Among the Great Bears

Sept 2021

Among the Great Bears Natural Habitat’s Alaskan Grizzly Bear Encounter

Author: Lois Olive Gray

Photos: Kay Ellen Gilmour, MD

“AMONG THE GREAT BEARS”

CONTENTS Introduction .........................................................................................................................................2 NatHab’s stratagems .........................................................................................................................2 Hire Great Guides............................................................................................................................2 Supply Reliable Transportation .....................................................................................................2 Ensure Competent Experience......................................................................................................4 Provide Coordination Expertise ....................................................................................................6 Variables ...............................................................................................................................................6 Island and City of Kodiak....................................................................................................................6 Misty Harbor ....................................................................................................................................6 Day-boat Trip to Marmot Bay ........................................................................................................8 Onshore Considerations ................................................................................................................. 11 Gear ................................................................................................................................................ 11 The Skiff ......................................................................................................................................... 14 Calculating the Tides .................................................................................................................... 15 Geographic Harbor .......................................................................................................................... 16 Kuliak Bay .......................................................................................................................................... 19 Scenic Cruise ................................................................................................................................. 19 The Spring Cub.............................................................................................................................. 19 Last days in Kodiak........................................................................................................................... 23 Buskin River State Recreation Site ............................................................................................. 24 Alutiiq Museum And Archaeological Repository...................................................................... 25 The Holy Resurrection Cathedral ............................................................................................... 26 Bird Watching................................................................................................................................ 27 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................... 28

INTRODUCTION We certainly chose a wonderful way of rejoining the world of adventure travel after the lengthy lockdown for Covid! We decided to sign up for NatHab’s Grizzly encounter trip! The experience was more fabulous than we could have expected or imagined. Sitting in such proximity to these enormous wild creatures was exciting but not frightening. Throughout the history of the western expansion of the USA, the grizzly bear has been treated as a fearsome enemy of man and many were exterminated to make the land safe for human beings. The beautiful and peaceful animals we were privileged to watch ignored us entirely as they went on with their individual lives: fishing for salmon to fatten themselves for the coming winter hibernation, dozing in the sunshine, and feeding their young ones. The only experience that could be compared with this one is being with the mountain gorillas in Africa. NATHAB’S STRATAGEMS

This is how NatHab makes all this happen.

Hire Great Guides For this Alaska trip they employed guide who know the bears and their behaviors through lots of time studying and observing these amazing animals. Our guide was Brad Josephs who had an almost magical rapport with them. He knew each one as an individual and often spoke to them soothingly explaining our presence. He could also suggest that they take a different path if they were getting close to us, and they obeyed. Remember: these bears are not in cages nor are they “tame” in any way. They are truly creatures of the wild.

Supply Reliable Transportation First, NatHab engaged the sightseeing boat, the Trophy II, to sail Marmot Bay for marine mammals and shore birds. The vessel was comfortable, pristinely clean, and seaworthy.

The Trophy II in the Morning Fog Then, they arranged for a vessel that could ply the waters along the Katmai National Park coastline and safely approach the bays and coves where salmon are running upstream to spawn. During the summer, the bears congregate in these areas to feed on the salmon, voraciously preparing for their long winter’s nap. The Ursus on which we travelled met the requirement comfortably.

The Ursus at Geographic Harbor 1 The vessel is a repurposed and renovated former crabbing ship. There are 4 guest cabins, a comfortable mess hall and galley, open decks and a comfortable wheelhouse.

Ensure Competent Experience On the Trophy II, we enjoyed the company and wildlife expertise of its congenial captain, Mr. Lee Robins.

Captain Robins (L) & Captain Mitchell (R) Then we had the pleasure of sailing on the Ursus with its gentlemanly skipper, Captain John Mitchell with his many years' experience on the Ursus. His added skill as a carpenter was demonstrated by his talent in creating the “Pod” which contained the guest cabins. He also did the remodeling of the galley and mess hall.

And so far from port, there must be an engineer who can fix anything that goes wrong on the vessel from the engines to the toilets. Angus was that man. He had also worked on the Ursus and knew its mechanics well. He added another important skill: he was the driver of the skiff that took guests from the Ursus to the landing sites and back again.

