Circa Summer 2017

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On the cover This inaugural tuxedo and gown were worn earlier this year by North Carolina’s current Governor and First Lady, Roy Cooper and Kristin Cooper.

State of North Carolina Roy Cooper, Governor Daniel J. Forest, Lieutenant Governor

Department of Natural and Cultural Resources Susi H. Hamilton, Secretary Reid Wilson, Chief Deputy Secretary Staci Meyer, Deputy Secretary Arts and Administration

Office of Archives and History Dr. Kevin Cherry, Deputy Secretary

Division of State History Museums North Carolina Museum of History Kenneth B. Howard, Director R. Jackson Marshall III, Deputy Director James E. Huebler, Chief Financial Officer William J. McCrea, Associate Director Circa Doris McLean Bates, Editor in Chief/Editor Obelia J. Exum, Designer Cathy East, Proofreader Eric N. Blevins and D. Kent Thompson, Photographers

A Call to Arms Look at North Carolina’s military heritage from the American Revolution to the Iraq War. American Red Cross: Healing the Warrior’s Heart through Art (through January 7, 2018) In this exhibit, view drawings, paintings, and sculptures made by US Marines that illustrate how art can aid in the recovery of severely injured combat troops and help their families work through the recovery process. The Shape of Fashion (opening September 22, 2017) The exhibit The Shape of Fashion will use objects from the museum’s costume collection to highlight pivotal changes in the shapes and styles of clothing during the 1800s and 1900s. Featuring kid-friendly graphics, hands-on interactives, artifacts, and photographs, this exhibition introduces children and other museum visitors to the office of governor of North Carolina. History in Every Direction: Tar Heel Junior Historian Association Discovery Gallery Learn why we study history with these fun and informative hands-on activities. The gallery also features award-winning projects by stu- dents from across North Carolina. Miss North Carolina (through September 4, 2017) This lobby case—organized by the Miss North Carolina Scholarship Pageant, an official stepping-stone to the Miss America pageant—celebrates the organization’s 80th anniversary. Discover Your Governors (through August 6, 2017)

North Carolina and World War I Encompassing 6,500 square feet, this interac- tive, multimedia exhibition commemorates the centennial of US entry into World War I and focuses on North Carolina’s role in the war on the western front in France and Belgium. A re- created trench environment is included. North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame Hear and watch sports in the making through audio and video. Also, see Richard Petty’s stock car and other artifacts. Photographs by Hugh Morton: An Uncommon Retrospective (through September 4, 2017) This traveling exhibit produced by UNC–Chapel Hill presents images taken by prolific photogra- pher Hugh Morton (1921–2006), a Wilmington, NC, native. His photographs from a seven-decade career showcase his love for North Carolina tourism, sports, and nature throughout the 20th century. The Story of North Carolina This major permanent exhibit traces life in the area we know as North Carolina, from its first inhabi- tants through the 20th century. Louis C. Tiffany: Art and Innovation from the Wester Collection (opening September 22, 2017) This traveling exhibit will feature two of the famous artist’s stained-glass windows, as well as a small number of blown-glass vases and some lamps—all in the lobby case. Different versions of this exhibit have been on display at the Museum of the Albemarle and Tryon Palace.

Michael A. Ausbon, Kerry Burns, Michelle L. Carr, David Cartier, Hunter Diamond, Katie Edwards, Earl Ijames, Susan Friday Lamb, William J. McCrea, and RaeLana Poteat, Contributors Due to a change in schedule, no fall/winter 2016 issue of Circa (volume 9, number 2) was produced. This summer 2017 issue is the first digital version of the publication. Circa is normally published two times per year by the North Carolina Museum of History, 5 East Edenton Street, Raleigh, North Carolina. Published articles do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources or any other state agency. The text of this publication is available on magnetic recording tape from the State Library of North Carolina, Services to the Blind and Physically Handicapped Branch. For information, call 1-888- 388-2460. Unless otherwise noted, images used are courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History or the North Carolina Museum of History Associates. For information on making a contribution to the North Carolina Museum of History Foundation or sponsoring an issue of the print version of Circa , phone 919-807-7876 or visit Join the North Carolina Museum of History Associates, the membership arm of the museum, by visiting © 2017 by the North Carolina Museum of History

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From the Director by Ken Howard


With the reduction in the amount of history being taught in public schools, we have come to think of the museum as the keeper and the educator of our state’s history. Most of our exhibits and pro- grams are designed to educate not only our visitors, but also students



across the state, on North Carolina history and culture. For instance, one of our latest exhibits, Discover Your Governors , which offers fundamen- tal information about the role of the governor, is specifically tailored to meet North Carolina’s third- and fourth-grade standards for both history and civics. Our resources limit the number of exhibits that we can produce. Sometimes we bring in exhibits that were developed by other organizations. One of our current exhibits, Photographs by Hugh Morton: An Uncommon Retrospective , was created by the UNC–Chapel Hill Library, the repository for Hugh Morton’s vast collection of photographs. This exhibit, with over 80 photos, chronicles the North Carolina land- scapes, people, and events witnessed by one of North Carolina’s most famous photographers. The museum also focuses on educational programming for schoolchildren, families, and adults. In addition to the on-site and distance-learning programs we do for schools throughout North Carolina, we also coordinate adult programming, including our successful Distinguished Lecture Series. Recently, the series hosted Pulitzer Prize–winning author and presidential biographer Jon Meacham. Of course, we now offer a great deal of program- ming over the web. One of our key initiatives for 2016 was to launch a new website, boasting a sleeker look, more vibrant images, and a respon- sive web design that works well with mobile devices. We hope you will find it easier to access information on our exhibits and programs and even the artifacts in our collection. But no matter how you visit our museum, in person or over the Internet, it is important that you visit. Because, as you all may know, history is integral, and “History Happens Here” at your North Carolina Museum of History!



