CellCheck Newsletter December FINAL

December Edition 2018

CellCheck ANIMAL HEALTH IRELAND NEWSLETTER Contributing to a profitable and sustainable farming and agri-food sector through improved animal health

www.AnimalHealthIreland.ie

PROGRAMME NEWS | 03

GUEST CONTRIBUTOR | 13 CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH | 18 RESEARCH UPDATE | 20

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41 WN27

AHI gratefully acknowledges the financial and other contributions of Teagasc and all our stakeholders to the CellCheck programme.

NATIONAL MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME Animal Health Ireland, 4-5 The Archways, Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim, N41WN27

CellCheck AnimalHealthIreland.ie

CELLCHECK PROGRAMME NEWS

December News

Finola McCoy, Programme Manager

W elcome to the December issue of the CellCheck newsletter. In this issue, we bring you George Ramsbottom, Dairy Specialist with Teagasc as our guest contributor. George looks at the importance of the dry period, managing dry cows well and how to provide optimum nutrition. This will be very relevant for some farmers, whose winter feed may be somewhat depleted following the challenging year to date. The monthly tip also looks at how managing the housing environment for heifers and dry cows can greatly influence the risk of newmastitis infections. Our featured research article explores and quantifies the association between udder and leg hygiene, and the incidence of mastitis. This study showed that cows with poorer udder/leg hygiene were 1.5 times more likely to have major pathogens isolated from milk samples compared with cows with good hygiene scores. This month we also report on the recent CellCheck Milking For Quality Awards event, which was held in the Lyrath Hotel in Kilkenny. This was a wonderful occasion, acknowledging the 500 suppliers in the country with the lowest somatic cell counts for the last full production year. As always, the standard was exceptional and ever-improving, with all 500 individual winners this year having an annual average SCC of 72,000 cells/mL or less! This year, for the first time, we also had a discussion group category, with two competitions-lowest SCC and best improved discussion group.

Some of the award winners with representatives from the Coops, FBD and AHI

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

CELLCHECK MILKING FOR QUALITY AWARDS

CFS Discussion Group, winners of the Most Improved SCC in the Discussion Group Category with George Ramsbottom Teagasc, Finola McCoy AHI, Kevin Downing ICBF (Judges) and Liam Herlihy, FBD

Pasture Apprentices Discussion Group, winners of the Best SCC in the Discussion Group Category with George Ramsbottom Teagasc, Finola McCoy AHI, Kevin Downing ICBF (Judges), Liam Herlihy and John Cahalan from FBD and David Graham AHI

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Jerry Ryan of Arrabawn Coop collecting the award on behalf of Dermot Healy with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Micheal Guinan collecting the award on behalf of Mel and Ger Brennan with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Leigh-Ann Tobin (Bandon Coop), Eibhlin Kiely with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Jerry Keohane, Carmel Keohane, David Walsh (Barryroe Coop) with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Eoin O’Riordan, Mary O’Riordan, Declan O’Keeffe (Boherbue Coop) with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Sean Bogue, Caroline Bogue, Liam Ryan (Callan Coop) with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Martin, Jim Russell (Centenary Thurles), John Cahalan, Caroyln O’Hara (FBD), Dan Lane, with Finola McCoy, David Graham (AHI)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Eileen Hannon, David Hannon with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Denis O’Brien, Darren Lynch (Drinagh Coop) with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Shane McElroy (Glanbia Ireland), Edmond Walsh with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Patrick O’Neill, Breda O’Neill, Liam Herlihy (FBD) with John Murphy (Kerry Agribusiness)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Paul Crosson (LacPatrick), Mary McCarville, Patsy McCarville with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Tom Sutton of Lisavaird Coop collecting the award on behalf of Finbarr O’Neill with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), Thomas Butterly, Olivia Butterly, Alo Duffy (Lakeland Dairies) with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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Individual winners from each of the Coops for best SCC

John Cahalan (FBD), Finola McCoy (AHI), John G. Crowe, John Crowe, Willie Ryan (Tipperary Coop), Charlotte Crowe with Liam Herlihy (FBD)

