promo- ters. Anytime we separate ourselves so completely from the rest of the world, in this case at least ten miles from the nearest town, telephone, transportation, or food - we are automatically set up for a rip-off. An unfortunate thought , but true. What was promoter and money-man Alex Cauley's reaction to the festival? "It was a success ten times over."


The promoter's dream

But what happened?

•DON CATTERSON "Rock festivals are dead, " pronounced a glum Jane Friedman in her JJJ,,_w York public relations office . Mar Y Sol, the event her company, • Wartoke Concern, had touted all of the 15,000 or so Americans who had descended on the hot beaches of Vega Baja for "The First International Puerto Rican Pop Festival" had made it back to the States. Superficially, the plans for the rock

The answer is found in the general failings of most rock promoters - greed and too much hype. By skimping on water, food, health , and waster disposal facilities, the atmo- sphere of the festival soon Jost its energy and anticipation. Too much time was spent searching for water and shade - con- stant 90 degree temperatures and scorching sun left many casualties to se- vere sunbums and heat prostation. The water, rancid as it was was curi- ously shut off each night at dusk - not to be turned on again until late in the morning the following day. Since most of the 30,000 festival goers didn't bring can- teens - each night of music was ac- compied by driving thirst. HUNGER The tropical juices and fruits didn't materialize until the last day when coconuts sold by private native Puerto Rican venders sold for one dollar each. Otherwise, festival goers dined on a limited diet of meatpies, rice and beans, pop and beer, which could only be pur- chased at two (only two) boothes on the premises. Long lines were common.

festival contained all of the elements for success - the festival site was located on 429 acres of land with a beach facing the Caribbean Sea, the temperature was to be around 80 degrees, concessions would provide "plenty of food and drink with emphasis on fresh tropical fruits and juices." And an all-star cast of twenty-five rock and jazz groups and artists would perform. The bands contracted to play were : Alice Cooper ; Allman Brothers Band; B.B. King; Black Sabbath; Bloodrock ; Dr. John the Night Tripper; David Brubeck with Gerry Mulligan; Faces with Rod Stewart; Fleetwood Mac; Goose Creek Symphony; Herbie Mann; J . Geils Band; Poco ; Savoy Brown; and Roberta Flack - a truly fine bill. But what happened? Why did the fes- tival that promised so much excitement and entertainment end in frustration and exhaustion as thousands of festival goers swarmed over the San Juan airport after ging thirty miles into town from the val site in 95 degree heat when the buses the promoter had promised failed to show up?



U.S. Signs Biological Weapons Ban... Drags Feet on Geneva Protocol •RICHARD FINEBERG The United States signed an international ban on the use of biologi- cal weapons in a formal ceremony last week , but the Nixon Administra- tion continues to drag its feet on a broader agreement limiting all forms of chemical and biological warfare. The Administration's insistance that the Geneva Protocol of 1925 does not apply to herbicides and riot control gases used extensively by the U.S. in Southeast Asia has delayed ratification of the agreement for over two years. More than ninety nations - including every major power except the U.S . - have ratified the 1925 Protocol prohibiting first use in combat of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases and all analo- gous ... devices."

General Assembly declared that the Gene- va Protocol prohibits "all biological and chemical methods of warfare, regardless of any technical developments." In sa;: of an intensive U.S. drive to defeat t • resolution , it was adopted by an 80-3 margin. U.S. lobbying efforts did produce some abstentions but the campaign was unable to drum up much positive support for a restrictive interpretation of the Pro- tocol. According to the recently published, six volume Stockholm International Peace Research Institute study, The Pro- blem of Chemical and Biological Warfare , no other nation has entered reservations limiting the types of gas weapons to which the Geneva Protocol applies. [DNSI] Linda Jennes: Age before duty Socialist Workers Party candi- date for President, Linda Jenness has protested a threat by Ohio Secretary of State Ted W. Brown to rule her off that state's Novem- ber presidential ballot. Brown says that he "will not be able" to put Jenness on the ballot unless states that she is at least 35 years old. • Jenness is 31. Jenness, in answering Brown's notifi - cation of her potential ineligibility, stated that though the Constitution states that the President must be 35 years old, there is no age requirement for running for that office. She further stated that the Consti- tutional age requirement is "totally out of line with today's political reality" and that Brown 's move was "motivated by partisan political interests." 9,767 signatures were filed on behalf of Jenness in Columbus before the 2 February filing deadline. 5,000 signatures are required by law. Meanwhile, U.S. Representative John Ashbrook may contest his elimination from the Indiana primary slate. Ashbrook has been ruled off that state's ballot be- cause he had fallen short of the 500 re- quired voters' signatures from each district . Ashbrook is the conservative Republi- can challenging President Nixon in the Republican "race". A spokesman for Ashbrook said that enough signatures were gathered in each district, but that election officials had ruled many of them invalid. He said tt Ashbrook would probably appeal to state elections board, but would proba ,- not carry the dispute any further if that appeal fails.