Contents Have You Discovered Your Governors?


Hugh Morton: Bringing North Carolina into Focus


Redeemed Check: Marching for the Right to Vote


Collecting Carolina : 100 Years of Jugtown Pottery : A Delight to the Hand and Eye 13 “Character Is Destiny”: Presidential Historian Jon Meacham on the Power of Personality 14 What’s Up at the Regional Museums 16 One Unique Coast, Three Unique Museums 17 Sports Hall of Fame Inducts Nine Members in 2016 18 In Memoriam: A Tar Heel Renaissance Man: A. Everette James Jr., MD 19 The Wright Flyer Soars to New Heights 20 Museum Launches the Notable North Carolina Lecture Series 20 North Carolina Museum of History Associates 22 12 History Meets the Digital Era

Discover Your Governors is available at the museum through August 6, 2017.




Some of the many photos of First Families on view in the exhibit: 1. Governor Jonathan Worth (1865–1868) and First Lady Martitia Worth (taken ca. 1840s); 2. the family of Governor William W. Kitchin (1909–1913); 3. the family of Governor Angus McLean (1925–1929); 4. the family of Governor Jim Holshouser (1973–1977); and 5. the family of Governor Bev Perdue (2009–2013). Courtesy Family of Betty Johnson Ragland; North Carolina Museum of History; North Carolina Collection, University of North



Carolina Library at Chapel Hill; State Archives of North Carolina; Office of Governor Beverly Eaves Perdue.

by RaeLana Poteat, Curator of Political and Social History For several decades, the North Carolina Museum of History has marked each gubernatorial elec- tion with an exhibit about our state’s governors. With the 2016 edition installed last fall, museum staff took a new approach and developed the exhibit with children in mind. The result, Discover Your Governors , is geared toward all museum visitors—but its content is specifically tailored to meet North Carolina’s third- and fourth-grade essential standards for history, as well as for civics and government. Learning about our three branches of government, understanding how the executive branch has changed over time, and finding out how individual governors have affected our state are all important aspects of the curriculum for this age group. As a repository of artifacts related to so many of our previous governors, the Museum of History was uniquely qualified to create an exhibit that could serve parents and teachers as an educational tool. Discover Your Governors offers fundamental information about the role of governor and is centered around key questions, such as How does someone become governor? What does the governor do? and Where does the governor live and work? It also highlights and explains the role of the First Family and introduces museumgoers to several previous governors and their families. The lobby-level exhibition has been on display during some of our heaviest school-group visita- tion months. So we wanted Discover Your Governors to be both visually appealing and interactive.


Hands-on elements give museumgoers the opportunity to vote for fictional candidates representing issues that are important to them and to learn more about the division between North Carolina’s three branches of government. Visitors may also watch highlights from interviews with previous governors and first ladies and see video clips of students from a Raleigh elementary school asking their own questions about what it is like to be governor. An area about our state’s First Families features inaugural gowns worn by First

Ladies Fay Webb Gardner (1929– 1933), Margaret Rose Knight Sanford (1961–1965), and Carolyn Leonard Hunt (1977–1985 and 1993–2001), as well as the inaugural tuxedo worn by the state’s first First Gentleman, Robert W. Eaves Jr. (2009–2013). Another area, which highlights several previous gov- ernors, offers the inaugural tuxedos of W. Kerr Scott (1949–1953) and Terry Sanford (1961–1965), in addition to business suits worn by James B. Hunt Jr. (1977–1985 and 1993–2001) and Beverly Eaves Perdue (2009–2013).

Other smaller artifacts also help convey the story of the men and women who used them. A Red Cross cap speaks to First Lady Mary White Scott’s (1949– 1953) volunteerism with that organiza- tion, while a Princeton PhD dissertation tells of Governor Jim Martin’s (1985– 1993) career as a chemistry professor before his entry into politics. The exhibit also features several artifacts new to the museum that are on display for the first time. Governor Terry Sanford’s inaugural tuxedo joins other

continued on page 6

With the recent arrival of Terry Sanford’s (1961–1965) tuxedo to the museum’s collection, Governor Sanford and First Lady Margaret Sanford’s 1961 inaugural attire are on display for the first time together.


Have You Discovered Your Governors? continued from page 5

The area of the exhibit that asks, “How Does Someone Become Governor?” displays an array of campaign paraphernalia from the 20th and 21st centuries.

