March 2019 In Dance

Published by Dancers' Group, In Dance is discourse and dialogue to unify, strengthen, and amplify.

Mar 2019

Rasika Kumar, part of When Eyes Speak: Indian Choreography Festival, Mar 21-24 photo by Studio Sree

After completing an online test, the results listed my major personality trait as a diplomat. What a fancy title! And, of course, I embrace this diplomat moniker: a descriptor that makes sense to me given my passion for talking about and connecting people to all forms of dance. When I’m asked to speak about our field, I often say that dance is one of the simplest and most complex words. This dichotomy comes from the fact that each of us brings individualis- tic ideas of dancing and dancers. These ideas will include desires, visions and even biases about dance. My defini- tion of dance has evolved to encompass all types of move- ment—from set choreography to improvised ideas—that illuminate moments in time. Stillness is a dance—stillness as a dance. Given the vast and expansive range of movement based practices—including what dance might become— are dreams of promoting the endless forms of the moving body an impossible task? Probably, and yet aspirations of expanding access to new expressive endeavors means tack- ling the improbable and impossible; starting somewhere, even if it might be viewed as insurmountable. It’s imperative to diplomatically defend the right for dance’s expansion so that expansive ideas thrive. Then there is the seemingly simple task of making a sin- gle dance. For some, creation can be overwhelming and too much to undertake; especially when factoring in the myriad costs it takes to place desired intentions in front of an audi- ence. Thankfully, dances continue to be dreamed of, fash- ioned from loving and intensely focused hours of work, Welcome by Wayne Hazzard, Executive Director

and then placed in settings that that allow us to experience movement ideas that will be collectively interpreted, and valued, and, yes, sometimes even dismissed. As an introduction to the hundreds of opportunities to attend an event this month, we highlight a company mark- ing their 70th anniversary ( The Salimpour School ), bring attention to a festival that promotes exploration of story and feminism ( When Eyes Speak: Indian Choreography Festival ) and feature articles on exciting endeavors ( Somatic Costuming along with the Slay Your Dance Dragons Move- ment Confidence and Afro-Fusion Mindset Transformation Workshop ). While each piece informs a specific aspect of dance, they all speak to an expansive community of move- ment-makers and their eager fans. Included in this issue is Sima Belmar’s regular In Practice forum, which has taken a wonderfully wicked new format. Belmar takes to task former New York Times dance critic Alastair Macauley’s farewell article (he retired this past summer) that brings home the point of how complex it is to cover dance. In Macauley’s case, this coverage, aka criti- cism, reinforced his bias for the work of white men, and promotion of a Eurocentric view of dance. And yet, dur- ing his tenure at the Times there were exceptions. In 2015, Macauley traveled to SF and stated in a review that, “I know of no regular event that more effectively, more mov- ingly, recommends this country’s diverse inclusiveness than the annual San Francisco Festival of Ethnic Dance.” Embrace your dance desires while finding your inner diplomat!

Vishwa Shanthi Performing Arts, Mar 2, photo by RJ Muna

Mark Foehringer Dance Project, Mar 22-23, photo by Matt Haber

by Abigail Keyes The Salimpour School at 70: Belly Dance for the 21st Century

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outer legs. It worked, and as a girl Suhaila studied a variety of dance classes: ballet, jazz, tap, modern, Polynesian, Kathak, Flamenco, and more. And she noticed that her instructors often used anatomical and muscular means of describing movements. By the time she was eight, Suhaila started doing the same for belly dance movements for her moth- er’s students. In the late 1970s, music from the Middle East changed from small five-to-seven musi- cian ensembles, to 30-40 person orchestras, with dynamic rhyth- mic changes and breaks. And belly dance is inextricably linked to the music to which the dancer performed, so Suhaila, now in high school, wanted to change her approach to dancing with it. She integrated jazz footwork into her belly dance choreogra- phies, and she wanted to vibrate her hips while descending into a front split for a new composition. She realized that to do so, she’d have to strengthen her gluteus muscles. So she sat on the floor in straddle sit, isolating her glutes in time to Prince’s album Purple Rain. This would not only change her own dancing, but was the start of a technique revolution in belly dance. In 1981, using this new