The biological ban signed by Secretary of State William Rogers in Washington 10 April, is limited to the development, pro- duction and stockpiling of biological wea- pons. This agreement was negotiated last year by the Eighteen Nation Disarma- ment Commission . The Soviet Union sub- mitted a draft proposal in a surprise move last 31 March after the U.S. began unila- teral destruction of its biological weapons stockp~e . The White House will not say how soon the recently signed biological ban will be forwarded to the Senate, where two-thirds approval is required by the Constitution. Because the biological ban and the Geneva Protocol cover closely re- lated areas, it might be "awkward," as a Senate Foreign Relations Committee staffer puts it, for the White House to submit the new biological ban to the Senate before the question of the Geneva Protocol is resolved. President Nixon promised to send the Geneva Protocol to the Senate for ratifi- cation in November 1969. But when the Administration finally forwarded that treaty to the Senate nine months later, it att~ched an informal understanding saying that the ban does not apply to tear gas and herbicides. Due to the unique Administration rider, the Senate Foreign Relations Com- mittee has had second thoughts about ra- tifying the Protocol. After holding hearings on the question early in 1971, Foreign Relations Committee Chairman J.W. Fulbright sent a letter to President Nixon asking the President to reconsider his position. One year later, the White House has yet to respond to Fulbright's letter.

White House spokesmen say that the questions raised by the Committee are being considered by the State Depart- ment. State Department officials, how- ever, told this reporter that any decision to modify the government 's position can be made only at the White House. The Administration contends that gases "cause less suffering than the use of other weapons." Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs G. Warren Nutter told the Foreign Rela- tions Committee that riot control agents can be used against enemy troups as an alternative to napalm or artillery, thereby "reducing the barbarity of war." Govern - ment-sponsored studies on the effective- ness - and the effects - of gas warfare in Southeast Asia are presently in process. The Administration's understanding, Fulbright noted in his letter to the Presi- dent, rests on the opinion that the Proto- col's wording may not have been in- tended to prohibit use of riot control and herbicidal chemicals. "Having heard the legal testimony on both sides of the issue," Fulbright observed, "Many Com- mittee Members feel that an adequate le- gal argument can be made either for or against that interpretation." To Fulbright, the over-riding consider- ation is that the Administration's rider "cannot help but weaken the effect of the Protocol." He asked the President to consider "whether the need to hold open the option to use tear gas and herbicides is indeed so great that it outweighs the long-term advantages to the United States of strengthening existing barriers against chemical warfare by means of ratifica- tion .. . without restrictive interpreta- tions." In December 1969 the United Nations





the buftalo 5 Vietnam on inBuffaln


Two of the Five, Ann Masters and Jim Martin discuss their trial in the foyer of the Federal Court House Building on Court Street.


The trial of the Buffalo Five is over. The jury of five men and seven women returned a verdict of 'guilty' on two of the charges and one of 'not guilty.' The 'not guilty' verdict pertained to government charges that the defendants intended to destroy government documents . The Five will be sentenced on 19 May in Federal court . Maximum penalties for the Five will be terms imprisonment of seven and five years.

lines anyway - which tended to confound the prosecution , and perhaps the jury. When the prosecution was presenting its witnesses, emphasis was placed on gather- ing testimony that would find the Five guilty beyond a doubt. Grable handled his case with much dignity and firm preci- sion. But alas, the Five had no intentions of hiding their actions and they conse- quently allowed the prosecution and wit- nesses little chance to reveal such testi- mony. Before each witness could testify that the various members of the Five had committed a given act, the defendants would stand at their table and announce: "Yes, we did that ," or "I took that file." During the defense's cross-examina- tions of the government witnesses, the Five would greet each by his first name in a neighborly manner : "Good-morning, Gary ,' ' and then proceed with the cross-examination which rarely entailed testimony regarding the actual removal of files from the Old Post Office building. Rather , defense questions were often : "What are your feelings on the Vietnam war 7 " to which the answer "My feelings are private and I do not wish to divulge them," was often the answer. A key government witness, William

Throughout the trial, the Five, Ann Masters, Jeremiah Horrigan, Chuck Darst, Jim Martin and Meaux Considine pre- sented themselves in a most admirable fashion: they wore casual clothes, were almost too-courteous to the prosecution and witnesses, and worked hard to defend themselves and their faith . Their entire presence was that of the kids next door : clean, wholesome, religious and honest - a virtue that likely had some effect on the grandparentish jurors, and which will likely have a positive influence on their sentencing. The court, which was presided over by Federal Judge John T. Curtin, was a most E al one: despite statements by the cuting attorney, Assistant U.S. At- Y James Grable, that "the govern- ment is not on trial here," Judge Curtin; a Johnny Carson-ish sort of fellow with

wry wit and even a warm grin , allowed the Five - who were defending themselves - to "present any views or testimony that [they] feel is necessary to convince the jury that they should be acquitted." ' And for the Five, this entailed putting the Vietnam war, if not the whole United States, on trial. This was not always as successful as the Five would have liked, however. Their requests to petition Presi- dent Nixon , Curtis Tarr, Melvin Laird and others as witnesses were denied (which wasn 't unexpected) . The intent here would have been to prove to the jury that what is being committed in Vietnam is a crime of the utmost moral magnitude and that, as such, their crimes committed in Buffalo were highly moral and life-saving in comparison. But Nixon, et al. , aside , the Five tailored their defense strategy along these



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