First Lady Fay Webb Gardner’s (1929–1933) inaugural gown is on display in the exhibit.

new Sanford objects, including the ceremonial bottle First Lady Margaret Sanford used to christen the USS Raleigh LPD-1 at the New York Naval Shipyard on March 17, 1962, and a wool overcoat worn by the Sanfords’ son, Terry Sanford Jr., to his father’s inauguration on January 5, 1961. Visitors will also get the chance to see the Bible upon which Governor J. Melville Broughton (1941–1945) was sworn into office on January 9, 1941. And since the exhibit is aimed at kids, we made sure to include objects that would connect with our younger visitors. In addition to eight-year-old Terry Sanford Jr.’s coat, the exhibit offers the flouncy taffeta dress that 10-year- old Merle Umstead wore to her father William B. Umstead’s (1953–1954) Inaugural Ball and the long white christening gown that David Settle Reid Jr. and Thomas Settle Reid wore while their father, David Settle Reid (1851– 1854), served in office. Pictures of our previous governors also abound. From images taken from oil portraits to black-and-white photos to full-color snapshots, visitors can see past governors at work, while campaigning, and posing with citizens. They can also view pictures of First Ladies performing public duties and images of some of the “First Kids” who have lived in the Executive Mansion. The exhibit’s earliest photographic image (actually taken from a daguerreotype) is on display for the first time—a ca. 1840s picture of Governor Jonathan Worth (1865–1868) and his wife, Martitia. Virtually all of the exhibit’s images, however, feature white, male governors. North Carolina has had only one female governor, Beverly Eaves Perdue (2009–2013), and has had no governors of color. In an effort to encourage today’s diverse students to ponder their own place in the political system, one


Four A. B. Combs Leadership Magnet Elementary School students ask their ques- tions about what it is like to be governor.

exhibit label asks visitors to think about how an exhibit on our state’s governors might look different 100 years in the future. Could one of today’s student visitors become tomorrow’s governor of the great state of North Carolina? Discover Your Governors runs through August 6, 2017.

Governor W. Kerr Scott’s (1949–1953) inaugural tuxedo can be seen in the exhibit.

What Future Leaders Want to Know by RaeLana Poteat

Since Discover Your Governors is designed with students in mind, museum staff wanted to make sure that young visitors could picture themselves as a part of the political process—even if they weren’t yet old enough to cast a ballot. This desire led to a collaboration with students from Raleigh’s A. B. Combs Leadership Magnet Elementary School. In 1999 A. B. Combs became the first elementary school in the nation to develop a magnet program based on leadership principles. Combs students learn that everyone can be a leader— and that finding your voice can mean leading in academics, sports, the arts, or many other areas. It can also certainly mean leading in government. Museum staff decided that featuring Combs leaders in our exhibit would be an effective way to include student viewpoints. In the spring of 2016, we worked with the staff at Combs, who asked their students (from kindergar- ten to fifth grade) to develop their own questions about what it is like to be governor. Some students wanted to know what had inspired governors to take on the task of running their state. Others won- dered how governors dealt with contro- versy or worked together with the other branches of government.

Students had questions about the details of the governor’s daily life. What does a governor’s workday look like? How much free time does he or she have? Life in the Executive Mansion also inspired curiosity. Does the gover- nor have servants? What’s in the parts of the mansion that are closed to the public? And if a governor has children, do they have a place to play? Just before the end of the school year in 2016, museum staff trav- eled to Combs and videotaped 30 students asking these questions. The clips became a part of the exhibit and are featured in two interactive video stations. Before the exhibit closes, stop by to see if the students found answers to any questions you might have about life as a governor.


Photographs by Hugh Morton: An Uncommon Retrospective remains on view through September 4, 2017, at the museum.

Hugh Morton with his Graflex camera, 1950s. Courtesy North Carolina Col- lection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.

Hugh Morton: Bringing North Carolina into Focus by Katie Edwards, Associate Curator H Hugh Morton made it his mission to preserve North Carolina through his photography. For seven decades, he took pictures of landscapes, people, and events. He toured the state with his camera capturing images of locals and their ways of life, yet also photographing more notable

While a student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Morton worked on the staffs of various publications, including the school newspaper the Daily Tar Heel and the yearbook Yackety Yack . But after the outbreak of World War II, Morton left school to enlist in the Signal

Corps (United States Army) as a photographer. He was eventually stationed in New Caledonia in the South Pa- cific, where he shot still photo- graphs and newsreel footage. He worked with Bob Hope and was assigned to cover General Douglas MacArthur’s visit in March 1945. Shortly after, Morton was wounded in an explosion in Luzon, in the Philippines, and was honor- ably discharged, receiving a Purple Heart and a Bronze Star for his photography work. After the war, Morton returned to North Carolina and continued freelancing. He spent his time photographing sports events, some of which featured his good friend and UNC football player Charlie “Choo Choo” Justice. Morton also worked for the North Carolina Tourism Board on its Variety Vacationland campaign, where he traveled

visitors such as Queen Elizabeth II, Ed Sullivan, Cab Calloway, and Mickey Mantle, to name a few. Morton was not only a prolific photographer, however. He was also an environmental activist, businessman, politician, and con- servationist who promoted tour- ism throughout North Carolina. Born February 19, 1921, Hugh MacRae Morton grew up in Wilmington to an upper-class railroad and textile family. His grandfather, Hugh MacRae, was a noted developer who owned 16,000 acres in the mountains of Linville, North Carolina, where he built a resort at Grandfather Mountain. It was at Camp Yonah- noka, near Linville, where Morton first learned photography. His parents gave him his first camera at 13 after he signed up for the camp’s photography course. Just one year later, he was appointed photography counselor, a position he held for the next five years.