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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GUEST CONTRIBUTOR

MANAGING COWS AT DRYING-OFF

George Ramsbottom, Dairy Specialist, Teagasc, Oakpark, Carlow and member of the CellCheck Technical Working Group

Why bother with a dry period? Continuously milked cows produce between 20 and 25% less milk in the subsequent lactation than cows that

received an adequate dry period. A dry period is recommended for three reasons: 1. To replenish body reserves (allowing cows to build up for the next lactation); 2. To regenerate mammary tissue; 3. To optimise the benefits of hormonal changes that occur around the time of calving.

A dry period of approximately 60 days is recommended for spring calving cows. A longer dry period is normally required by first calvers and cows in poor condition (<2.75) at dry-off to ensure that they calve at the optimal condition score for the following lactation. Dry-cow treatment The cow’s udder is particularly susceptible to new udder infections during the early and late dry periods. The level of hygiene when cows are dried off and in the time afterwards influences the rate of new infections acquired in the weeks just after drying-off occurs. Drying-off the dairy cow should be an abrupt process. Once-a-day milking will result in an almost immediate doubling of SCC and may increase the incidence of clinical mastitis and thus is not recommended. The period of greatest risk of mastitis is during the 7-14 day period immediately following dry-off. Managing the cow after drying-off • Move the cows to a dry clean paddock after teat sealant or antibiotic dry-cow tube administration and maintain them on a maintenance ration for approximately one week to speed up the drying-off process. • Ideally cows should be kept on clean pasture rather than housed immediately, to help reduce the risk of new infection in the early dry-off period. • Check dry cows visually at least once daily after drying-off.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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MANAGING COWS AT DRYING-OFF

Managing dry cows with an infection Occasionally dry cows will acquire an intramammary infection during the early dry period: • Treat clinically infected quarters with a full course of lactation tubes – do not milk out uninfected quarters; • Record the cow ID and date of antibiotic administration; • Milk out the infected quarter twice daily during the course of treatment; • Infuse a dry-cow tube in the affected quarter afterwards and return the affected animal to the dry-cow group. Consult with your veterinary practitioner about the correct withholding period for retreated cows. Managing cows after housing • Keep housing clean to reduce the bacterial challenge at the teat end.

Drying-off the dairy cow should be an abrupt process. Once-a-day milk- ing will result in an almost immediate doubling of SCC and may increase the incidence of clinical mastitis and thus is not recommended. The period of great- est risk of mastitis is during the 7-14 day period immediately following dry-off.

- Mastitis infections occur because bacteria enter through the teat canal into the quarter and establish an infection. Bacteria such as E. coli and Strep. uberis , which survive in the cow’s environment, can cause severe cases of mastitis. Keeping cows in a clean environment will reduce the number of these bacteria that the cow and her teats are exposed to. - Scrape cubicle passages frequently particularly in the early and late dry period as these are the times of greatest risk of cows acquiring new infections. - Clean off and lime cubicle beds at least twice daily to keep bacterial levels low and reduce the risk of new infections occurring. • Make sure housing is dry as it is more difficult for bacteria to survive and multiply under such conditions. So in addition to liming, good ventilation is important in keeping humidity and thus moisture levels low in cubicle houses. In straw bedded sheds, if your knees are wet after kneeling down, then the bed is damp.

• If cubicles are comfortable, cows will use them more often and udders and teats will stay cleaner – ensure that the cubicle number is appropriate for the number of cows (ideally 10% more cubicles than cows to allow for normal cow movement and behaviour) and that the cubicles are properly sized with a suitable lunging space.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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MANAGING COWS AT DRYING-OFF

Nutrition during the dry period The optimum condition score for spring calving cows delivering yields of 400-500 kg milk solids per lactation is 3.25. For cows with greater milk volume potential – with the potential to yield in excess of 30 litres per day at peak, a lower condition score of 2.75 – 3.0 is recommended to ensure that excessive body condition score loss is avoided in the subsequent lactation.

