2009-CC-Global-trends-in-milk-quality-More-IVJ

shelf life (Blayney  et al . 2006; Dairy Australia 2007). The very sharp rise in world dairy prices from late 2006 (Berry and Hogan 2007) was driven, largely, by the strong global demand for dairy products, leading to record farmgate prices (exceeding € 0.35/l) for manufacturing milk in Ireland (Lavery 2007). By early 2008, the price spike had peaked for commodities such as milk powders and butter, with market prices rapidly returning to more normal levels (Irish Farmers Monthly 2008). In wealthy countries, there have been substantial shifts in demand for dairy products. In the EU, the demand for cheese and other milk products (such as fresh cream, specialised milk protein for the food industry and other dairy ingredients) has risen, and butter consumption has fallen. Approximately 40% of milk within the EU is now consumed as cheese (European Commission 2006). In the US, milk consumption is falling (concurrent with a rise in the consumption of carbonated drinks) (Huth et al . 2006), whereas butter consumption has remained steady (Henning et al . 2006). In recent years, there has been a substantial drive to retain market share in the face of non-dairy substitutes. Functional foods (such as probiotic milks, yogurts and fermented dairy drinks) represent one strategy to capitalise on growing consumer awareness of the role of dairy components in health and vitality. There have also been rapid technological advances in dairy processing ( Figure 1 ), particularly the use of membrane technology (allowing the separation of milk components) for industry applications (Henning et al . 2006). A key outcome

and a period of record international milk prices. In global terms, the Irish dairy industry is small, producing 5.2 million tonnes (0.94% of global production). However, the industry exports approximately 85% of annual production and is a major contributor to the national economy. The industry is also the world’s largest producer of powdered infant formula. a. World dairy production In 2007, world dairy production reached 655 million tonnes, from cattle (551 million tonnes; 84%), buffalo (12.5%, mainly from India and Pakistan), sheep and goats (3.2%) and other species (predominantly camels, 0.3%) (International Dairy Federation 2007a). Almost all countries produce milk for local consumption. However, the cost of production varies greatly depending on factors including labour costs, animal genetics, on-farm technology, and fodder and water availability (Blayney et al . 2006). In 2006, the largest cows’ milk producers included the EU25 (142 million tonnes, 25.8%), the US (82.6, 15.0%), India (41.0, 7.4%; a further 53.6 million tonnes of buffalo milk was produced), China (36.0, 6.5%), Russia (32.0, 5.8%), Brazil (26.2, 4.8%), New Zealand (15.7, 2.8%), Ukraine (12.6, 2.3%), Mexico (10.5, 1.9%), Argentina (9.8, 1.8%) and Australia (9.3; 1.7%). Within the EU25, Ireland was the 8th largest producer of cows’ milk (5.2 million tonnes, 0.94% of global production), behind Germany (28.3 million tonnes), France (24.3), United Kingdom (14.4), Poland (11.8), Italy (11.2), Netherlands (11.0) and Spain (6.5) (International Dairy Federation 2007a). There has been strong and sustained growth in global production of cows’ milk, leading to a ten-year and one- year rise of 17.2% (from 470 million tonnes in 1997) and 1.5% (from 543 million tonnes in 2006, respectively (International Dairy Federation 2007a). This growth is mainly concentrated in China, India and the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the USA). China has experienced very rapid growth in dairy production, with production doubling between 1990 and 2000, then again between 2000 and 2004 (Fuller et al . 2007). Between 2004 and 2006 cow numbers and milk production increased by 23.0% and 41.3%, respectively (International Dairy Federation 2007a). Argentina, Brazil and Chile have achieved self-sufficiency in milk production, and each is now focused on exports. There was a 5.7% reduction in national milk production in Australia between 2004/05 and 2006/07 as a result of sustained drought conditions (International Dairy Federation 2007a). b. World dairy demand There is a growing global demand (an increase of 3% globally, but more than 10% in some developing countries, and 15% in China) for milk and other dairy products. Global competitiveness is also fuelling new uses for milk- based ingredients, rising demand for cheese variety, an increase in niche product markets and increased product No data 9 (4.5%) herds Global milk production

FRESH COWS MILK

DRINKING MILK

SEPARATION

YOGHURT

(1)

RECOMBINATION

FAT

SKIM

DESSERTS

(2)

STANDARDISED MILK

CREAM

CONDENSED MILK

ADD RENNET

SOUR CREAM

WHEY CREAM CHEESE

CURD

WHEY

BUTTER

BUTTERMILK

COMPRESSION

WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE (WPC)

BUTTERMILK POWDER

CHEESE

LACTOSE

WHOLE MILK POWDER (WMP)

BUTTEROIL

MILK PROTEIN CONCENTRATE (WPC)

SKIMMED MILK POWDER (SMP)

CASEIN

PRIMARY FINAL PRODUCT

SECONDARY FINAL PRODUCT

INTERMEDIATE PRODUCT

KEY:

Figure 1: The conversion of milk, by a range of processes, into a variety of dairy products and food ingredients. (1) Skim milk is comprised of protein, other solids (lactose, minerals) and water; (2) Standardised milk, with a fat content adjusted by the addition of skim or cream (European Commission 2006).

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Irish Veterinary Journal Volume 62 Supplement

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