One of Morton’s first photography assignments came in 1940, when a young 14-year-old boy named Harvie Ward thrived in the prestigious Linville Men’s Golf Tournament. Burke Davis, sports editor of the Charlotte News , requested a photo of Ward. Davis liked Morton’s work so much that he hired him for many other photography assignments for the Charlotte News . That success sparked Morton’s career as a freelance photographer for newspapers like the Raleigh News & Observer , the Winston-Salem Journal , Winston-Salem Sentinel , Greensboro Daily News , and the Charlotte Observer .

across the state shooting landscapes and recreational activi- ties to help boost tourism. According to Morton, it was a great time to be a photographer in North Carolina. In 1952 he inherited Grandfather Mountain from his grandfather, Hugh MacRae. Deciding to take advantage of the postwar economic prosperity, in 1961 Morton built a new road to the summit, a new parking lot, and a new gift shop. He also constructed the Mile High Swinging Bridge between the mountain’s twin peaks, while promoting annual events like the Highland Games and the Singin’ on the Mountain


Unto These Hills dancer, ca. 1954. Unto These Hills is an outdoor drama that tells the story of the Cherokee in North Carolina. The show has been running since 1950. Cour- tesy North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.

gospel festival. In the 1980s, Morton photo- graphed the dying trees on Grandfather Moun- tain to campaign for cleaner air and eventually went on to produce the 1994 documentary The Search for Clean Air , narrated by Walter Cronkite. Morton’s other accomplishments included be- ing elected the first chairman of Wilmington’s Azalea Festival in 1948. He also spearheaded a campaign to bring the USS North Carolina battleship to that city in 1961. Morton served on the first board of directors for the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame in 1963, later being inducted himself for his work in sports photography in 2013. And in 1981 he formed a committee to save the Cape Hatteras Light- house. Morton even ran for governor of North Carolina in 1972, only to drop out of the race due to the lack of funding that a big political campaign required. Hugh Morton’s rich and active life came to an end in 2006, when he died of cancer at the age of 85. In 2007 his immense photographic archive, estimated to be more than 500,000 transparencies, photographs, negatives, and motion picture films, was donated to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Stephen Fletcher, an archivist with the North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, began the tedious process of cataloging the collection. The exhibit Photographs by Hugh Morton: An Uncommon Retrospective was two years in the making. Fletcher and other staff members in the Carolina Digital Library and Archives Pro- duction Center worked to create high-resolu- tion digital scans from Morton’s original nega- tives. They then made inkjet prints to showcase some of Morton’s lesser-known photos. The exhibit consists of 86 photographs, many of which have never been published, and will be available at the North Carolina Museum of History through September 4, 2017. Photographs by Hugh Morton: An Uncommon Retrospective

Singleton C. Anderson teaches at the Pender County Training School in Rocky Point, North Carolina, ca. late 1940s to early 1950s. Courtesy North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.


In Montgomery, Alabama, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. speaks to a crowd of approximately 25,000 at the third march’s completion on March 25, 1965. Courtesy Spider Martin and the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute .

Redeemed Check: Marching for the Right to Vote


I In August 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech to a crowd of approximately 250,000 spectators on the National Mall in Washington, DC. There, Dr. King declared, a full century after President Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, that “America has defaulted on this promis- sory note insofar as [its] citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honor- ing this sacred obligation, America by Earl Ijames, Curator

has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked ‘insuf- ficient funds.’” In February 1870, Congress adopted the 15th Amendment, the last of the three Reconstruction amendments (including the 13th and 14th) to the United States Constitution. The 15th Amendment granted the right to vote to freedmen only, not women of color. This amendment was probably the most contentious because

people of color comprised majority popu- lations in many counties from south- eastern Virginia through eastern North Carolina, low-country South Carolina, and westward to the Mississippi delta. In the heart of this “Black Belt” lay the state of Alabama “with its vicious racists,” as Dr. King exclaimed on that August day in 1963. The response to the new African American enfranchisement frightened and angered many who opposed racial

1. Freedmen voting in Novem- ber 1867. Note the United States Colored Trooper third in line. Image from Harper’s Weekly , November 16, 1867. 2. From 1868 to 1901, count- less African Americans were killed attempting to vote. Image from Harper’s Weekly, December 28, 1878 . 3. Ku Klux Klan mask, cotton trimmed with oilcloth and rab- bit fur, Person County, NC, ca. 1870–1872.





Alabama trooper looking down at an injured Amelia Boynton Robinson, March 7, 1965 (“Bloody Sunday”). Courtesy Spider Martin and the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute.

equality. In the midst of adopting the Reconstruction amendments, terrorist groups like the Ku Klux Klan emerged and intimidated countless voters. The areas of the South with large black populations were also histori- cally places with the most stringent slave code enforcement and customs. In these regions, for whites and blacks alike, the struggle for civil rights and equality from the Reconstruction era through the 20th century would prove both challenging and dangerous. By the mid-20th century, television and mass media would broad- cast several incidents in the Civil Rights movement: the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott, the fire hoses and police dogs in Birmingham, Alabama, unleashed upon peaceful protestors in the 1960s, and Alabama state troopers brutally enforc- ing discrimination on “Bloody Sunday” (March 7, 1965) in Selma. The traveling exhibit Selma to Montgomery: A March for the Right to Vote: Photographs by Spider Martin focuses on the 1965 marches from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, when thousands of people marched for African American voting rights and equality. Marches and rallies resulted in the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which was signed into law on August 6. James “Spider” Martin (1939–2003), a photojournalist from the Birmingham News , captured some of the most violent images of the Civil Rights movement. Former UN ambassador Andrew Young stated,“In Spider Martin’s hands, a cam- era is a weapon of discovery, revealing truths long concealed by prejudice and mythology.” Beginning with the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke for millions of African Americans who had grown “tired of waiting.” By the 1960s, Montgomery, Alabama, had become ground zero for the struggle for equality. In what would become one of the nation’s seminal moments, Dr. King explained how the right to vote was per- verted for nearly a century into the laws