Surrounded by myths , misconcep- tions, and sometimes maligned, belly dance as we think of it today—with two-piece costumes baring the midriff, presented in restaurants and renaissance faires—is actually quite young. While solo dancers from the Middle East appeared in the United States as early as the late 19th century, it wasn’t until the 1950s and 60s—when a growing American middle class sought exotic nights out on the town at Middle Eastern themed nightclubs or Tiki-themed par- ties—that belly dance became a popular phenomenon with classes, performances, and schools around the United States and eventually, the world. Its spread throughout North America over the past century can be traced to a handful of innovators, one of which being the Bay Area’s own Salimpour family, beginning with the late Jamila Salimpour and contin- ued by her daughter, Suhaila Salimpour, who now runs the Salimpour School of Dance in Berkeley. This year, the Salimpour School of Dance celebrates 70 years. With its codified lan- guage for movements as well as a standardized—yet flexible— syllabus as part of its tiered

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(top) Suhaila Salimpour / photo courtesy of Salimpour School; (bottom) Salimpour School / photo by Guillaume Dedeurwaerder

Standards and Steps Belly dance in the United States is an amalga- mation of regional styles, primarily derived from the movements and music centered in Cairo, Egypt; but famous dancers from North Africa, Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, and the Arabian Gulf states have also shaped and informed its development. And since at least the 1960s belly dancers—both in the Middle East and the diaspora—have argued the per- ils and pitfalls of developing a standardized terminology for the steps and movements. Some say that it would inhibit personal cre- ativity and expression, while others advocate that common language would facilitate com- munication between instructors, students, and choreographers. Jamila Salimpour was not concerned about what others might think of how she organized steps, giving each a name, and separating related movements into “fami- lies.” She wanted to make sense of it for herself, passing this knowledge on to her students. For example, movements used by the 1940s Cairo cinema stars that use a forward-and-back twist of hips are part of the “Egyptian Family,” while the more shuf- fling steps common at family parties are known as the “Arabic Family.” Some of the steps themselves reflect their origins, such as the “Algerian Shimmy,” or the dancers who performed them, such as “Maya,”“Samiha,” and “Ahmed Shimmy.” Never before had belly dance had such a system for naming steps, and Jamila’s lan- guage for belly dance movements spread across the world as her students moved away from the Bay Area, to the East Coast, Canada, Europe, and the Middle East. Even dancers who have never studied at the Salim- pour School are likely using names for steps that Jamila coined in the 1960s and 70s. The Second Generation Suhaila Salimpour grew up at her mother’s side, imitating her belly dance movements, watching her mother’s students perform, and performing in Bal Anat. But she was born pigeon-toed, and instead of keeping her in Forrest Gump-style leg braces, her mother put her in ballet classes to strengthen her

hybrid approach, Suhaila and her mother co- choreographed Joumana. which was selected for the 1983 San Francisco Ethnic Dance Festival. Suhaila was the first belly dancer to appear at the event, and was selected for the two following years as well. When other belly dancers saw Suhaila’s new work, they wanted to know how they could do it too. Training a Global Movement Jamila wanted to “raise the level of the dance.” She wanted to impart an ethos of serious study, hoping to prove that the form was worthy of dedication and discipline. In the 1960s and 70s, a dancer needed only be young and attractive to be hired to work at a nightclub, with technique and experience being less important. It was Jamila’s dream to certify her dancers to teach her format. And while she never did, the idea stuck in Suhai- la’s mind, even as she built her own career as a nightclub dancer, touring throughout the Arab world in her teens and 20s. She returned to the US in the mid-1990s, and building on her mother’s wish for a standardized training, as well as the grow- ing interest in her technique, created the Suhaila Format certification program in the late 1990s. She refined her mother’s nomen- clature, developing a standardized language for hip and torso articulations. The pro- gram includes 5 levels, from introduction to a teaching certification that requires at least 1000 hours of study. She also created a pro- gressive, tiered education program, where students are tested in order to move up into the next level, much like contemporary mar- tial arts programs. Ever since she was a teenager, Suhaila toured the world teaching master classes and workshops. And in the early 2000s, she realized she needed to offer training tools to her growing long-distance student body. Today, in this age of YouTube and Pow- How, we can almost take online classes for granted, but in 2008, the technology was still quite young. So Suhaila set up eight cameras in her studio, filming classes live as she and her staff instructors taught, offering