Another must is a good cook skilled at preparing the fresh seafood always available. The Ursus was blessed with a chef who had run her own restaurant and worked in others too. Melissa is Brad’s wife, and her meals were sheer delights as was her warm personality.

Provide Coordination Expertise And last but, certainly not least, is a skilled coordinator who can manage all the details of guest travel, greet arriving guests at the airport, arrange for float plane flights to move guests between Kodiak and the Ursus, find restaurants that are able and willing to accommodate 9 people at meals, introduce guests to the city of Kodiak and provide interesting activities for guests in the city before and after their time on the Ursus. Laura Geissinger provided all these services with apparent effortlessness and true friendliness. VARIABLES Weather is everyone’s dictatorial companion every day in Alaska, be they native or tourist. Plans must be discarded or drastically changed on a moment’s notice as conditions can change without warning. Heavy fog frequently rolls in blanketing the area and causing cancelled flights. Heavy rain can dampen enthusiasm for any hikes. Cold winds can penetrate clothing considered warm enough before the windy assault. Waves can kick up on the water bodies causing unsafe landing conditions for float planes and small vessels. Though our guides constantly consulted local weather reports to try to avoid inconvenient travel switches, those reports were often wrong. But NatHab’s guide and coordinator were equal to the challenges and always found a way to “fix” whatever was “broken.” A good example of this need for flexibility occurred on what was supposed to be our last full day on the Ursus. As it happened, a turbulent storm was predicted to make it impossible for float planes to fly on the following day. Thus, after the rainy morning Geographic Harbor visit, we were flown back to Kodiak. It required two different flights since the planes accommodate only 4 passengers and the pilot. The group following us was brought out to the Ursus as we were flown away. But with good management and a window in the weather, we missed nothing of our trip and the new group had a rainy day to spend on the Ursus.

ISLAND AND CITY OF KODIAK

Misty Harbor We arrived in Kodiak a day early before the official NatHab adventure began. Hence, we did a bit of exploring on our own. That first morning was very damp and foggy but we ventured out to see some of the city. St. Paul’s Harbor is the city’s commercial marina. It lies just down the hill from the Best Western Inn where we stayed. There were many fishing boat and excursion vessels anchored at the marina. There was not much activity around them because Alaskans know a lot about local weather. It can change so quickly that they are

forced to make many changes of plans about leaving port for commercial or pleasure boating.

So, we just paced up and down the piers between the boats and checked out their names. These titles were curious, amusing, puzzling and original. We were sure there would be intriguing stories behind each name, but we just figured we would have to guess or make up our own. • The most ironic name for us was “Fishing Magician” because it sported a big for sale sign. So, had the owner lost his magic mojo? Or would it follow the next owner? • “Ambassador” was another odd name because it was unclear what an ambassador would do for the fish, crabs or salmon being sought? • The “Aluetion Endurance” made us wonder if the vessel or its owner had ever been to that string on islands since the name was spelled incorrectly. (Try Aleutian) • And how about the “Jacqueline W II? Who was the first Jacqueline? That’s the first question that sprang to mind. • “The Monk’s Habit was also puzzling since monks are not usually associated with fishing vessels or party boats. • “Woody” was a straightforward name since the ship was constructed of wood and because the name was painted in letters that looked like pieces of lumber. Perhaps it was the nickname of the owner too? • “Gallant Lady” was a superior name for a ship that plies the brutal Bering Sea waters.

Day-boat Trip to Marmot Bay During our first day in Kodiak with NatHab leadership, we were treated to a wonderful boat trip with an excellent guide, Lee Robins, on his comfortable vessel, the Trophy II. We left Kodiak City and explored 60 miles north in Marmot Bay. The trip started out very unpromisingly due to heavy fog. Laura told us we could postpone and skip the trip altogether because of the weather conditions, but along with Lee, we preferred to chance it. Lee knows the waters here so well that we did not worry. The fog was densely gray and there wasn’t much to see as we started out. However, in short order, the weather turned around and the sun broke through followed by brilliant blue skies. It became a glorious day in every way.

The scenery was magnificent: sheer cliffs with greenery climbing the walls and birds nesting among the bushes and stones. There were individual islands, small and large. One of the islands had been home to Shetland ponies, but whatever project the importers had contemplated ended in failure though the horses themselves thrived in the not unfamiliar habitat. The animals lived on the island for several years until the State of Alaska decided to remove them. Lee did not know what their fate had been.

