C+S June 2023 Vol. 9 Issue 6 (web)

Civil + Structural Engineer is the best source of news and information for the engineering industry. Thank you for reading!

VOLUME 9 ISSUE 6 csengineermag.com

publisher Chad Clinehens, P.E. | 479.856.6097 | cclinehens@zweiggroup.com media manager Anna Finley | 479.435.6850 | afinley@zweiggroup.com Editor Luke Carothers | lcarothers@zweiggroup.com

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Civil + Structural Engineer (ISSN 23726717) is published monthly by Zweig Group, Fayetteville, AR. Telephone: 800.466.6275. Copyright© 2023, Zweig Group. Articles not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of Zweig Group. Unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned unless accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed envelope. Subscriptions: Annual digital subscription is free. To subscribe or update your subscription information, please visit our website www.csengineermag.com/subscribe/ or call 800.466.6275.

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June 2023



THE COVER Little Boat, Big Impact on page 10

CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 12 A Community-Forward Approach STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 14 Mancini Duffy and Manhattan’s Tin Building 16 Bagnell Dam TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 18 Infrastructure Improvements and Worker Safety: A Balancing Act 20 Arup Uses Parametric Design and BIM to Keep Kings Cross R8 Project on Schedule 22 Remember those 56,000 U.S. bridges that were classified as structurally unsound? They are about to be rebuilt 24 Designing Resilient Stormwater Systems WATER + STORMWATER 28 It’s no accident this environmental cleanup project’s a leader in worker safety 32 Time for Transformative Thinking in Western Water 34 Stormwater/flood response 36 Innovative Approaches to Improving the University Lakes System 38 A Gateway Project for Ecological Restoration BUSINESS NEWS 40 Hydraulic Performance of Geocell-Based Channel Protection Systems for Stormwater Management and Flood Mitigation 42 Shifting Toward Sustainability: the Construction Industry 43 Five Ways Deltek Helps A&E Firms Excel departments 8 Events Columns LOOKING BACK, MOVING FORWARD 7 Aquaculture and Water Resource Management in Native Hawaii Luke Carothers INDUSTRY INSIGHTS 39 If You Like Piña Coladas Chad Coldiron 39 Benchmarks 40 Reader Index




June 2023


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looking back, moving forward

Aquaculture and Water Resource Management in Native Hawaii Luke Carothers The collection of islands that now make up the state of Hawaii have been inhabited by humans for the better part of the last two millennia. The first to arrive did so in wooden canoes that carried themselves, plants for cultivation, and livestock. These first inhabitants found few edible plants that were native to the islands, and began to cultivate the plants they brought with them. To support this cultivation, inhabitants began to construct irrigation ditches that carried water from the numerous freshwater streams to areas growing crops such as taro, bananas, breadfruit, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, and yams. The islands’ streams played a particularly important role in their population growth. The fresh, cool water would flow through the irrigation ditches and provide nourishment to the growing crops before flowing back into the stream. These ditches would eventually be enhanced by the construction of dams, which would often be torn down and moved as the need arose. Over time, they cultivated the soil of mountain slopes and valley bottoms—supporting these projects with stone walls to stop erosion. These irrigation systems became part of a much larger network of water infrastructure that supported a burgeoning population. In addition to having an unparalleled understanding of boat building and crop irrigation, Polynesian inhabitants of the islands also developed a strong tradition of aquaculture. Beginning around 1200 CE, Hawaiians started using lava rocks and packed earth to construct fish ponds that vastly increased the amount of food the islands could produce. Starting from the shoreline, fishponds were ringed by low walls of porous lava rock which allowed water to flow through without enough space for the fish to escape. The locations of these fishponds made them extremely fertile places to create thriving fish farms. These fishponds again benefitted from the cool freshwater streams. Located near the mouths of these streams, Hawaiian fishponds of this time were constructed to benefit from inland irrigation as the nutrient-rich water that resulted flooded the fishponds, supporting a massive number of fish. In the five centuries between the development of aquaculture and the first European contact, native Hawaiians constructed over 350 of these fishponds that produced over 2 million pounds of fish annually. The nutrient-rich fresh water that provided sustenance for the enclosed fish was part of a much larger network of water-based infrastructure that supported sustained population growth throughout the time prior to European contact. Surrounded by saltwater, the native Hawaiians

