CellCheck Newsletter October FINAL

October Edition 2018

CellCheck ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND NEWSLETTER Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health

www.AnimalHealthIreland.ie

PROGRAMME NEWS | 03

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR | 05 CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH |10

RESEARCH UPDATE | 12

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27

AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of Teagasc and all our stakeholders to the CellCheck programme.

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie

CELLCHECK PROGRAMME UPDATE

October News

Finola McCoy, Programme Manager

W elcome to the October edition of the CellCheck newsletter! Our Tip of the Month reminds us not to turn a blind eye to cows with high somatic cell counts (SCC) at this time of year. It’s not just ‘one of those things’…..it’s an indicator of infection! Remember that these cows have the potential to infect other cows, and are also having an impact on your bulk tank SCC and overall productivity. Read this month’s tip for some pointers about what to do with them. In some cases, drying them off early may be the best solution…..read our piece from this month’s guest contributor Padraig O’Connor of Teagasc, for a refresher on the steps involved in drying off cows well. Remember, a rushed job now can have negative consequences later, which are much harder to fix then. Our featured research article this month looks at drying off and dry period factors that can determine the rate of clinical mastitis at calving. And not surprisingly, a number of hygiene-related factors were significantly associated with an increased rate of clinical mastitis in early lactation! For a practical demonstration of these points, along with other topical issues, come along to the autumn series of CellCheck Dry Cow events. These events, delivered by Animal Health Ireland and Teagasc, in partnership with the local co-ops, are being delivered around the country in late October/early November. See below for details of dates and locations. Looking forward to seeing you all there!

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR

“In the next number of weeks, dairy farmers across the country will be turning their attention to the dry period. The dry period is an opportunity for cows to prepare for thenext lactation and also gives the mammary tissue a chance to repair.”

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CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH “While maximising

production and selling as much milk as possible may be a priority this autumn, turning a blind eye to animals with a high somatic cell count (SCC) could prove to be a very costly exercise.”

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

CELLCHECK ON-FARM EVENTS Teagasc | Animal Health Ireland

Get ready to maximise your herd’s full potential for 2019

1. What is the best way to dry off cows? 2. Is there a role for selective dry cow therapy? 3. Can you reduce the risk of mastitis for in-calf heifers? 4. How can you best look after your dry cows? What topics will be covered at these CellCheck Events ?

If you want to learn more about any of these topics, come along to one of the Animal Health Ireland/ Teagasc CellCheck Open Days. “ ” This series of CellCheck events is being run with the help and support of the local Co-op in each region.

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR Drying-off Cows

Padraig O’Connor, Teagasc and member of the CellCheck Technical Working Group

In the next number of weeks, dairy farmers across the country will be turning their attention to the dry period. The dry period is an opportunity for cows to prepare for the next lactation and also gives the mammary tissue a chance to repair.

One important aspect of the dry period is Dry Cow Therapy (DCT). This is the treatment of cows at the end of lactation with a long acting antibiotic and/or an internal teat sealer. Using DCT is one of the components of an effective mastitis control programme.

The steps taken by farmers when drying off cows can have a significant impact on mastitis levels during the dry period and also during the following lactation. It’s critical that the procedure is carried out correctly.

The purpose of DCT is to: • Treat any intra-mammary infections • Protect against new infections during the dry period.

The DCT product used on your farm will depend on what bacterial challenges you have had during the year and a discussion with your vet is key when deciding what product to use. The steps taken by farmers when drying off cows can have a significant impact on mastitis levels during the dry period and also during the following lactation. It’s critical that the procedure is carried out correctly. It is also essential that farmers prepare by allowing adequate time and labour when administering dry cow products to their herd and that staff are adequately trained.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR: DRYING-OFF COWS