Another island had been the natural home of the lynx, but they had been exterminated by fearful human beings. Now that island is uninhabited except by birds. Still another island is the only site where a kind of marble can be quarried so it is a busy place for industry rather than human inhabitation.

The most fun island that Lee pointed out was Sea Otter Island. A large collection of otters is a termed a “raft” and we saw a large assemblage of this endearing species all around their own island. The island is a refuge for the creatures where they can hide from predators like orcas and eagles. 75 or more otters we observed there were floating gently in the rocking waves, eating kelp or sea creatures, some with babies on their chests, and all looking serene. The Trophy II did not seem to disturb them at all.

After enjoying the sea otters, we went in search of fin whales, orcas (killer whales) and Humpback whales in the waters of Marmot Bay. Though we never saw a humpback, we were lucky enough to see at least 50 fin whales spouting all around us. We were encircled by the great creatures (the second largest whale in the world after the Blue Whale). They were feeding in the area and obviously had found plenty to eat. They would dive and then resurface to breathe and spout in 20-minute cycles so there were constant water eruptions wherever we looked.

Just for fun, here are the size statistics for blue whales (98 Ft. Long and 400,000 lbs.), fin whales (90 ft. Long and 144,000 lbs.) and the orca (killer whale) (26 ft. long and 12,000 lbs. which is about twice the weight of an elephant).

We were also fortunate to see about 20 orcas in the same area as the fin whales. The male orcas sport a very intimidating dorsal fin that rides above the water as they race through the water. It was extremely exciting to watch these creatures since they are an apex

predator and have no natural predators of their own. Thus, they prowl the world seas with impunity, except for the Baltic and Black Seas and certain parts of the Arctic Ocean. Some of the birds we saw on our excursion with Lee included horned and tufted puffins, always a joy to watch as they seem to struggle to get off the water and spring into the air and then return from fishing with an incredible number to tiny fish caught in their colorful beaks.

I think I can, I think I can We also saw oyster catchers, black-legged kittiwakes and eagles. Another excellent part of that activity for us.

ONSHORE CONSIDERATIONS

Gear Before leaving the ship each day, we had to gear up in the proper protective clothing. NatHab provided top-notch waders which were a bit tricky to get into. The legs of the waders ended in a neoprene bootie into which you put your sock-shod foot. Then you pulled the pants legs up all the way to just under your chin. Next you fastened the buckles from the back of the suit to the front. That maneuver kept the waders from slipping down even when you were wading through streams and creeks. After that step, you put on the waterproof boots which remained wet no matter how many times you used them. But surprisingly, your feet remained completely dry. The remainder of the gearing up process entailed getting all the warm clothing tucked down inside the waders—since they fit snugly, that was not as easy as it sounds. However, after a few times, the whole procedure became easier and faster. A head net was an absolute necessity since the insects teemed around us as we sat watching the bears.

The Skiff The good ship Ursus took us to the viewing sites and the skiff brought us from the Ursus to the landing spot. The skiff looked like a World War II LST in that its aft wall dropped down making a ramp from skiff to shore. Angus was the usual skiff driver. Angus, Brad and Mitch were there to help us safely step from the ship down into the skiff and back onto the Ursus on return. In the skiff were plastic buckets about 15 inches tall and we each carried one to use as a seat and gear-carrier on our way to the viewing site.

There was always a good hike from the skiff to the stream or waterfall where the bears would be congregating for fishing. Sometimes the walks were on sand covered in watery plants and at other times the walks would be over stones of varying sizes. Our last site meant a hike through very tall grasses called “beach rye” which were often over the heads of the shortest of us. Because we were often using bear trails to reach the stream shores, the beaten down grasses could entangle your feet in the big boots and create tripping possibilities Those walks also required vigilance since the bears could be using the same trails or other parallel ones that were close to our path. That’s when Brad’s bear whispering really worked since he could softly encourage the bear to take a different route and they always did. Calculating the Tides Another less magical but still vital skill that Brad demonstrated was reading the tides. This was most important since decisions had to be made regarding when any landings could be accomplished. Tides in Alaskan waters are huge, and they determined when the Ursus could approach an anticipated landing site and when the skiff could drop us off and, equally important, when it could return to pick us up. Another consideration Brad had to be on top of was lighting changes at various sites and times of day. He knew most of us “bear watchers” would be really interested and determined to get the best photos and videos possible to bring home. Since he is a great photographer himself, he could make sure that the conditions were as favorable as possible for our viewing sessions by his decisions on when landings should be scheduled. We typically had two viewing opportunities each day: a morning one and an afternoon into the evening one. Our viewing sites were at two separate places on the Katmai coast: the first was Geographic Harbor and the second was at Kuliak on upper and lower-level falls. We went to each of them on more than one occasion. So, these observations are mixtures from separate times divided between the two sites.