2.5 2.75 3.0 3.25 3.5 3.75 4.0 OPTIMAL LOW MILK YIELD ANOESTRUS MILK FEVER KETOSIS Body Condition Score at Calving

The energy requirement of the dry-cow increases in later pregnancy. The UFL requirements and potential dry matter intakes in late pregnancy are detailed in the following table.

Month of gestation UFL (Maint. + Preg.) Condition score gain 1 + 0.5 + 0.25 Dry matter intake (kg)

7 th

8 th

9 th

6.5

7.5

8.0

+2.2 +1.0

+1.8 +1.0

- -

12

11

10

1 Assumes an 11 week dry period.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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MANAGING COWS AT DRYING-OFF

The following table shows the recommended forage and supplementation management during an 8-week dry period for cows on all grass silage diets of differing qualities and at different body condition scores at dry-off.

BCS at drying-off

Silage DMD (UFL)

<2.5

2.5

2.75

3.0+

Silage 1kg conc Silage 2kg conc Silage 3kg conc

Restrict Silage

Restrict Silage Restrict Silage

>72 (0.81)

Silage

Silage 1kg conc Silage 2kg conc.

68-72 (0.78)

Silage

Silage 1kg conc

<68 (0.76)

Silage

Previous research at Teagasc Moorepark and elsewhere has shown that dry cows can perform equally well on high straw diets and 100% grass silage diets where UFL (a measure of the energy content of the diet) and PDI (a measure of the protein intake) contents are similar. The following diets can be used for a 10 week dry period where grass silage is in short supply.

Diet

Silage + straw Silage + hay

Straw + silage

Grass silage kg DM (67% DMD)

6.0 3.0

6.0

3.0 4.0

Chopped Straw kg DM

-

Hay kg DM

- -

3.5

-

Hulls/beet pulp/palm kernel extract (Kg)

-

3.0

Maize Gluten/Distillers (kg)

2.0 2.0

2.0 1.0

-

Barley/Maize (kg)

1.5 1.0

Soya (kg)

-

-

UFL (per cow per day) PDI (per cow per day)

8.2

8.5

8.8

825

850

870

Silage saving (T fresh weight/cow 2 )

2.25

2.20

3.25

2 Assumes 20% dry matter silage equivalent.

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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MANAGING COWS AT DRYING-OFF

Ideally these diets are more suitable for cows in ‘good’ body condition than those needing a large (>0.25) increase in condition over the dry period. • Use soya bean meal to meet PDI requirements when feeding more than 4 kg of straw or hay per cow per day. • Use high-fibre straights (pulps or palm kernel) for feeding on limited forage diets. Dry-cow minerals A specification for a pre-calving mineral for the dry-cow is presented in the following table.

Daily allowance of mineral mix

100 g/head/day

g/kg mix

Calcium

0 7

Phosphorus Magnesium

25

Sodium

13 mg/kg mix

Zn Cu

5,000 4,500 4,150

Mn

I

600 100

Co

Se

50 IU/kg mix

Vitamin A

400,000

Vitamin D3

80,000

Vitamin E

3,000

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH Preventing spring infections start now!

[Click here] for previously published tips

I f cows present withmastitis in early lactation, we often look to the calving environment for the reasons why. However, research tells us that in many cases the bacteria causing these infections manage to get into the udder, not just around the time of calving, but even earlier during the dry period. As cows are being dried off, and as housing for the winter starts in many parts of the country, remember that the housing conditions for these dry cows can influence the incidence of new mastitis infections next spring. Mastitis occurs because bacteria get into the udder through the teat end. When cows are housed, their exposure to mastitis-causing bacteria in the environment such as E. coli and Strep. uberis , will be higher. Plan ahead, and reduce the risk of mastitis problems in your cows and in-calf heifers this spring.

