Information Systems for Business and Beyond (2019)

measurement or mathematical calculation.

Information is processed data that possess context, relevance, and purpose. For example, monthly sales calculated from the collected daily sales data for the past year are information. Information typically involves the manipulation of raw data to obtain an indication of magnitude, trends, in patterns in the data for a purpose. Knowledge in a certain area is human beliefs or perceptions about relationships among facts or concepts relevant to that area. For example, the conceived relationship between the quality of goods and the sales is knowledge. Knowledge can be viewed as information that facilitates action. Once we have put our data into context, aggregated and analyzed it, we can use it to make decisions for our organization. We can say that this consumption of information produces knowledge. This knowledge can be used to make decisions, set policies, and even spark innovation. Explicit knowledge typically refers to knowledge that can be expressed into words or numbers. In contrast, tacit knowledge includes insights and intuitions, and is difficult to transfer to another person by means of simple communications. Evidently, when information or explicit knowledge is captured and stored in computer, it would become data if the context or intent is devoid. The final step up the information ladder is the step from knowledge (knowing a lot about a topic) to wisdom . We can say that someone has wisdom when they can combine their knowledge and experience to produce a deeper understanding of a topic. It often takes many years to develop wisdom on a particular topic, and requires patience. Big Data

Almost all software programs require data to do anything

Information Systems for Business and Beyond (2019) pg. 67

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