GEOGRAPHIC HARBOR On the afternoon of our boarding the Ursus, we went out for our first bear encounter in a beautiful setting in a canyon which ended at the stream head. The sky was a deep blue with some puffy clouds and the sun shone warmly on us as we walked between the high green walls of the harbor. The greenery was the Sitka Spruce trees which started at the bottom of the canyon and rose to the top of the cliffs. The stream sparkled in the sunlight and burbled over the rocks in its bed. We walked in awe of the beauty around us and gasped when we reached the viewing area.

It was on the shore of a little stream and the big bears were not more than 3 yards away from where Brad stopped us. He instructed us to put our buckets in a line and sit down on them. We were to sit quietly a few minutes while he talked softly to the bears. We were not to make any noise or to stand up until he gave permission. In other words, we were to do nothing that might distract the bears from their fishing. After a brief time, we were free to talk quietly and twist around on the buckets to get better views. Most of the bears were directly in front of us, but occasionally one would appear from behind our line of buckets. Brad assured us that the line we formed did not trouble the bears at all and it was clear that he was correct because they never really looked our way. Most of our viewing sessions were between four and five hours long. Maybe this is too much information, but it is relevant. We know what bears do in the woods but some of us females worried how we could accomplish the same during a viewing where we had to sit still, not stand unless given permission and certainly not wander off into the high grasses

alone. Except for the cumbersome chore of getting partially out of the waders (which got easier), Brad made that no problem at all. Trust us, it is nothing to obsess or worry about.

It is hard to describe our disbelief and exhilaration at being so close to these magnificent animals. We had mothers and cubs of various ages so near I really did not need my binoculars to closely observe them. The bears themselves were incredibly quiet and only occasionally would we hear a little growly sound which Brad told us came from the cubs wanting to nurse. Most of the time their mothers ignored them and went on catching fish which they would share with their cubs sometimes until they were ready for a nap themselves. During the hours we sat with these bears, there would be comings and goings as some mothers took their cubs and disappeared into the tall grasses or forested areas around the stream. The waters of the stream were clear as glass, so it was easy to see the pink salmon swimming along unless or until a great paw or hungry toothy jaw snatched them out of the stream. The most exciting catches occurred when the bear ran and plunged with great splashes and brought the fish to the surface. Then the bear carried the poor fish to the rocks around the stream shore and began to tear its skin away. We could not help feeling sorry for the fish because it was usually still alive when the carnage started. We were so

close to the hunter and the prey that we could hear the flesh & cartilage being crunched and the ripping sound that came with the flaying. Everywhere in the fishing area were myriad birds, mostly glaucous-winged gulls, mew gulls, and some terns. They set up a raucous and incessant chorus as they waited to capture bits of fish the bears left behind. The bears paid them no more attention than they gave us. Never did we see a bear swat at the annoying birds. As the afternoon wore on, the insects appeared, and they were peskier than the squawking birds. But NatHab had provided the answer to that as well: head nets large enough to fit over hats and down into collars so the insects could not reach the wearer. We did have a light rain that afternoon, but it was so misty and short that we really did not have time to don our rain gear, though the owners of expensive camera equipment did reach for their cameras’ raincoats. When the rain ceased, the blue skies returned and out came the cameras again. The three times we walked back and forth in Geographic Harbor; we had a special visitation. At the end of the small cape where we landed off the skiff, a little red fox ran out to meet us. She was obviously not afraid of people though she did keep her distance. She would stare at us for a bit and then flop down in front of the group like a dog seeking a tummy rub. None of us tried that stunt however because she was a wild fox. She came toward us every time we landed except for the very last day when it was raining hard and quite cold. She was smart to stay in her den.