Procedure

ITEMS REQUIRED

✓ Marker, ankle strap or tail tape. ✓ Milking apron/parlour suit and disposable nitrile gloves. ✓ Methylated/surgical spirits and cotton wool or disinfecting wipes. ✓ Dry cow intra-mammary tubes-antibiotic and/ or teat sealant. ✓ Head flash lamp. ✓ Recent Milk Recording. ✓ Record book/Animal Remedies Record. 1. Wear milking apron/parlour suit and nitrile disposable gloves. 2. Identify the cow and clearly mark with an ankle strap, tail tape or marker. 3. Milk out the cow completely. 4. Ensure that teats are clean and dry. 5. Completely disinfect the teat ends thoroughly with cotton wool and methylated/surgical spirits by vigorously rubbing the teat end opening for a minimum of 10 seconds. This step is critical. 6. Disinfect the teats furthest awayfirst followedby the teats nearest to you to prevent re-contamination. 7. Check the teat wipe – if there is a dirty colour, repeat the scrub using a new cotton ball until it is clear. 8. Treat the teats nearest you first followed by the more distant teats to prevent re-contaminating the teats. METHOD STEPS 1-8

Identify and mark the cows.

Disinfect teat ends thoroughly.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

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GUEST CONTRIBUTOR: DRYING-OFF COWS

METHOD STEPS 9-14 9. Keep the nozzle of the tube sterile to prevent introducing new infections into the teats and udder. 10. Insert the tip of the nozzle into the teat opening and squeeze the contents gently into the quarter - it is not necessary or recommended to insert the tube nozzle to its full depth as this may damage the teat end. 11. When the tube is emptied into the teat, massage the antibiotic up into the quarter. 12. Thoroughly spray or dip the teats with teat disinfectant after treatment.

Insert the tip of the nozzle into the teat.

13. Record the antibiotic used. 14. Make note of the following: • Cow number • Date • Product used • Withholding period.

Massage the antibiotic up into the quarter.

If teat sealer is being used in addition to the antibiotic, follow the same protocol as above except the teat sealer is not massaged into the quarter. Before squeezing the contents of the tube of sealer into the teat, use your free hand to close off the base of the teat, where it joins the udder. The teat sealer is then left in the teat. This acts as a physical barrier to bacterial infection of the cows teats and provides extra protection towards the end of the dry period and especially around calving time. The biggest risks of infection during the dry cow period are at the beginning and the end of the dry cow period.

Do not massage teat sealer into the quarter.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR: DRYING-OFF COWS

GENERAL POINTS AROUND DRYING-OFF

• Ensure cows tails are clipped prior to drying-off. • Dry-off cows as soon as their production reaches 9 litres per day.

• The use of a head flash lamp can increase the visibility when drying off cows. • Dry-off cows abruptly – do not skip days and preferably do not skip milkings. • Keep the number of cows to be treated to a manageable number i.e. 20 per person per day if using antibiotic only and 10 per person per day if using antibiotic and teat sealer. • If using teat sealer only on a portion of the herd, dry these off in a separate batch from cows getting antibiotic or antibiotics and teat sealer. • Ensure cows remain standing for the first 2 hours after DCT so as to allow sufficient time for the teat canal to close. • Ideally, cows that have been treated with DCT should be kept away from the sound of the milking machine to avoid the stimulus to let milk down. • Put cows in clean areas after treatment and maintain a clean environment during the dry cow period to avoid picking up new infections. • Do not use antibiotic DCT on cows that are going to be culled within the next 2-3 months to avoid unacceptable meat residues. • Don’t use DCT on quarters that were dried off during the previous lactation. • Observe cows on a daily basis during the dry cow period for signs of mastitis. • Check each cow that received antibiotic DCT has passed her minimum dry period when she calves, and withhold milk from the bulk tank for the period specified by the product. • Withholdmilk fromall cows from the bulk tank for at least 8milkings after calving to ensure that no colostrum or transition milk goes into the tank. This also prevents teat seal residues from entering the bulk tank.