police after attempting to register to vote. Jackson’s murder was the break- ing point in a near-century-long tyr- anny of African American voter sup- pression. The following month, local residents were joined by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with a plan to march 54 miles from Selma to Montgomery demanding voting rights. The march- ers, led by John Lewis of SNCC, were stopped by state troopers and brutal- ized in what became known as “Bloody Sunday,” March 7, 1965. Dr. King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) joined the protest and set a second march date for the following week. The second march (which came to be known as “Turnaround Tuesday”) ended with Dr. King kneeling to pray at the Edmund Pettus Bridge before receiving clearance from the courts. With the eyes of the nation upon the situation, the support of President Lyndon Johnson and the presence of the Alabama National Guard helped a third march successfully reach the cap- ital of Alabama. At the conclusion of the last march, Dr. King declared,“The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave Negroes some part of their rightful dignity, but without the vote, it was dignity without strength.” By November 1965, the federal Voting Rights Act finally enforced the 15th Amendment of 1870. Yet these hard-won voting rights are still challenged today. The exhibition Selma to Montgomery: circulated by the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute. The exhibition is made possible, in part, by the City of Birmingham and contributions to the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute’s Corporate Campaign. The museum is developing an exhibit on Reconstruction, scheduled to open in 2018, so stay tuned. A March for the Right to Vote: Photographs by Spider Martin is

and customs of segregation in his 1965 “Selma to Montgomery” speech: “Toward the end of the Reconstruction era, something very significant happened. That is what was known as the Populist Movement. The leaders of this move- ment began awakening the poor white masses and the former Negro slaves to the fact that they were being fleeced by the emerging . . . interests. Not only that, but they began uniting the Negro and white masses into a voting bloc that threatened to drive the . . . interests from the command posts of political power in the South. “To meet this threat, the southern aris- tocracy began immediately to engineer this development of a segregated society. I want you to follow me through here because this is very important to see the roots of racism and the denial of the right to vote. Through their control of mass media, they revised the doctrine of white supremacy. They saturated the thinking of the poor white masses with it, thus clouding their minds to the real issue involved in the Populist Movement. They then directed the placement on the books of the South of laws that made it a crime for Negroes and whites to come together as equals at any level. And that did it.” In early February 1965, Jimmie Lee Jackson, a citizen of color in Dallas County, Alabama, was killed by state


Collecting Carolina: 100 Years of Jugtown Pottery : A Delight to the Hand and Eye

by Michael A. Ausbon, Associate Curator of Decorative Arts

A view of the recent museum exhibit.

Charlie Teague and Benjamin Wade Owen. Together they created the aesthetic and repertoire recognized as JugtownWare. Juliana expertly crafted and cultivated Jugtown’s image in an Arts and Crafts style. She became a tireless promoter of North Carolina’s handmade wares through her New York tea- room, The Village Shop, and her numerous articles and public appearances. Her innovative marketing skills and Jacques’s technical and artistic savvy made Jugtown a national success. Throughout its history, Jugtown continued to evolve and adapt. The recent exhibit Collecting Carolina: 100 Years of Jug- town Pottery highlighted the quintessential forms and glazes of the four eras of Jugtown: Busbee era (1917–1958), John Maré era (1959–1962), Country Roads era (1968–1983), and Owens family era (1983 to present).

The interior of the display room showcases the wares available at Jugtown Pottery, ca. 1952.


Throughout the decades, many folks have made the pilgrimage through the Piedmont’s charming country- side to Seagrove. Here, many have sought their “Holy Grail”—an exalted piece of North Carolina clay. As the story goes, Jacques and Juliana Busbee made this same journey searching for the craftsman who created their treasure, the 1915 brilliant-orange “Pie Plate”—the inspiration for the idea of Jugtown Pottery.“It seems strange, doesn’t it—to have one’s whole life, and the lives of an entire community, turned upside down by a Pie Plate. And an empty one at that,” Juliana recalled. Pottery speaks to each of us as a physical manifestation of a potter’s mind, tradition, and cultural history. When Jacques and Juliana began Jugtown Pottery in 1917, they found the area’s rich pottery tradition languishing. Prohibition, electricity, refrigeration, and cheap glass containers all hastened the decline of utilitarian pot- tery production. In addition, many potters found more stable work in tobacco plants, textile mills, and furniture factories. Survival and promotion of the Tar Heel pottery tradi- tion became the Busbees’ vision, along with the “injec- tion of art into the country potter,” which helped bring a new sense of pride and value to the craft. The Busbees appreciated the intrinsic beauty of the local utilitarian pottery turned by folk potters such as J. H. Owen but realized that, to appeal to a wider discerning market, changes were necessary. As Jacques refined forms and developed new glazes, he recruited young potters

Jugtown’s legacy played a pivotal leading role in redefining North Carolina’s pottery tradition, which continues to experience a metamor- phosis to meet current consumer demands. Today, Jugtown is in good hands with the Owens family.They continue to honor the“Busbee vision” while reinterpreting their wares with a renewed freshness. Visit for additional history.