KULIAK BAY

Scenic Cruise After another morning outing at Geographic Harbor, we enjoyed a magnificent voyage up the Katmai coastline to our next destination for watching new bears in a different environment. The sailing began right after another tasty lunch as the anchor was hoisted and we were all on deck and in the wheelhouse for panoramic views of the stupendous scenery that swept by our eyes, cameras and binoculars. Precipitous mountains were decorated with deep green Sitka Spruce and other plants at their feet. Prodigious columnar basalt formed the “flying buttresses “of these mighty cathedrals of Mother Nature. The waters were calm for us and clear enough to see a few inches down. The three-hour passage between our two chief encounter locations was impressive and thoroughly enjoyable.

The Spring Cub So, what were the most entertaining activities we observed? Of course, the cubs provided the most fun, especially the spring cub (about 6-8 months old) we saw several times with his protective mom. He was lighter brown than his mother, but his most endearing feature was a “collar” of almost blonde fur encircling his neck. Brad told us he would probably

“outgrow” that collar and the fur would become the same color as the rest of his coat. But we loved it because it was so cute and because we could always spot him whenever he appeared. He was continually active except when his mother would direct him to scamper up an overhanging ledge when bears she either did not know or trust hove on the scene. He always obeyed her, but sometimes would clamber partway down before she called him back.

He was not the most agile or steady on his feet of the cubs (all older than he) so he tumbled about, especially in the water. He did not seem to enjoy going into the water very

much, so he played on the rocks most of the time. Until, that is, Mom called him over for a bite of fresh caught salmon. Once, we even saw him catch a fish on his own and he seemed as surprised at his feat as we were. He was the one who produced the most tiny growls at his mom. It was even more endearing when she finally called him over to a sandy spot where she dug a little trench and stretched out on her side pulling him in to nurse. He readily complied and then she wrapped a big paw around him and fell asleep. He followed suit after he had filled up with her rich (30% fat) milk. Older cubs were rewarding to watch as well. They were stronger and more self-confident but also stuck fairly close by their mothers. The most fetching scenes with them happened when three cubs would fall into a sleeping pile with their mother.

Brad told us that cubs could stay with their mothers for up to 5 seasons. If a cub does stay that long, it is still nursing. During this discussion, he also informed us that male bears (boars) do NOT kill cubs to force the females (sows) into estrus again so they can father their own cubs. Some animal biologists postulate that male lions do kill cubs for this purpose. Brad also told us about delayed egg implantation by female bears. When mating occurs, the female can delay impregnation if she is poorly nourished or there are not enough available food sources or if there are other negatives occurring.

One of the older cubs was particularly fun to watch because of his water antics. He obviously felt confident enough to enter the stream without his mother and he immediately began to bob up and down as he stood on his back legs. He also tentatively tried the snorkeling behavior that he had seen adults doing.

That meant he put his head under the water so that he could look at the bottom of the stream, checking for edible scraps. When he pulled his head from under the water, he shook off vigorously and blew bubbles to clear his nose. Occasionally when he popped up, he would hold his front paw in front of his face and peer at it as though he did not recognize that it belonged to him. But the funniest thing we observed occurred with the Mama and Spring Cub. One day, after both had been in the water fishing, she ran and he scrambled up onto a grassy patch to the side of our line of observation. Mama immediately rolled over on her back and began to twist and wriggle vigorously to scratch herself and perhaps to dry herself off a bit. She carried on this way for a few minutes with the cub watching in puzzlement. Maybe he had never observed this activity before. When she arose from the grass, he hopped into her place and began wiggling and rolling himself. He totally enjoyed the experience and carried on for quite a while. When he looked around and realized that Mom was moving away from him, he shook himself off and followed her as he was supposed to do. Cubs of all ages were keen observers of their mothers and if the mother suddenly became interested in something, like a new bear entering the scene, they ran to her side as if awaiting instructions. If she made some signal they gathered behind her. In one viewing, a

couple of new bears entered and the spring cub’s mother was instantly on the alert. She made some sign to him and he scampered up on a ledge above the scene. He stayed there while Mom had what appeared to be a staring contest with the new arrivals. That standoff lasted too long for the cubs’ curiosity, and he scrambled partway down from the ledge. She made some sign to him and he instantly raced back to his safer perch. That happened a few more times until the new arrivals moved over to another part of the stream and the mother bear relaxed and let the cub come back down beside her.