placed a strict emphasis on the management and maintenance of their freshwater resources. Shallow wells, springs, and streams provided the islands’ inhabitants with fresh drinking water. By creating a system that incorporated upland agriculture, fishing, aquaculture, and gardening, these early Hawaiians shifted to a society that focused more on the land than on the sea. The ability to tap into rich terrestrial and marine resources meant that, long before European contact, Hawaiians had established a sophisticated system of land-use agreements that facilitated the open trade of goods not only within the individual islands but rather between the islands. Thanks to their ability to navigate the seas effectively, trade thrived between the Hawaiian islands, and a thriving economy emerged. This resulted in residents having access to a wide variety of goods and resources, supporting further development and growth. From this effective utilization of resources, Hawaiians began to specialize in various crafts and trades, which varied depending on the resources on the individual islands. The island of O’ahu, for example, specialized in producing a bark fabric known as kapa. This intricately designed fabric was created by beating tree bark until it became soft and dye-stamping it to create geometric patterns. Similarly, the island of Maui grew to specialize as the primary manufacturer of canoes. Although surrounded by the vastness of the Pacific Ocean’s salty waters, the Hawaiian islands had developed a system that could not only support a significant human population but rather a thriving and diverse culture and specialized economy. This was done by effectively managing water resources with a flexible and cooperative approach, which allowed populations to shift and efficiently manage the flow of water and resources throughout needed areas.


June 2023


events + virtual Events

June 2023

July 2023

Doing Business In Mexico June 1 – Troy, MI

Project Management for AEC Professionals july 12 – Boise, ID

Join us on June 1 at Automation Alley for a discussion about nearshoring in Mexico and the state of the EV industry. We'll be joined by Automation Alley, Miller Canfield, and the Consul of Mexico in Detroit. Come to this live event and learn about the opportunities and challenges of nearshoring, latest USMCA guidelines, and the dos and don'ts of doing business in Mexico. https://www.millercanfield.com/newsevents-events-Doing-Business- In-Mexico.html We often talk about the future. This conference is where the AEC industry gathers to define it, design it, and connect across industries to build it. Join us in San Francisco—one of the West Coast’s premier destinations—to explore what it means to design a better world now, together. The designed world is getting more complex. A’23 delivers the path forward. Acclaimed architects, designers, building product manufacturers, and allied professionals deliver best-in-class CE. Earn your HSW, GBCI, RIBA & AIA LUs for the year! https://conferenceonarchitecture.com/ A'23 Conference June 7-10 – San Francisco, CA ACEC 2023 Annual Convention and Legislative Summit June 11 - 14 – Washington DC Join your peers for this three-day event and leave armed with the political intelligence and added insight you need to make informed decisions about your strategic priorities in a changing economy. From the continued implications of IIJA implementation to the ongoing debate surrounding immigration reform and beyond, the business of the 118th Congress is the business of our firms. https://www.acec.org/conferences/2023-annual-convention/ The CEO Roundtable Retreat is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Zweig Group’s CEO Chad Clinehens, PE, moderates the program guiding group conversations, encouraging integration and networking, and ensuring attendees gain valuable insight, new ideas and tools—and a new network of colleagues—to foster effective leadership at their respective firms. https://zweiggroup.com/products/ceo-roundtable-retreat-1 CEO Roundtable June 22-23 – Napa VAlley, CA

This one-day training will help take the guesswork out of leading a project team; and is presented in lecture, tutorial, and hands-on case study sessions. Attending project leaders will leave equipped with practical, science-backed skills that will allow them to empower their teams, optimize their project process, and surpass project goals. https://zweiggroup.com/products/project-management-summer-2023

The Principals Academy july 13-14 – Boise, ID

The Principals Academy is Zweig Group’s flagship training program encompassing all aspects of managing a professional AEC service firm. Elevate your ability to lead and grow your firm with this program designed to inspire and inform existing and emerging AEC firm leaders in key areas of firm management leadership, financial management, recruiting, marketing, business development, and project management. Learning and networking at this premiere event challenges traditional seminar formats and integrates participatory idea exchange led by Chad Clinehens, Zweig Group's President and CEO, Phil Keil, Principal and Director of Strategy, and Will Swearingen, Principal and Director of Ownership Transition, along with the firm's top line of advisors. https://zweiggroup.com/products/the-principals-academy- summer-2023

September 2023

M&A next Symposium September 12-13 – Frisco, TX

Reserve your seat at this highly interactive event designed to provide M&A education and practical application through interactive roundtable discussions, thought leadership from expert panelists, and focused networking to connect leaders from across the country. You will end the day better informed about the opportunities for M&A as a growth strategy. www.zweiggroup.com/products/2023-m-a-next-symposium

ElevateaEC conference & Awards Gala September 13-15 – Frisco, TX

Registration is open for the annual in-person conference in Frisco, September 13-15. The 2023 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Excellence in Client Experience, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures, and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards will be celebrated at the iconic black-tie awards gala. www.zweiggroup.com/pages/annual-elevateaec-conference



June 2023

November 2023

Business of Automated Mobility Forum: Flight Path to UAM September 27-28 Join SAE and AUVSI, along with industry and government stakeholders, for collaborative discussions to accelerate the evolution to a safe and efficient low-altitude transport system. Engage on the critical topics to realize the potential of UAM, including regulatory outlook, vehicle development and production, operational management, UTM, safety, and security. https://www.auvsi.net/bamforum/home

Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals November 2-3 – Nashville, TN

This course takes a project-based approach to identifying, dissecting, and solving a series of issues that plague modern AEC firms. Attendees will collaboratively work business cases that focus on leading through uncertainty, recruiting and retention, upskilling staff to close competency gaps within their firms, enhancing client experience to drive higher fees, and staff performance management, among others. https://zweiggroup.com/products/leadership-skills-for-aec- professionals-winter-2023 This is the unmissable global event for the lifting industry; almost 100 exhibitors, over 1,500 industry professionals attending, two days of knowledge sharing and training, as well as the celebrated LEEA Awards. The annual event hosted by the Lifting Equipment Engineers Association, the leading global representative body for all those involved in the lifting industry worldwide, is your chance to connect with your customers, meet new clients and do business. The show attracts end users from a wide range of vertical markets, including oil and gas, energy, offshore, road & maritime transport, construction, utilities, rail, renewable energy, civil engineering, entertainment and manufacturing, and more. https://liftex.org/liftex-liverpool-2023 LiftEx 2023 November 21-22 – Liverpool

BIBM Congress September 27-29 – Amsterdam

The 24th BIBM Congress will take place in Amsterdam! The congress will be held in the Dutch capital—the “Venice of the North.” The congress will be under the slogan “Green | Digital | Resilient | Precast Concrete Solutions.” Congress language is English. https://bibmcongress.eu/

October 2023 Chief Strategy Officer Roundtable October 11-13 – Fayetteville, AR

The CSO Roundtable Retreat is a unique opportunity for AEC firm leaders to engage and interact with industry peers to discuss current issues facing firms today, explore industry trends and next practices, and confront the biggest challenges they face leading their firms. Come prepared to discuss your biggest challenges and successes during this highly interactive session. With you in control of the subject matter, roundtable discussions strike at the heart of what you need to effect change in your organization. https://zweiggroup.com/products/chief-strategy-officer-roundtable


June 2023


Little Boat, Big Impact

By Luke Carothers

Along the Texas Gulf Coast , the construction and expansion of ports is a continually-active process. As one of the busiest corridors in the world for shipping, ports along the Texas Gulf Coast are actively working to update infrastructure and facilities to support a massive flow of traffic. McCarthy Building Companies has worked with a number of ports along the Texas Gulf Coast to do just this. McCarthy has continually worked with Port Houston for 30 years, and is currently undertaking projects for Port Freeport as well as demolishing and constructing a strategically important dock for Port Beaumont. Over their decades in working with ports along the Texas Gulf Coast, McCarthy has been in a constant state of innovation in construction, and has developed technologies that help make projects safer while saving time and money. Their most recent development in this regard is certainly lacking in size, but that hasn’t stopped it from making a big impact on projects in the short time it has been deployed. McCarthy has recently started using a five-foot-long by three-foot-wide unpiloted survey vessel (USV) to assist with their port projects. Using sonar technology, the USV collects data on the seafloor and finds obstructions within the work area. The USV is also equipped with a sound velocity probe that reports the density, salinity, temperature, and conductivity of the water—all of which impact how fast sound waves travel through water, making data it collects more accurate. Sarah Johnson, senior field engineer for McCarthy’s Marine Business Unit, says that the deciding factor for obtaining the USV was their project at the Port of Beaumont. In 2012, a wharf at the port failed due to an issue with the corrosion of steel piles. As such, a large part of McCarthy’s work at the Port of Beaumont has been demolishing the failed piles and concrete structures then subsequently installing new piles that will resist corrosion. Much of this demolition work is underwater, which is complicated by incredibly murky water that

affords at most six inches of visibility. With the complications of access and visibility impairing safety and slowing progress, McCarthy’s team turned to the USV. Prior to deploying the USV at the Port of Beaumont, divers on the project faced significant challenges and dangers from lack of visibility. According to Adeel Malik, vice president of estimating for McCarthy’s Marine Business Unit, the decision to use the USV at the Port of Beaumont stemmed from a need to map out the collapsed structure that lies beneath the water, adding that the decision to do so has had a significant impact from a safety perspective. The USV utilizes sonar