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

CELLCHECK TIP OF THE MONTH

TIP

Reduce the risk of mastitis by making sure housing is CLEAN, DRY and COMFORTABLE

1. CLEANER houses = cleaner udders = less bacteria at the teat ends • Scrape passageways, cubicles and yards at least twice a day, or run automatic scrapers at least 6 – 8 times daily • Don’t forget, cubicle mats and bedding should be clean! • In straw-bedded houses, bedding should be refreshed daily 2. DRY housing makes it harder for bacteria to grow • Good ventilation is essential • Liming of cubicles (twice daily) will help keep them dry • Make sure straw bedding isn’t damp. Wet knees after kneeling on it means it’s damp! 3. COMFORTABLE cubicles=cows will use them more=cleaner udders and teats • Don’t overstock cubicle housing this winter-aim to have 10% more cubicles than cows

Don’t forget about your in-calf heifers! Good environmental conditions now are just as important as when they join the main herd.

TIP

For more information, see CellCheck Farm Guidelines 1 & 16, and Management Note L

CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

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RESEARCH UPDATE J. Dairy Sci. 86:3460–3465 © American Dairy Science Association, 2003.

Relationship Between Udder and Leg Hygiene Scores and Subclinical Mastitis

D. A. Schreiner 1 and P. L. Ruegg

Department of Dairy Science University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706 1 Present address: University of Wisconsin, Cooperative Extension, Green Lake Courthouse, 492 Hill St., Green Lake, WI 54941.

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between udder and leg hygiene scores of lactating dairy cattle and measures of subclinical mastitis. Study animals (n = 1250) consisted of lactating dairycows from eight commercial dairy farms. Herds were enrolled during December 2000 and January 2001 and were visited bimonthly for a total of five visits per herd. Udder and leg hygiene scores were recorded by one person using a four-point scale ranging from one (very clean) to four (very dirty). Udder and leg hygiene scores were compared to bacteriological cultures of milk samples and monthly individual SCC values. Mean hygiene scores were 2.09 and 2.33 for udders and legs, respectively. Udder hygiene scores (UHS) were significantly associatedwith leg hygiene scores and varied among farms. Linear somatic cell scores increased as udder hygiene score increased. Significant differences in somatic cell scores were observed for all contrasts of udder hygiene score, except between scores of 1 and 2 and of 3 and 4. Linear somatic cell scores were associated with leg hygiene scores, but the only significant contrast was between leg hygiene scores of 2 and 4. There was a significant association between the prevalence of intramammary contagious pathogens and udder hygiene score. The prevalence of intramammary environmental pathogens was significantly associated with udder hygiene score and was 7.7, 10.0, 10.6, and 13.5% for UHS of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The prevalence of environmental pathogens was not associated with LHS. Cows with udder hygiene scores of 3 and 4 were 1.5 times more likely to have major pathogens isolated from milk samples compared with cows with hygiene scores of 1 and 2.

Key words: mastitis, milk quality, somatic cell count, udder hygiene)

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CELLCHECK NEWSLETTER | December Edition 2018

CELLCHECK REGIONAL COORDINATORS

A Resource and Point of Contact for CellCheck Activities in your Area

6

1

Tom Starr 087 6697010

Mícheal Guinan 086 3511852 micheal.guinan@aurivo.ie Mayo/Sligo Aurivo

tstarr@arrabawn.ie Tipperary/Limerick National Co-op

7

2

4

1

John Fitzpatrick 086 0426567

John Murphy 066 7163200 john.murphy@kerry.ie Kerry/Clare Kerry Agribusiness

fitzpatrickj@glanbia.ie Kilkenny/Laois/Carlow/ Kildare/Dublin Glanbia

3

7

8

6

8

6

5

Sinead Treanor streanor@carbery.com 023 8822369 West Cork Carbery Group

9

Andrew O’Neill 086 1836505 aoneill@tipperary-coop.ie Tipperary Tipperary Co-Op

2

3

4

9

5

Tom Downes 087 2564669

Denis Guiry 086 8098639 dguiry@dairygold.ie Cork/Tipperary/Limerick Dairygold

downest@lakeland.ie Longford/Monaghan Lakeland Dairies

Brendan Dillon 087 2626851 BrDillon@glanbia.ie

Cork/Waterford/ Wexford/Wicklow Glanbia

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