LAST DAYS IN KODIAK Back in Kodiak (city) the ever-resourceful Laura G. made sure we not bored. She offered city tours with visits to the Alutiiq Museum, hikes in the rain forest, familiarization with the city itself, and even a mountain hike if desired. She also made sure that we had meals in several of the local restaurants which were quite enjoyable, though none of them produced meals anywhere near the bar that Melissa of the Ursus had raised.

Buskin River State Recreation Site Even on our last day before flying out to Anchorage, Laura took us for a memorable lunch and drove us to a local park where the Buskin River flows into the Gulf of Alaska. It was a lovely beach where we saw harbor seals, eagles and the ever-present foliage of beach rye and Sitka spruce. Salmon had begun swimming upstream on the Buskin a few weeks before our arrival so there were few of the fish to watch by this time.

Alutiiq Museum And Archaeological Repository The small but wonderful Museum of the Alutiiq people (natives of Kodiak Island and archipelago) is worthy of more words and meaningful praise. It is an exquisite jewel of history of these redoubtable indigenous people. Though Laura told us that it is very unusual today to find a pure-blooded Alutiiq because there has been so much intermarriage between them and the Europeans who have also lived in the archipelago starting with the Russians and ending with Americans. The area was a Russian colony for more than one hundred years starting in 1763 ending with the Alaska Purchase in 1867. The deal was known as Seward’s Folly. But aren’t we lucky that he was so very “foolish?”

The museum has informative exhibits of Alutiiq housing, kayaks, foods & medicines from local plants, tools for hunting, sewing, and artwork. Explanations of tribal governance, the importance of female Shamans, the gradual incorporation of Christian beliefs and art into traditional imagery and practices are also detailed and clear. Depictions of current efforts among the elders (mostly women) to teach young people the language and culture of their ancestors are also impressive. In the little gift shop, examples of the arts and crafts of the local people today are on offer for interested visitors.

The Holy Resurrection Cathedral While in the archipelago, the Russians introduced their Orthodox brand of Christianity and compelled many conversions among the Alutiiq. The lovely Russian Orthodox Church in downtown Kodiak is still active with parishioners from the Alutiiq community.

Established in 1794 by a mission of Russian Orthodox monks, Holy Resurrection Orthodox Cathedral is the oldest Orthodox parish in North America. It is also the home of North America's first canonized Saint; Saint Herman of Alaska the Wonderworker.

Bird Watching

A highlight of our visit to Kodiak was watching the dominant birds of the city, the intrepid ravens, harass a bald eagle pair who had apparently nested atop a three-story building called the Plaza. The cheeky ravens would dive-bomb the bigger birds repeatedly. The eagles would stand up and flex and flap their wings, but that action did not intimidate the ravens at all. Finally, one eagle would launch himself/herself off the rooftop and fly across the street to some tall trees. Once there, it sat waiting for the ravens to follow and follow they did. But was more difficult to “mob” the eagle among the foliage on the trees, so there was a moment or two of peace for the larger bird.

CONCLUSION This NatHab trip was another winner, just as were the other two we have taken with this wonderful company. The Beluga Whale trip in Churchill and the Wolf Photo hunt in the Tetons and Yellowstone each had its own brand of magic and we enjoyed them immensely. But it would be extremely hard to top the magic that our guide Brad Josephs brought with him to share with us as we viewed these extraordinary mammals so close that we did not even need binoculars to see their eyes and the texture of their fur. Every time we went to a stream and watched in amazement the activities the bears exhibited, we were grateful and exhilarated again. What a privilege it was to be “among the great bears.” And, once again, a special mention must be made of the marvelous meals we were served on the good ship “Ursus.” Brad’s wife and master chef Melissa created innovative, delicious and memorable dishes at every meal. Sometimes we could hardly wait to get back on the ship, even though it meant leaving the bears, to see and enjoy what gustatory delight Melissa had prepared. A suggestion to any traveler whose greatest joy in travel is seeing wild animals in their own natural habitats is to sign up for the Grizzly Encounter with NatHab ASAP.

There are many more pictures of the wonderful bears on Kay’s Smugmug Website.

www.KayGilmour.Smugmug.com

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