June 2023

and GPS for depth and horizontal positioning. When deployed, the USV is piloted around the work area and sends back a color map that indicates noticeable obstructions as well as differences in elevation. Additionally, the vessel produces a side scan sonar, which represents the area in more detail. Once the survey is complete, the data is post- processed to produce a detailed map of the space beneath the water. At the Port of Beaumont, the ability to map beneath the water has proven especially useful as the age of the structure means that there aren’t accurate drawings from the original early-1900s structure. Without the USV, this made locating sections of the collapsed wharf exceedingly difficult. However, the USV’s accuracy has allowed McCarthy’s team to locate obstructions within inches, according to Johnson. After obstructions are identified, a crane operator is given the location directly via GPS, and the obstruction is removed in just a few hours. Malik points out that the USV has cut a significant amount of time out of the project as it eliminates the need to wait for dive teams to carry out their operations. Malik further adds that the USV is crucial in that it gives McCarthy’s teams the ability to assess problems and develop solutions in a much quicker manner, and the ability to connect the vessel’s data with GPS positioning means that work is much more accurate. This USV technology has also shown additional capabilities outside of locating underwater obstructions. At the nearby Port of Freeport, the vessel was used to record underwater slope depth for toe trenching. Its deployment at Freeport verified slopes were at the correct location and angle, which ensured that ship propellers wouldn’t make contact with the ground. Johnson believes that, while early in its usage, the USV has potential to impact several areas of water-based infrastructure. One example is the work around existing and new pump stations. Many of these projects require extensive survey work, and Malik believes that USV technology can provide an accurate and quick solution to the surveying required—whether it is identifying underwater obstructions or verifying previous survey data. When it comes to surveying around pump stations and levees, Malik further points out that the development of this technology and its potential coincides with a 2018 bill that allocates $5 billion for flood protection in the state of Texas. With more work around flood protection infrastructure, USV technology has significant potential to positively shape the future of water-based projects in the AEC industry.

McCarthy Building Companies has long been involved in shaping port infrastructure along the Texas Gulf Coast. Likewise, the work they are doing now is laying the groundwork for port infrastructure projects in the future. In particular, the deployment of technologies like the USV are instrumental in shaping the way projects will look for years to come. Deploying technologies like the USV that introduce a vast shift in worker safety, efficiency, and accuracy is demonstrative of a commitment toward shaping a better work environment in the AEC industry.

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


June 2023 csengineermag.com

A Community-Forward Approach By Luke Carothers

Jon Kramer joined OHM advisors 30 years ago in 1993. Although he had a background in environmental engineering, Kramer joined the firm as a part of their municipal engineering practice, which he describes as a “collection of road, water, and sewer” work. Since joining OHM as an intern, Kramer has risen through the ranks, becoming CEO of the firm two years ago. In his three decades with the firm, Kramer has seen OHM Advisors grow from an 80-person firm with one office to its current state with 650 employees working out of 18 offices. One of the key factors behind OHM’s growth is their belief and dedication to the idea that diversity drives innovation. Kramer points out that this comes to fruition through their continued efforts to ensure that diversity and inclusion are “intrinsic to the fabric of the company.” This approach hinges on the fact that, when DEI is reflected throughout an organization, they benefit from a variety of insights and are better prepared to meet the needs of the populations they serve. For OHM, this includes efforts to address the talent gap by encouraging careers in STEM through things like mentorship and internship programs as well as outreach to various schools. Further, OHM demonstrates this commitment through investments in their annual diversity scholarship program. Kramer has also demonstrated this commitment by signing the CEO Action for Diversity Pledge. Kramer points out that this level of commitment has been difficult in some management areas, but the results have far exceeded any difficulties. OHM’s commitment has “empowered [their] employees to be the best versions of themselves.” In turn, Kramer says that this has ultimately led to OHM providing the best solutions for their clients and communities while having employees who value their work. When it comes to discussing climate change resilience and sustainability, Kramer believes that these topics are inherently tied into their commitment to people and communities and describes OHM as the “community advancement firm.” OHM Advisors’ mission of Advancing Communities is a summation of their role of working hand-in-hand with clients to create innovative solutions for building sustainable communities. On a project basis, this means making their clients' challenges into their challenges, and delivering solutions that clients and communities may not know they need. Kramer notes that this requires treating each community individually, which means there are “no cookie cutter solutions” for the challenges they face. This community-forward approach has had a substantial effect on a number of communities in which OHM has completed work. One example of such a community can be found in Newark, Ohio. Stemming from an EPA mandate to separate the sewer systems from stormwater runoff systems, the initial

revitalization project began as a $30 million sewer separation project, totaling nearly 10 city blocks. However, the project ran into challenges, as the streets around the downtown square would need to be demolished. Demolition of the streets around the square would have potentially affected the historic Licking County Courthouse, which was built in 1878 and designed by architect Henry E. Myer of Cleveland in the Second Empire style. This American vernacular centerpiece eventually became the focus of revitalization efforts and recently completed a $9.2 million Phase I restoration. With forward-thinking leadership, the City of Newark recognized the opportunity to turn a traditional infrastructure project into a placemaking and economic development strategy. They turned to OHM Advisors to lead an extensive community planning