Jacques Busbee ( left ) and Charlie Teague pack pottery at Jugtown for shipment by train to New York City, ca. mid-1920s. Courtesy the Jugtown Collection.


“Character Is Destiny”: Presidential Historian Jon Meacham on the Power of Personality by Michelle L. Carr, Community Engagement and Marketing Section

5 East Edenton Street Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 919-807-7876

Victor E. Bell III, chair of the foundation’s board.

Foundation Board Victor E. Bell III, Chair, Raleigh Wilson Hayman, Vice Chair, Raleigh Carole Symons Roebuck, Secretary, Elizabeth City John T. Church, Treasurer, Raleigh W. Trent Ragland III, Assistant Treasurer, Raleigh Lyl MacLean Clinard, Past Chair, High Point Senator James T. Broyhill Winston-Salem Julia Jones Daniels Raleigh Robert C. Doherty Raleigh David R. Hayworth High Point Margaret Harry Kluttz Salisbury Betty Ray McCain Wilson Kay Anthony Phillips High Point Orage Quarles III Raleigh Dr. Allston J. Stubbs III Winston-Salem Lee Lyles Webster High Point Mary Powell White Winston-Salem McKinley Wooten Jr. Holly Springs Kenneth B. Howard, Director, Division of State History Museums and North Carolina Museum of History, Raleigh

Meacham entertained the audience with his illuminating presentation “America Then and Now: What History Tells Us About the Future.”


ing Arts—Meacham said that “character is destiny.”When you hire a president of the United States, you are hiring a person, not a set of policies. In terms of leadership itself, Meacham identified four qualities that he felt most great presidents have in common: curi- osity, candor, humility, and empathy. He went on to provide examples of presidents who have demonstrated these characteristics. The first quality that Meacham identified as essential for great leaders was curiosity. He referenced several presidents throughout our nation’s history that have been avid readers and displayed intellectual curiosity. Specifi- cally, he cited Thomas Jefferson’s embracing of Enlightenment philosophy and its incor- poration into American political thought. Meacham then quoted the opening of the Declaration of Independence, which he called the greatest sentence in the human language.

Are there qualities or characteristics that presidents need to be effective leaders? Presidential biographer Jon Meacham has pondered this question for years, and he shared some of his insights with the audience at the fourth annual North Carolina Museum of History Foundation Distinguished Lecture Series on May 16, 2017. Meacham is well qualified to address the topic of presidential leadership. A renowned presidential historian, contributing writer to The New York Times Book Review, an execu- tive editor at Random House, and Pulitzer Prize–winning author, Meacham has written numerous biographies of our nation’s leaders. He is currently working on a biography of James and Dolley Madison. In his presentation—before a sell-out crowd at the Fletcher Opera Theater in the Duke Energy Center for the Perform-

Foundation Staff Dawn P. Lowder, Executive Director, Raleigh


Following his remarks, Jon Meacham answered questions posed by North Carolina Museum of History Director Ken Howard.

John Drescher, Senior Vice President and Executive Editor of The News & Observer , provided introductions for Jon Meacham.

continuing quest to build “a more perfect Union.” For the past four years, the North Carolina Museum of History Foun- dation Distinguished Lecture Series has brought some of the nation’s preeminent scholars, authors, and political commentators to Raleigh to share their insights on key events and to illustrate how the past influences the present. Previous speakers have included Bob Woodward, Carl Bern- stein, David McCullough, and Doris Kearns Goodwin. The lecture series is offered in part- nership with The News & Observer . Additional sponsors include First Tennessee Bank, the Goodnight Educational Foundation, the Sloan Family Foundation, the Sherrill

Candor is also important, Meacham said.“If a leader gives it to us straight, we’ll do what it takes.” He looked to major events in the 20th century to find examples of a leader who was open and honest with the public. In the early days of World War II, Presi- dent Franklin Roosevelt believed that the situation would get worse before it improved. He felt that the American people deserved to hear this admission from their leader, although some of his advisers disagreed with the decision. Meacham also spoke at length about humility, admitting it can be a rare presidential trait. The effort of will required to win the office and then hold it does not ordinarily allow for much self-awareness, much less self- criticism. According to Meacham, John F. Kennedy exhibited humility during the Cuban Missile Crisis when he sought advice from former president Dwight D. Eisenhower. Although the two men had waged an acrimonious campaign, Kennedy humbled himself and listened to the suggestions of the more seasoned statesman, which, in turn, helped resolve the crisis. And finally, Meacham addressed the issue of empathy. For this trait, he held up President George H. W. Bush as a man who had the capacity to show empathy throughout his personal and professional life. Among his many

examples, Meacham recalled the political situation after the fall of the Berlin Wall when President Bush chose not to travel to Germany. He preferred to take a sub- dued approach, to prove to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that America would help manage the complex and dangerous situation, not make things more difficult. In his concluding remarks, Meacham noted that many dark moments have oc- curred in the nation’s history. Although some people believe these now are dark hours, Meacham is optimistic. He believes that “we’ll come through this, and we’ll come through stronger.”While Meacham identified several important qualities for individuals elected to public office, he also reminded the audience that these are the same characteristics that all citizens should emulate in our

Fund, the Smith Family Foundation, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina, Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth B. Howard, and Mr. and Mrs. Paul F. Hoch Jr. For more information on the series, contact Dawn Lowder

at 919-807-7876 or

Meacham’s latest presidential biogra- phy, Destiny and Power , debuted at the top of The New York Times best seller list in November 2015. Book cover image courtesy of Penguin Random House LLC .