certification program, the Salimpour method imbues in its students a dedication and edu- cation akin to a college-level degree. Danc- ers who study at the Salimpour School learn more than just movement; they study cul- tural context, history, music theory, method acting, and dance composition. In the Beginning Jamila Salimpour was born Giuseppina Carmela Burzi to a Greek and Sicilian fam- ily in New York in 1926. She grew up in Harlem, not speaking English until she was five. At 16 she joined the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, and after over a year of touring, moved to Los Angeles in the mid-1940s. While her father had shown her some of the movements he had seen performed by professional dancers in North Africa while stationed there with the Sicilian Navy, Giuseppina learned what she called “La Danse Orientale” from Egyptian films, which featured musical scenes with the latest Cairene dancing and singing stars, as well as local community parties and celebrations. When she moved to San Francisco in the 1950s, she bought and managed a Middle Eastern nightclub in North Beach, The Bag- dad Cabaret. After she married Ardeshir Salimpour, a Persian drummer, he threatened to break both her legs if she ever stepped foot in a nightclub again. But she continued to teach, the Persian Salimpour family turn- ing a blind eye, because belly dance was a booming business amongst young counter- culture kids in the Bay Area, and Giusep- pina—now known as “Jamila,” Arabic for “beautiful”—had become one of the most sought-after teachers on the West Coast. In 1968, an opportunity to produce a fam- ily-friendly show for the new Northern Cali- fornia Renaissance Pleasure Faire emerged, and Jamila gathered all the available knowl- edge she could of Middle Eastern regional dances to form Bal Anat. She based her com- pany on research but also fantasy, using her experience in the circus and the nightclubs. On the weekends of the Faire, she and her daughter Suhaila, only two years old at the time, snuck out of the house to perform at the Faire.

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On this Page / The Salimpour School at 70 by Abigail Keyes 3 / Looking Ahead to the Indian Choreography Festival by Heather Desaulniers 4 / Do You Know? Alicia Langlais 6 / March Performance Calendar 9 / Somatic Costumes by Sally E. Dean 10 / In Practice: in conversation with Preethi Ramaprasad

Later Alastair Macauley by Sima Belmar

Continued on pg 5 »

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44 Gough Street, Suite 201

by Heather Desaulniers in conversation with Preethi Ramaprasad Looking Ahead to the Indian Choreography Festival

Each of the five senses conjures a particular part of the body. For hearing, the ears; for touch, the skin; and so on. But the senses also draw from complementary sources, like the nose in the perception of taste, or visual cues in hearing. And these parts communicate with a richness beyond their basic function. Think for a moment about the eyes. What other powers and faculties, beyond sight, do they possess? This March, head to the second annual When Eyes Speak: Indian Choreography Festival and experience the eyes as storytell- ers. See how in classical and contemporary Indian dance, the eyes relay narrative themes, reveal emotional nuance and draw viewers in with a subtle glance or a piercing gaze. “For me, the eyes are what set Indian dance apart from other genres,” explains festival founder and curator Preethi Ramaprasad, “there’s a very famous mantra that I think really reflects their incredible importance – ‘where the hands are, goes the gaze; where the eyes are, goes the mind; where the mind goes, there is an expression of inner feeling ( bhava ); and where there is bhava, a mood or sentiment is evoked’.”With the upcoming edition of the festival, Ramaprasad and her co-organizers/collaborators Shruti Abhishek and Sri Thina Subramaniam hope to embody this mantra, to share the depth and breadth of Indian dance with San Francisco audi- ences and to call attention to its finer attri- butes and intricacies. A recent transplant from Boston, Ramaprasad is fairly new to the San Fran- cisco Bay Area, but when it comes to Indian classical dance, she is a seasoned veteran. For close to twenty-five years, she has been pursuing Bharatanatyam, one of the genre’s main traditions. “Bharatanatyam originated in Tamil Nadu, the South Eastern state of India, and is known for its balance of vir- tuosic movement and expressiveness,” she describes, “with pre-colonial roots in temple ritual and a storied past, Bharatanatyam was brought to the proscenium stage in the 20th century.” Ramaprasad grew up in New Jersey, and throughout childhood and youth made regular summer pilgrimages to the Southern Coast of India for Bharatanatyam intensives with her guru, Professor Sudharani Raghupa- thy. Her quest for mastery of the form con- tinued into adulthood and recent years have been spent traveling the US, Europe and India as a Bharatanatyam practitioner, teacher and performer. Ramaprasad has even taken her beloved dance into the academic arena. It was the focus of her undergraduate thesis