CellCheck Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control

STAKEHOLDERS GOVERNMENT • DepartmentofAgriculture,Foodand theMarine PROCESSINGANDMARKETING • AIBP • ArrabawnCo-op • BordBia AnimalHealth Ireland isan industry-led,not-for-profit partnershipbetween livestock farmers,processors, serviceprovidersandgovernment. Ourgoal is to improve theprofitability, sustainabilityand competitivenessof livestock farmersand related industries through superior animalhealth.

Further information on DCT is available in CellCheck Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control

• CarberyGroup • ConnachtGold • Dairygold • DawnMeats • Glanbia • KepakGroup • KerryAgribusiness • LakelandDairies • TipperaryCo-op

• TownofMonaghanCo-op • WexfordMilkProducers FARMERS’ASSOCIATIONSAND LIVESTOCKMARTS • CorkCooperativeMarts Ltd • IrishCattleandSheepFarmers’Association (ICSA) • IrishCo-OperativeOrganisationSociety (ICOS) • IrishCreameryMilkSuppliers’Association (ICMSA) • IrishFarmers’Association (IFA) • MacranaFeirme BREEDSOCIETIES • IrishHolsteinFriesianAssociation • PedigreeCattleBreeders’Councilof Ireland SERVICEPROVIDERS • IrishCattleBreedingFederation (ICBF) • Teagasc • UniversityCollegeDublin • Veterinary Ireland

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12/7/2011 9:33:44PM

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR: DRYING-OFF COWS

Animal Health Ireland and Teagasc, supported by the local Dairy Co-ops have come together to run a number of Dry Cow Events across the country during October and November to prepare farmers for the upcoming dry period.

The topics being covered are: a) Dry cow management b) Is there a role for selective dry cow therapy? c) Drying-off procedure d) In-calf heifer management.

If you want to find out more on any of these topics I would encourage you to attend one of these workshops. (See side panel for more information).

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH High SCC cows? Don’t turn a blind eye! W hile maximising production and selling as much milk as possible may be a priority this autumn, turning a blind eye to animals with a high somatic cell count (SCC) could prove to be a very costly exercise. Cows with a high SCC have a subclinical infection- they are not producing milk to their full potential because this infection has damaged some of the mammary tissue. Feeding cows has already been a costly exercise on many farms this year-are you sure that all cows are giving you a return and not just costing you money? To make matters worse, high SCC cows are a constant source of infection in your herd! So how should you deal with them? 1. Knowwho the culprits are! [Click here] for previously published tips

Milk record the whole herd now- any cow with an SCC>200,000cells/mL is likely to have at least one infected quarter. While milk recording might be seen as an extra cost, it can be more expensive not to! If you are not milk recording, how will you know who the culprits are? You may suspect a few, but you will miss many more. Milk recording will also allow you to identify the most productive cows in terms of fat, protein and milk yields, and who are ‘paying their way’. 2. Minimise the spread of infection! After a high SCC cow is milked, the bacteria from the infected quarter can be detected on the liner of that cluster for up to 6 milkings. Thus, high SCC cows should be marked and milked last to minimise disease spread. If it is not possible to run them as a separate herd, hold them back and milk them as the last row. This will prevent them infecting other cows. Good hygiene during milking (of the cow, the milker and the parlour) and a good milking routine are also essential to prevent the spread of bacteria.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH

3. Deal with these problem cows now! Don’t ignore these high SCC cows-just because their infections may not be visible to the naked eye, this does not mean they are insignificant. In fact, these infections can have more of an impact on your herd than clinical infections as they can lurk for longer before being detected and dealt with. • Should you treat this infection? While thismaybea logical option, treatinghighSCCcows is not always appropriateor recommended. Remember that cure rates can range from 20-80% depending on various factors such as the bacteria involved, the duration of infection and the cow’s lactation number. Discuss a treatment plan for these cases with your vet. • Remove the source of infection instead - Drying off individual quarters will prevent the spread of infection, and the impact that these cows have on your bulk tank SCC. Use a CMT to identify the problemquarter and simply stopmilking it, do NOT use a dry cow tube. - Alternatively dry the cow off early, particularly if she is a candidate that would benefit from a longer dry period. Discuss an appropriate dry cow treatment with your vet. - Finally, sometimes you need to just cut your losses. Consider culling if the cow is a repeat offender i.e. high SCC in two consecutive lactations.