After the event, Meacham signed copies of his latest presidential biography, Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush , for the series’ sponsors.


The Division of State History Museums includes six regional museums that maintain lively calendars of exhibits and events for all ages throughout the year. Check the accompanying website information for listings.

( Below ) The Museum of the Albemarle hosts both simple and elegant weddings. Courtesy Museum of the Albemarle. ( Bottom ) Wedding ceremony on the porch of the Poe House, Museum of the Cape Fear. Courtesy Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex .

What’s Up at the Regional Museums by William J. McCrea, Associate Director/Director of Regional Museums

Museum of the Albemarle 501 South Water Street, Elizabeth City, NC 27909 252-335-1453

Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex 801 Arsenal Avenue, Fayetteville, NC 28305 910-486-1330 MuseumoftheCapeFear

The amphitheater at the Mountain Gateway Museum is the perfect location for a fam- ily reunion or outdoor wedding. Courtesy Mountain Gateway Museum and Heritage Center.


Over the past four years, efforts to expand rentals at the regional museums have yielded many benefits. The increase in nonstate funds is obvious and extremely beneficial to the regional museums in support of various programs and exhibits. But the intangible benefit of a stronger connection to their respective communities cannot be overlooked. At the Mountain Gateway Museum and Heritage Center, the number of rentals has substantially increased under historic interpreter Brittany Bennett’s management. The amphitheater on the grounds offers a perfect location for an outdoor wedding. The parklike environment of the museum property presents an equally ideal spot for family reunions. By utilizing the covered pavilion, picnic tables, and the museum building’s broad front porch, staff provide families with the amenities they need. The Museum of the Cape Fear Historical Complex is also venturing into wedding rentals, capitalizing on the beautiful garden area behind the Poe House. More creative, however, is the relationship the museum has formed

Mountain Gateway Museum and Heritage Center 24 Water Street, Old Fort, NC 28762 828-668-9259

with Sweet Tea Shakespeare, a local theater group. Outdoor plays are offered in the summer, with a portion of the proceeds going to the museum. Attendance at the plays has increased and so have revenues. New screens that can be lowered in the event of wind or rain have made renting the large portico at the Museum of the Albemarle much more desirable. What wedding couple wants to plan a reception that could be ruined by a sudden squall? The advanced technology of the screen fabric keeps rain and wind out without totally obscuring the view from the portico to the Pasquotank River. The screens, along with enhanced marketing efforts, have increased rentals by 70 percent over the first half of 2016. With the need to find sources of nonstate revenue, the efforts by all three regional museums have been successful. Being seen as a community resource, beyond the asset as a historical resource, builds relationships that pay dividends in new and exciting ways.

North Carolina Maritime Museum 315 Front Street, Beaufort, NC 28516 252-728-7317

North Carolina Maritime Museum at Southport

204 East Moore Street, Southport, NC 28461 910-457-0003

Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum 59200 Museum Drive, Hatteras, NC 27943 252-986-2995


Sports Hall of Fame Inducts Nine Members in 2016

by Susan Friday Lamb, Public Information Officer

The North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame inducted nine new members on May 6, 2016: ( Left to right ) Rod Brind’Amour, Eric “Sleepy” Floyd, David Fox, James “Rabbit” Fulghum, Antawn Jamison, Haywood Jeffires, Freddy Johnson, Kris Weiss (representing the late Ray Price), and Susan Yow. Courtesy Gregory Knott .


“The achievements of this year’s class of inductees enrich North Carolina’s remarkable sports heritage, and they certainly earned the honor of joining the . . . men and women who have been previously enshrined,” said Fredrick Reese, president of the hall. “This is our 53rd class, and we celebrate this year’s new additions to the Sports Hall of Fame.” The Sports Hall of Fame was established in 1963. Mementoes representing each 2016 inductee are now on exhibit. These items range from Brind’Amour’s Carolina Hurricanes jersey to Fox’s swimsuit and swim cap from the 1996 Olympic Games. The North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame exhibit at the Museum of History features audio, video, and interac- tive components, as well as sports artifacts. Museum visitors can use touch screens to find information about all men and women honored in the Sports Hall of Fame, or they can test their knowledge of North Carolina sports trivia.

The North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame honors extraordi- nary achievement in sports and commemorates exceptional athletic triumphs related to North Carolina. Each year, the hall inducts new athletes, sports administrators, and media personalities. On May 6, 2016, the hall inducted nine new members in its annual selection: • Rod Brind’Amour, hockey player • Eric “Sleepy” Floyd, basketball player • David Fox, swimmer • James “Rabbit” Fulghum, baseball coach

• Antawn Jamison, basketball player • Haywood Jeffires, football player • Freddy Johnson, basketball coach and  sports administrator • the late Ray Price, motorcycle racer, business   owner, and designer • Susan Yow, basketball player and coach