June 2023

initiative to examine how the project could evolve. After a series of stakeholder and public meetings, a community vision emerged that called for a more pedestrian-friendly downtown, focusing on streetscaping, wayfinding, and enhancing the existing transportation network. With the goal of improving the image and brand of the city’s downtown while simultaneously improving the transportation network, the resulting solution included expansive sidewalks, sustainable infrastructure, straightforward two-way

Forward, and the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA). These groups and agencies recognized the need for a unified vision to guide growth and decision-making and brought OHM Advisors on as the lead consultant to develop a comprehensive, innovative study that reimagines the Cuyahoga River Valley. Kramer notes that, while crucially important to the future, VFTV is “no small, nor easy, effort.” The Cuyahoga River is a federal shipping channel and a state-designated water trail, meaning commercial shipping and recreational water activities exist together in one river. Furthermore, compared to other commercially-active rivers, the Cuyahoga is narrow, which makes navigation and safety important concerns in developing a plan for its future.

traffic patterns, and easy-to-navigate mini roundabouts at the four corners of the courthouse. Since the project was completed in 2017, these improvements have calmed traffic and significantly improved pedestrian access to the downtown economic area, which has in turn led to gains in population, jobs, downtown living, and economic generating activities. This community-led project in Newark is a tangible result of OHM's community-forward way of doing business. Elsewhere in Ohio, OHM is currently engaged in a project that contains multiple communities within its scope. The Cuyahoga River, which has a long and complex history with industry and its resulting pollution, is now cleaner than it has been in decades thanks to dedicated efforts to improve the river’s condition for future generations. The Cuyahoga's cleaner waters are resulting in an increased demand for recreational, entertainment, and residential development along the river. Understanding the river’s history with development, the Vision for the Valley (VFTV) plan was created with the goal of finding healthy, equitable, and environmentally-conscious ways to continue to promote this regional economic development. Launched in 2019 on the 50th anniversary of the Cuyahoga River Fire, the VFTV is a joint project between the City of Cleveland Planning Commission, Cleveland Metroparks, the Port of Cleveland, Flats

To develop this plan, the project team again engaged in extensive and purposeful community and stakeholder outreach, which allowed for the plan to be founded on equity and inclusion while also guiding decisions based on protecting the health and safety of the waterway, modernizing its surrounding infrastructure, and building awareness of the river. Since inception, this plan helps the river work for everyone while fostering a healthier, more equitable, and more sustainable future. The resulting plan has also been the impetus for remarkable economic development and regional growth since its adoption. With this community-forward approach, Jon Kramer and OHM Advisors have become a pertinent example of the impact the AEC industry has on the health and well-being of communities. Whether the scope of the project is a historical downtown in a rural county seat, or a national historic river that impacts hundreds of communities and millions of people, the mindset by which firms approach projects has cascading effects for the people living in those spaces. OHM’s approach to advancing communities is unique in that it begins with building a thriving community internally that can in turn positively impact the communities in which they live and work. Their work provides an example of what community-forward thinking can change for the AEC industry. LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


June 2023 csengineermag.com

Located in the shadow of the Brooklyn Bridge in lower Manhattan’s historic Seaport, the Tin Building by Jean-Georges is a sprawling culinary destination. While the concept is new—housing multiple restaurants with open kitchens, innovative retail concepts, and a central market—the building itself was constructed in 1907 as the center of the Fulton Fish Market. The Tin Building is a landmarked structure within a landmarked neighborhood. However, in the time the Tin Building Mancini Duffy and Manhattan’s Tin Building By Luke Carothers

has held its place in lower Manhattan, the structure has been subject to several events that necessitated its recent revival. In more than a century of existence, the Tin Building has earned its reputation as a historic structure, but its existence has been challenged by both flood and fire. After a fire in 1995 and Hurricane Sandy in 2012, large portions of the building’s historic artifacts and features had been damaged or destroyed. To preserve the structure and protect it from future flooding events, a plan was created to move the building 32-feet to the east and set about restoring the historic characteristics of the building. Mancini Duffy took over as the Architect of Record for the Tin Building project when construction started, and oversaw the execution of the design and construction of the building through its completion. This process included disassembling the historic structure and reassembling it at its new location, while also elevating it six feet to be above the 100-year flood plain. For the restoration process, this meant salvaging, saving, and restoring more than 300 historic artifacts for reassembly. Jessica Sheridan, principal at Mancini Duffy, describes the Tin Building project as “unique” in its ability to challenge the frames of reference for the teams working on the project. While all the teams working on the project were immensely experienced in their frame of reference, the unique challenges posed by moving, elevating, and restoring a historic structure meant that “everyone had to support each other,” according to Sheridan. Coordination between teams was also facilitated through BIM 360 and Navisworks. One of the primary challenges in this project was raising the building, which was a part of their sustainability and resilience efforts. Since the building had been damaged by flooding during hurricane Sandy in 2012, there was a clear need to elevate the building above the floodplain. However, simply raising the building where it stood would mean the building would touch the FDR elevated highway. This prompted