California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify infected quarter

For more information on controlling mastitis in late lactation and dealing with high SCC cows, see Guidelines 14 and 15, and Management Note M in the CellCheck Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

RESEARCH UPDATE J. Dairy Sci. 90:3764–3776 doi:10.3168/jds.2007-0107 © American Dairy Science Association, 2007.

Cow, Farm, and Management Factors During the Dry Period that Determine the Rate of Clinical Mastitis After Calving

M. J. Green,*†1 A. J. Bradley,‡ G. F. Medley,§ and W. J. Browne†

*School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom †School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom ‡Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS40 5DT, United Kingdom §Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT The purpose of the research was to investigate cow characteristics, farm facilities, and herd management strategies during the dry period to examine their joint influence on the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. Data were collected over a 2-yr period from 52 commercial dairy farms throughout England andWales. Cows were separated for analysis into those housed for the dry period (8,710 cow-dry periods) and those at pasture (9,964 cow-dry periods). Multilevel models were used within a Bayesian framework with 2 response variables, the occurrence of a first case of clinical mastitis within the first 30 d of lactation and time to the first case of clinical mastitis during lactation. A variety of cow and herd management factors were identified as being associated with an increased rate of clinical mastitis and these were found to occur throughout the dry period. Significant cow factors were increased parity and at least one somatic cell count ≥200,000 cells/mL in the 90 d before drying off. A number of management factors related to hygienewere significantly associatedwith an increased rate of clinical mastitis. These includedmeasures linked to the administration of dry cow treatments and management of the early and late dry-period accommodation and calving areas. Other farm factors associated with a reduced rate of clinical mastitis were vaccination with a leptospirosis vaccine, selection of dry-cow treatments for individual cows within a herd rather than for the herd as a whole, routine body condition scoring of cows at drying off, and a pasture rotation policy of grazing dry cows for a maximum of 2 wk before allowing the pasture to remain nongrazed for a period of 4 wk. Models demonstrated a good ability to predict the farm incidence rate of clinical mastitis in a given year, with model predictions explaining over 85% of the variability in the observed data. The research indicates that specific dry-period management strategies have an important influence on the rate of clinical mastitis during the next lactation.

Key words: mastitis, dry period, dairy cow, Bayesian multilevel model

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

CELLCHECK REGIONAL COORDINATORS

A Resource and Point of Contact for CellCheck Activities in your Area

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Tom Starr 087 6697010

Mícheal Guinan 086 3511852 micheal.guinan@aurivo.ie Mayo/Sligo Aurivo

tstarr@arrabawn.ie Tipperary/Limerick National Co-op

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John Fitzpatrick 086 0426567

John Murphy 066 7163200 john.murphy@kerry.ie Kerry/Clare Kerry Agribusiness

fitzpatrickj@glanbia.ie Kilkenny/Laois/Carlow/ Kildare/Dublin Glanbia

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Sinead Treanor streanor@carbery.com 023 8822369 West Cork Carbery Group

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Andrew O’Neill 086 1836505 aoneill@tipperary-coop.ie Tipperary Tipperary Co-Op

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Tom Downes 087 2564669

Denis Guiry 086 8098639 dguiry@dairygold.ie Cork/Tipperary/Limerick Dairygold

downest@lakeland.ie Longford/Monaghan Lakeland Dairies

Brendan Dillon 087 2626851 BrDillon@glanbia.ie

Cork/Waterford/ Wexford/Wicklow Glanbia

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | October Edition 2018

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