A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate learners of English
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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, NewYork. Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi,Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/englishgrammarinuse
Fourth Edition © Cambridge University Press 20 12
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
English Grammar in Use first published 1985 Fourth edition 20 12 Reprinted 2012
Printed in China by Golden Cup Printing Co. Ltd
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ISBN 978-0-521-18906-4 Edition with answers ISBN 978-0-521-18908-8 Edition without answers ISBN 978-0-521-18939-2 Edition with answers and CD-ROM ISBN 978-0-51 1-96173-1 Online access code pack ISBN 978-1-1 07-64138-9 Online access code pack and book with answers Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
Thanks VII To the student v111 To the teacher x
Present and past 1 Present continuous (I am doing) 2 Present simple (I do)
3 Present continuous and present simple 1 (1 am doing and I do) 4 Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do) 5 Past simple (I did) 6 Past continuous (I was doing)
Present perfect andpast 7 Present perfect 1 (I have done) 8 Present perfect 2 (I have done) 9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 10 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done) 11 How Long have you (been) ... ?
12 For and since When ... ? and How Long ... ? 13 Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did) 14 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) 15 Past perfect (I had done) 16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) 17 Have and have got 18 Used to (do) Future 19 Present tenses (I am doing I I do) for the future 20 (I'm) going to (do) 21 WiLL/shaLL 1 22 WiLL/shaLL 2 23 I wiLL and I'm going to 24 Will be doing and wiLL have done 25 When I do I When I've done When and if
fv1odals 26 Can, could and (be) able to 27 Could (do) and could have (done) 28 Must and can't
29 May and might 1 30 May and might 2 31 Have to and must 32 Must mustn't needn't
33 Should 1 34 Should 2 35 Had better lt's time ... 36 Would 37 Can/Could/Would you ... ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations)
. .. Ill
IFYOU ARE NOT SUREWHI CH UNITSYOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE O N PAGE 326.
If and wish 38 If I do ... and If I did ... 39 If I knew. .. Iwish I knew ... 40 If I had known .. . Iwish I had known ... 41 Wish
Passive 42 Passive 1 (is done I was done) 43 Passive 2 (be done I been done I being done) 44 Passive 3 45 lt is said that ... He is said to ... He is supposed to ... 46 Have something done
Reported speech 47 Reported speech 1 (He said that ... ) 48 Reported speech 2
Questions and auxiliary verbs 49 Questions 1
50 Questions 2 (Do you know where ... ? I He asked me where ...) 51 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so I I hope so etc. 52 Question tags (do you? isn't it? etc.) -ing and to ... 53 Verb+ -ing (enjoy doing I stop doing etc.) 54 Verb+ to ... (decide to ... I forget to ... etc.) 55 Verb(+ object)+ to ... (I want you to ... etc.) 56 Verb+ -ing or to ... 1 (remember/regret etc.) 57 Verb+ -ing or to ... 2 (try/need/help) 58 Verb+ -ing or to ... 3 (Like I would Like etc.) 59 Prefer and would rather 60 Preposition (in/for/about etc.)+ -ing 61 Be/ get used to something (I'm used to ... ) 62 Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing I accuse somebody of -ing etc.) 63 Expressions+ -ing 64 To ... , for ... and so that ... 65 Adjective+ to ... 66 To ... (afraid to do) and preposi tion+ -ing (afraid of -ing)
67 See somebody do and see somebody doing 68 -ing clauses (Feeling tired, Iwent to bed early.)
Articles and nouns 69 Countable and uncountable 1 70 Countable and uncountable 2 71 Countable nouns with a/an and some 72 A/an and the 73 The 1
74 The 2 (school I the school etc.) 75 The 3 (children I the children) 76 The 4 (the giraffe I the telephone I the piano etc., the + adjective)
77 Names with and without the 1 78 Names with and without the 2
IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WH ICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.
79 Singular and plural 80 Noun+ noun (a tennis ball I a headache) 81 -'s (your sister's name) and of ... (the name of the book) Pronouns and determiners 82 Myself/yourself/themselves etc. 83 A friend of mine My own house On my own I by myself 84 There ... and it ... 85 Some and any 86 No/none/any Nothing/ nobody etc. 87 Much, many, Little, few, a Lot, plenty 88 All I all of most I most of no I none of etc. 89 Both I both of neither I neither of either I either of 90 All, every and whole 91 Each and every Relative clauses 92 Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/that/ which 93 Relative clauses 2: clauses with and without who/ that/which 94 Relative clauses 3: whose/whom/where
95 Relative clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) 96 Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) 97 - ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)
Adjectives and adverbs 98 Adjectives ending in - ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.)