June 2023

moving the structure 32-feet to the east, which meant dismantling the building. To prepare the new location, the team had to drive in new piles and elevate this new location before reassembling the building. To further complicate this process, the team had to prove to the department of transportation that this new building location would not compromise the FDR highway in any way, which became a challenge because—as a further result of hurricane Sandy—many of the historic records were damaged or destroyed. To overcome these challenges, Sheridan says the team had to rely on repeated testing and borings to prove the building wouldn’t compromise the highway’s elevated structure. Another challenge came in the form of sourcing materials, which can be common when restoring historic structures as construction methods change over time. On the Tin Building project, this meant instead of using tin, the team used aluminum in many places to replicate the historic facade. Another major component of the Tin Building project, and a major factor that has made it an important place in the community, is its access to the three piers that come together on the site. According to Sheridan, while there is a “static portion of the site that’s connected to Manhattan Island,” the adjacent piers moved between six inches and a foot in either direction. Sheridan continues, saying, “Figuring out the connection points where all the piers came together and the details of the door thresholds ... in some of those places was tricky to figure out.” The connection between the three piers is a major historical reason for the Tin Building’s historical significance, which made this an important consideration during the construction process. On the interior of the Tin Building project, the goal was to maintain as much of the interior space as possible, which was difficult due to the amount of damage done from the flooding and fire. The interior restoration was framed around 44 of the original cast iron columns. While many of the original columns were able to be restored and reused, an additional four needed to be replicated. Four original columns also no longer fit the height of the space where they were needed, so steel collars were created to extend the columns to the necessary height. These cast iron columns were used to create a canopy over the west side of the building’s interior. Also included in the restoration work were the fine details of the facade such as the cornices and pediments. These elements were rebuilt in the early 2000s, but, according to Sheridan, they weren’t restored in an historically-accurate manner. To restore these elements in a more historically-accurate manner, the team sourced original photographs of the structure and recreated them according to the details shown before the damage and restoration. In addition to recreating and restoring the Tin Building’s past, a major component of the project was centered around preparing it for the future. On top of moving the building and raising it above the 100-year floodplain, the building was reconstructed with an interstitial space under the ground floor. Around the perimeter of this space, large wall openings were created to allow water to come in and out in the event of a flood while also alleviating some of the hydrostatic pressure. This also necessitated moving all of the equipment onto the roof, which, according to Sheridan, was “tricky” in that it meant coordinating with all the different restaurants. However, this move was necessary in that it elevated anything critical to the building’s operation.

Despite the project’s complexity, the Tin Building has now entered a new era of its historic existence through careful coordination and summary execution of an ambitious construction plan. Sheridan herself has been coming to the neighborhood since she was a child, and looks back to her memories of the place as a shopping mall. Despite understanding its importance, Sheridan always felt that the space could be something more, and this project is an important part of the restoration of the entire Seaport area. For Sheridan, the Tin Building restoration represents an important step in “bringing the local community onto the Seaport [to experience] the water.”

Photo Credit: Mike Van Tassell


Architect-of-Record, Core & Shell: Mancini Duffy Design Architect, Core & Shell: SHoP Architects Architect-of-Record, Interiors: Cass Calder Smith Architecture + Interiors Designer, Interiors: Roman and Williams

Preservation Architect: Jan Hird Pokorny Associates Structural Engineer: Desimone Consulting Engineers MEP Engineer: WSP Civil/Landscape Engineer: Stantec Survey/Pier Engineer: Langan Engineers Landscape: James Corner Field Operations Landscape: Penmax Engineering Traffic Consultant: Philip Habib Associates Façade/Waterproofing: Vidaris Vertical Transportation: Van Deusen & Assocaites Code Consultant: ARUP Lighting Design: Tillotson Design Associates

LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at lcarothers@zweiggroup.com.


