Information Systems for Business and Beyond (2019)

participation using smartphones and tablets. • GitHub. Programmers/developers use GitHub for web- based team development of computer software.

Decision Support Systems A decision support system (DSS) helps an organization make a specific decision or set of decisions. DSSs can exist at different levels of decision-making within the organization, from the CEO to first level managers. These systems are designed to take inputs regarding a known (or partially-known) decision making process and provide the information necessary to make a decision. DSSs generally assist a management level person in the decision-making process, though some can be designed to automate decision- making. An organization has a wide variety of decisions to make, ranging from highly structured decisions to unstructured decisions. A structured decision is usually one that is made quite often, and one in which the decision is based directly on the inputs. With structured decisions, once you know the necessary information you also know the decision that needs to be made. For example, inventory reorder levels can be structured decisions. Once your inventory of widgets gets below a specific threshold, automatically reorder ten more. Structured decisions are good candidates for automation, but decision-support systems are generally not built for them. An unstructured decision involves a lot of unknowns. Many times, unstructured decisions are made for the first time. An information system can support these types of decisions by providing the decision makers with information gathering tools and collaborative capabilities. An example of an unstructured decision might be dealing with a labor issue or setting policy for the implementation of a new technology. Decision support systems work best when the decision makers are having to make semi-structured decisions. A semi-structured Information Systems for Business and Beyond (2019) pg. 154

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