The Wright Flyer Soars to New Heights by Katie Edwards, Associate Curator ( Background image ) John T. Daniels, a member of the Kill Devil Hills Life-Saving crew, took this famous photo of the first powered flight on December 17, 1903. Orville Wright lies at the controls of the machine, while Wilbur runs beside it. Courtesy Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division . O Space Museum in Washington, DC.) The replica was moved from the visitor center, On the blustery morning of December 17, 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright successfully flew the first powered

which has temporarily closed due to a multimillion-dollar renovation, and now hangs in the Museum of History’s lobby until construction is completed. To correspond with the loan of the Flyer, the museum added an extended Wright brothers’ section to The Story of North Carolina exhibit on December 17, 2016. This new expansion features information about the Wrights’ experiences in North Carolina, as well as a touch screen where visitors can sort through photographs and original documents that pertain to the brothers’ historical achievements. Visit the gallery to see the recently added section.

aircraft off the dunes near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Their hard work and determination helped them achieve that flight, forever changing the world of aviation. In the fall of 2016, the North Carolina Museum of History received on loan from the Wright Brothers National Me- morial Visitor Center—with assistance from the First Flight Foundation—a full-sized replica of the 1903 Wright Flyer, the first powered, heavier-than-air aircraft in history to achieve controlled flight. (The original Flyer is located in the Smithsonian National Air and

The replica of the 1903 Wright Flyer, the first powered, heavier-than-air aircraft in history to achieve controlled flight. C ourtesy National Park Service, Wright Brothers National Memorial .

Museum Launches the Notable North Carolina Lecture Series

Dr. Michele Gillespie and Phil Archer answer questions about the Reynolds family and their many contributions to the estate at the February lecture.

by Michelle L. Carr, Community Engagement and Marketing Section

In February 2017, the series continued with an insightful look at the Reynolds family of Win- ston-Salem. Dr. Michele Gillespie, Dean of the Undergraduate College of Arts and Sciences at Wake Forest University,


North Carolina has a rich history filled with fascinating personali- ties, breathtaking scenery, and intriguing occurrences. Last fall the North Carolina Museum of History launched a new lecture series to explore some of the people, places, and events that have helped shape the Tar Heel State. During its first two years, the Notable North Carolina Lecture Series will examine four of the state’s most philanthropic families: the Vanderbilts, the Reynoldses, the Dukes, and the Kenans. Al- though these extraordinary families have left an indelible mark on the state and the nation, through a variety of arenas, their greatest legacy remains the philanthropic efforts that have enhanced the lives of millions of North Carolinians. The series kicked off in September 2016 with a presentation on the Vanderbilt family by Ann Ashley, Vice President of the Biltmore Company. Ashley explored how the Vanderbilt family’s passion for the land and people of the state has influenced both its physical and cultural landscape.

revealed how R. J. Reynolds and his wife, Katharine, became one of the New South’s most influential couples. Phil Archer, the Betsy Main Babcock Director of Programs and Interpretation at Reynolda House, described the estate’s transition from a family home to a successful museum that boasts one of the finest collec- tions of American art in the Southeast. The museum invites you to join us on November 8 for the third installment in this exciting lecture series. Dr. William E. King, the founding archivist at Duke University, will trace the fascinating history of four generations of the Duke family. For more informa- tion on the series, contact Creigh Yarbrough at 919-807-7873.


The North Carolina Museum of History Associates membership group builds awareness of and funding for the North Carolina Museum of History.

5 East Edenton Street PO Box 25937 Raleigh, NC 27611 919-807-7850

Associates’ New Logo The Associates (now MOHA) have been busy working with MSA Marketing to create a new logo! This logo represents the living, breathing energy of the museum. The logo’s color palette is a nod to the reach we have—through education, exhibitions, and programming—from the majestic North Carolina mountains to our sparkling coast. Each letter overlaps in the very way our lives and histories do. And what’s at the foundation of it all? The big H . . . HISTORY! MOHA is a celebration of culture, community, and connection, and we are grateful for your continued support.

Charlie Silver, chair of the Associates Board and Executive Committee.

Associates Board and Executive Committee 2016–2017 Charlie Silver, Chair Lynda Blount, 1st Vice Chair Bill Nicholson, 2nd Vice Chair Bill Hamlin, Treasurer Gray Styers, Assistant Treasurer Karen Vaughan, Secretary Edwina Shaw, Membership Martha Marshall, Membership Penn Wood, Audit Chancy Kapp, Board Development Carolyn Harmon, Financial  Development Franklin Freeman, Human  Resources Jan Johnson, Public Relations

Sydnor Presnell, At Large Jane Howard, At Large Su-Su Corbitt, At Large

Marion Church was honored at the Spring Frolic.

Frolic 2017 Our 20th Spring Frolic in April of 2017 was a huge success as we honored our dear friend Marion Church in Raleigh at the Carolina Country Club. Everything was special for the anniversary evening, from the elegant décor to the menu to the selection of auc- tion items, but it was our museum friends from across the state that provided a distinct warmth and energy—which led to us surpassing our financial goal. With your help, we made Fund-A-Need history! The room was positively electric with the many pledges we received to support the travel grant program, which brings schoolchildren from across the state to the museum. In order to understand the present, you need to learn about your past. Together, we give schoolchildren around the state the opportunity to learn about North Carolina’s dynamic history and culture.

Billy Wilson, executive director of the Associates.

Associates Staff Billy Wilson

Executive Director Hunter Diamond Director, Special Events Lynn Brower Director, Retail Operations Pam Critoria Controller Carol Grossi Director, Membership

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Kara Leinfelder Meyer Associate Director

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