Information Systems for Business and Beyond (2019)

When a database is being designed, a “ data dictionary ” is created to hold the metadata, defining the fields and structure of the database.

Finding Value in Data: Business Intelligence With the rise of Big Data and a myriad of new tools and techniques at their disposal, businesses are learning how to use information to their advantage. The term business intelligence is used to describe the process that organizations use to take data they are collecting and analyze it in the hopes of obtaining a competitive advantage. Besides using their own data, stored in data warehouses (see below), firms often purchase information from data brokers to get a big- picture understanding of their industries and the economy. The results of these analyses can drive organizational strategies and provide competitive advantage. Data Visualization Data visualization is the graphical representation of information and data. These graphical representations (such as charts, graphs, and maps) can quickly summarize data in a way that is more intuitive and can lead to new insights and understandings. Just as a picture of a landscape can convey much more than a paragraph of text attempting to describe it, graphical representation of data can quickly make meaning of large amounts of data. Many times, visualizing data is the first step towards a deeper analysis and understanding of the data collected by an organization. Examples of data visualization software Information Systems for Business and Beyond (2019) pg. 80

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