June 2023 csengineermag.com

Bagnell Dam

Project data Location: Lakeside, MO, United States

The Bagnell Dam, which impounds the Osage River to form the Lake of the Ozarks in central Missouri, was completed in 1931. The 148-foot- tall, 2,543-foot-long dam has 12 floodgates. Eight water-wheel turbines in the Osage Energy Center, on the north end of the dam, have been on the job for 85 years and today provide reliable, clean electricity to more than 40,000 homes. The concrete for the dam originally was placed in 40-foot-wide blocks designed to slide individually in case of a breach. The dam received a structural update in the 1980s when crews tied the dam into the underlying bedrock by installing 277 post-tensioned anchors. A new $52 million stabilization project began in 2017 adding 27 new high capacity post-tensioned anchors in the dam’s west retaining section, 33 anchors in the spillway, and eight anchors in the east retaining section. In addition, 17,000 cubic yards of concrete—more than 66 million pounds—is being added to the dam’s mass on its downstream face. The new concrete is being doweled into the existing concrete as an overlay to replace deteriorated concrete on the east and west retaining sections. MC Industrial, the contractor, is using approximately 280 lineal feet of PERI’s SCS single-sided climbing system in combination with VARIO GT24 Girder Wall Formwork to place the new concrete, which is one- sided mass concrete with a wall thicknesses of up to 14 feet. SCS provides a load-bearing structure for supporting single-sided, non-tied, or two-sided, anchored wall formwork. The system transfers loads from the fresh concrete—without formwork ties—through brackets into the climbing anchors of the previously placed section. This cost-effective, modular system uses multi-piece brackets to easily adapt to project-specific requirements and geometries. Because the SCS system eliminates the need for form ties, it solved a complicated layout and access problem on the Bagnell Dam’s mass infill pours, which are 55 feet above grade. Simple form design and functionality also helped limit the amount of manpower required. Requirements • Optimized labor required • Engineering and design support Customer MC Industrial

PERI solution • Innovative climbing formwork system provided high production • SCS allows the loads from the fresh concrete pressure to be transferred without ties through the brackets into the climbing anchors of the previous concreting section • Continuous coordination of all formwork processes through a PERI project manager on site Customer's benefit • Providing continuous engineering and site support to ensure safety of crew and to make sure all system benefits are fully utilized • Saving of anchors through the use of the single-sided SCS climbing formwork



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June 2023 csengineermag.com

In the fall of 2021, President Biden and Congress passed the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, earmarking the largest investment in the nation’s highways and bridges in more than a generation. Representing $1.2 trillion in expenditures, the law is aimed at repairing 65,000 miles of roads and 1,500 bridges. One year later, the Administration has announced projects including highway and rail upgrades, supply chain enhancements, water treatment plant expansions, network improvements, and more. Building and rehabilitating these critical infrastructure assets requires the hiring and training of thousands of workers at a time when the U.S. economy is dealing with an acute shortage of skilled workers. In fact, research indicated a shortage of about 650,000 skilled workers nationwide in 2022. While local communities, contractors, construction companies, and others welcome the influx of job opportunities driven by the investment in infrastructure, the paradigm shift ushers in another important consideration: Worker safety on the jobsite. Does the hiring of unskilled workers to fill the void increase the possibility of injuries on the job? How can construction companies ensure all their employees are operating in a safe environment, whether it is building a massive bridge across a major waterway or performing necessary repairs to an interstate that represents a vital artery to commerce? Time to Form Up When it comes to concrete construction, selecting the right formwork correlates directly with a greater degree of safety on any jobsite for anyone charged with climbing, assembling and installing equipment, and pouring the concrete. The sourcing of that formwork requires careful consideration and meticulous planning, something that must occur well before a shovel goes into the ground or heavy equipment is delivered to the site. Among the key considerations: • Ease of installation: How difficult is it to install and operate the formwork necessary to complete the job? Is the formwork engi- neered such that one or only a handful of workers can cycle it or set it for the next function, or does it require a large crew, increasing the possibility of accidents? Infrastructure Improvements and Worker Safety: A Balancing Act Why Choosing the Right Formwork is Critical By Dan Straub

• Safe cycling: Can crews managing the formwork on the job strike it from the top, rather than having to disassemble it from the underneath? If so, this also reduces the possibility of accidents. • System weight: Is the system easier to handle and lighter than the others? Safety risks tend to increase when lifting higher loads. Lighter systems can reduce safety risk and simultaneously reduce costs. The VARIOKIT Pier System (VPS) from PERI puts safety at the forefront when it comes to building bridge columns and caps. The two configurations—VARIOKIT Speed Stage (VSS) and VARIOKIT Speed Column (VSC)—also empower contractors to achieve optimal construction progress. VPS enables teams to operate at the highest safety level from the commencement of operations. The complete platform and access safety is pre-assembled on the ground before lifting and installation of the cap system, providing a wide and safe workspace for rebar and cap formwork installation. When using the highly flexible PERI UP scaffolding system with PERI VPS, the working platforms can be completely installed within a matter of hours, eliminating time spent creating job-built walkways and handrails. In addition, the VARIOKIT Speed Stage (VSS) always allows direct access to the reinforcement at the highest safety level. The side formwork is independent from the rest of the system, which allows for high flexibility on the type of side formwork to use and the ability to cycle the side formwork the day after pouring. Securing the Climb On a job site that requires workers to perform their work in an elevated position on a structure, safety is critical. How do you prevent falls and minimize environmental factors that can lead to unsafe conditions? PERI RCS Max Rail Climbing System combines the advantages of different climbing systems in a modular system and is used as climbing formwork as well as a climbing protection panel. Through the rail and shoe guided climbing, the units are securely connected to any structure. This makes the climbing procedure faster and safer, even in windy