99 Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired 100 Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quickly) 101 Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/Late, hard/ hardly) 102 So and such 103 Enough and too 104 Quite, pretty, rather and fairly 105 Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.) 106 Comparison 2 (much better I any better I better and better I the sooner the better) 107 Comparison 3 (as ... as I than) 108 Superlat ives (the Longest, the most enjoyable etc. ) 109 Word order 1: verb+ object; place and time 110 Word order 2: adverbs with the verb 111 Still/ yet and already Any more I any Longer I no Longer 112 Even
Conjunctions and prepositions 113 Although I though I even though In spite of I despite 114 In case 115 Unless As Long as Provided/ providing 11 6 As (As Iwa lked a long the street ... I As Iwas hungry .. .) 117 like and as
118 Like I as if I as though 11 9 For, during and while 120 By and until By the time ...
IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHI CH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.
Prepositions 121 At/ on/ in (time) 122 On time and in time At the end and in the end 123 In/ at/on (position) 1 124 In/ at/ on (position) 2 125 In/ at/on (position) 3 126 To/ at/ in/into 127 In/ on/at (other uses) 128 By 129 Noun+ preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)
130 Adjective+ preposition 1 131 Adjective+ preposition 2 132 Verb+ preposition 1 133 Verb+ preposition 2 134 Verb+ preposition 3 135 Verb+ preposition 4 136 Verb+ preposition 5 Phrasal verbs 137 Phrasal verbs 1 General points 138 Phrasal verbs 2 in/ out 139 Phrasal verbs 3 out 140 Phrasal verbs 4 on/ off (1) 141 Phrasal verbs 5 on/off (2) 142 Phrasal verbs 6 up/ down 143 Phrasal verbs 7 up (1) 144 Phrasal verbs 8 up (2) 145 Phrasal verbs 9 away/ back
to and at
about/ for/ of/ after
about and of of/ for/from/on
Appendix 1 Regular and irregular verbs 292 Appendix 2 Present and past tenses 294 Appendix 3 The future 295
Appendix 4 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 296 Appendix 5 Short forms (I'm I you've I didn't etc.) 297 Appendix 6 Spelling 298 Appendix 7 American English 300
Additional exercises 302
Study guide 326
Key to Exercises 336 Key to Add itiona l exercises 368 Key to Study guide 372
IFYOU ARE NOT SUREWHI CH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.
This is the fourth edition of English Grammar in Use. I wrote the original edition when I was a teacher at the Swan School of English, Oxford . I would like to repeat my thanks to my colleagues and students at the school for their help, encouragement and interest at that time. Regard ing the production of this fourth edition, I am grateful to N6irfn Burke, Annabel Marriott, Matthew Duffy, Liz Driscoll, jane Walsh, jeanette Alfoldi and Kamae Design. I would like to thank Cambridge University Press for permission to access the Cambridge International Corpus. Thank you also to the following illustrators: Humberto Blanco, Paul Fellows, Sophie Joyce, Katie Mac, lan Mitchell, Gillian Martin, Sandy Nicholls, Roger Penwill, Lisa Smith, Dave Whamond and Simon Williams.
This book is for students who want help with English grammar. lt is wri tten for you to use without a teacher. The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers to questions like these: 0 What is the difference between Idid and Ihave done? 0 When do we use will for the future? 0 What is the structure after Iwish? 0 When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing? U When do we use the? 0 What is the difference between like and as? These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each po int. Level The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). lt concentrates on those structures which intermediate students want to use, but which often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful. The book is not suitable for elementary learners. How the book is organised There are 145 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of the) are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book. Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is a Key for you to check your answers to the exercises (page 336). There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book (pages 292-301). These include irregular How to use the book The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to end. Every learner has different problems and you shou ld use this book to help you with the grammar that you find difficult. lt is suggested that you work in this way: 0 Use the Contents and/or Index to find which unit deals with t he point you are interested in. C If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 326. ........ Study the explanations and examples on the left-hand page of the unit you have chosen. L Do the exercises on the right-hand page. Cl Check your answers with the Key. C) If your answers are not cor rect, study the left- hand page aga in to see what went wrong. You can of course use the book simply as a reference book without doing the exercises. verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling and American English. Finally, there is a detailed Index at the back of the book (page 373).
Additional exercises At the back of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 302-325). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different un its. For example, Exercise 16 brings together grammar points from Units 26- 36. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have studied and practised the grammar in the units concerned.
English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book, but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary. The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper-intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practising new structures. lt w ill also be useful for some more advanced students who have problems with grammar and need a book for reference and practice. The book is not intended to be used by elementary learners. The units are organised in grammatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning to end. lt should be used selectively and flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used and the difficulties students are having. The book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or remedial work. lt might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The left-hand pages (explanations and examples) are written for the student to use individually, but they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas and information on which to base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught and can refer to it in the future. The exercises can be done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed to study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class. Don't forget the Additional exercises at the back of the book (see To the student) . This fourth edition of English Grammar in Use has been revised and updated. There are no new units, but some of the exercises have been rewritten or replaced. An edition of English Grammar in Use without the Key is available. Some teachers may prefer this for use with their students. An on line version of English Grammar in Use is also available.
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