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conditions. Decentralized hydraulic units stop automatically in the event of overloading or collision. This means workers can now climb formwork for tall piers of elevator cores off a singular hydraulic pump, eliminating leading edges. RCS MAX enables several platforms to climb a structure simultaneously in fewer steps. Ask the Tough Questions State and local governments, municipalities of all sizes, and the construction companies they hire have quite a task in front of them as the nation revamps its bridges, highways, and other key infrastructure assets. The more projects that receive the green light to proceed, the more laborers that will be needed. That means contractors will be searching for products that drive efficiency while improving workplace safety. The key for contractors is to ask the right questions when sourcing formwork, scaffolding, and other products. • Learn more about a supplier’s background. What kind of experience do they have manufacturing and delivering proven solutions to the

marketplace? How have those solutions been tested in a real-world scenario, and how have they performed? • How much does the manufacturer incorporate safeguards into their products? What product innovations have they engineered that increase workplace safety? How do these innovations mitigate the risk of falls or injuries on a jobsite such as a highway or a bridge? Take it a step further in the planning process. Ask the “What if...” question. Propose a hypothetical scenario to a product manufacturer, and see if they can offer a reasonable solution backed by engineering and product performance. Such due diligence can go a long way toward creating a safe working environment for the men and women charged with upgrading the bridges and roads traveled every day.

DAN STRAUB is Civil Segment Manager for PERI USA.


June 2023 csengineermag.com

Kings Cross Station became the largest railway station in Britain when it opened in 1852, and today, it remains one of England's most important historic buildings. The area surrounding the station has a deep history and, despite its decline following World War II, is once again a London hot spot. Over the last 15 years, the Kings Cross neighborhood has undergone an urban transformation. New residential apartments, offices and retail shops, built in and around the area's historical buildings, have drawn Londoners to a part of the city they used to avoid. Global engineering firm Arup has been heavily involved in the transformation of the historic neighborhood, most recently designing the structural elements for Kings Cross R8, two 13-story buildings that combine affordable housing with rental space for small businesses. Kings Cross R8 is adjacent to three brick tunnels that serve as the conduit for every train entering and leaving King's Cross Station. The tunnels were constructed in the 1700s and are sensitive to movement, requiring each design milestone for anything constructed within a certain proximity to the station to get approval by London's rail network operator. Taking time to complete the approval processes could have knocked the project off schedule, but Arup found a way to keep it moving using parametric modeling and BIM. Accelerating Design and Embodied Carbon Calculations Using the integration between Tekla Structures and Grasshopper, Arup could continue structural work at pace while design-milestone approvals were coordinated in parallel. "We had to produce a number of drawings for the network-rail approval process," said Gordon Clannachan, senior structural engineer and project lead at Arup. "Although these needed to be done at an earlier stage than we would typically do on projects, they allowed the client to fast-track the approvals process prior to the main contractor starting on-site." Parametric design, also called computational and algorithmic design, is guided by a set of interconnected variables, functions, and rules that generate or control the design output to a parametric BIM solution. Based on the parameters the engineer defines, the effects of any change to the design are automatically populated throughout the model. For Arup Uses Parametric Design and BIM to Keep Kings Cross R8 Project on Schedule By Steve Insley

example, Grasshopper takes the inputs, completes the calculations and produces an output that is applied to the Tekla Structures model. This gives engineers a tremendous productivity advantage by eliminating the time-consuming process of manually applying changes across the model. With parametric design at the heart of the project's workflows, Arup could push and pull data and geometry to and from Tekla Structures, improving the efficiency of everyday tasks. "Using Tekla to automate the model was essential for this work. As the design scheme evolved, we were able to respond very quickly," he says. The value of parametric design is perhaps most keenly felt during the structural analysis. With a manual workflow, determining the most efficient design is ordinarily an incredibly time-consuming process that involves manually changing each variable, running an analysis, noting the results and then repeating it an indefinite number of times. Incorporating parametric design into the workflow transforms this process. In the case of R8, Arup engineers created a script that automated the calculation of loads bearing down on the concrete columns and walls. This helped optimize the design and reduce the amount of concrete in the building's foundations. Arup also used the Tekla-Grasshopper integration to develop scripts for calculating the embodied carbon footprint of structural elements. Arup built the carbon factors into the Grasshopper script and parametrically linked the data. They then used Tekla Structures to create templates to export the embodied carbon of every element by material and various embodied-carbon stages. "We have a responsibility to take ownership of the embodied carbon in the structures we design and to use our influence to reduce the carbon impact of our projects," said Clannachan. "If you really want to influence carbon-related decisions, then you need to automate these calculations." The calculations were reported against targets set for 2030 and beyond. Bringing Technology, People, and Data Together Connecting the right people to the right data at the right time was essential for keeping the project on schedule. The architecture team,



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