Preethi Ramaprasad, Shruti Abishek, and Sri Thina Subramaniam / photo by Nitish Adla

together with the goal of bringing this dance into the city, pitching in and taking owner- ship of the festival,” she remembers. Program A paired the Atlanta-based Bharatanatyam duo of Puneet and Taniya Panda with a work by Vidhya Subramanian, a renowned senior Bharatanatyam dancer who regularly per- forms in India; while Program B featured a solo by festival co-organizer Sri Thina Sub- ramanian alongside an ensemble work from local gem Nava Dance Theatre. “With my objective being to showcase and celebrate a wide swath of Indian classical dance, it was important to me that the programs were dif- ferent each night, and that there was the chance for a Q&A after each performance so "We like the theaters to be intimate, it really allows the audience to experience the subtleties in the dance, like the movement of the eyes." — Preethi Ramaprasad that audiences could ask questions and learn more about the form,” Ramaprasad adds. Just over a year later, Ramaprasad, Abhishek and Subramaniam are busy ready- ing 2019’s festival, which has expanded sig- nificantly from its inaugural event. Part of the reason for the growth is that the festival is now working with a slightly larger operat- ing budget after receiving grants from both the Zellerbach Family Foundation and the American Conservatory Theatre (ACT). The run has doubled in length from two days to four, and the program has similarly followed. “This year, there are four unique programs with local, national and international pres- ences,” notes Ramaprasad, “we have Rasika Kumar with Abhinaya Dance Company from San Jose, California artist Arun Mathai, Vaib- hav Arekar from Mumbai, Umesh Shetty from Malaysia and New York-based Preeti Vasudevan, whose work links Indian and con- temporary dance together.”Another change

at Rutgers University and just this year, she began yet another leg of inquiry and explora- tion as a first-year PhD candidate in Critical Dance Studies at UC Riverside. In addition to starting her graduate stud- ies, Ramaprasad was also keen, upon arriv- ing in San Francisco, to immerse herself in the local dance ecosystem and see what was happening in the area’s Bharatanatyam scene. And she was somewhat surprised by what she discovered. “The South Bay and East Bay seemed to offer so many opportu- nities for those who practice Bharatanatyam and other styles of Indian dance, but I was noticing a real void or absence in San Fran- cisco itself,” Ramaprasad recalls. And this wasn’t simply an observation; she felt a call. She wanted to do something to change the dance landscape; to bring more visibility to Indian dance in the city. So began some larger conversations, particularly with Joe Landini, Executive Director of SAFEhouse Arts. “While I was part of the Resident Art- ist Workshop program at SAFEhouse as a LEAD artist [an additional residency track within the RAW platform], the idea emerged that a larger event of Indian

is that some of these works will feature live accompaniment this year, including musi- cian Ananya Ashok as part of Program 3. Ramaprasad’s role itself has broadened too. In the first iteration of the festival, she both curated and managed logistics. Now, she adds performer to that list, “I’ll be dancing a piece with my festival co-organizers titled The Affair – it was choreographed by Sri Thina for the West Wave Dance Festival and is based on a 12th century poem that chronicles an ancient mythological love story.” When Eyes Speak is also moving venues this year, and will be presented at ACT’s Costume Shop, a cozy black box space that opened in 2011 on Market Street near UN Plaza at Civic Center. For Ramaprasad, these smaller, blank canvas venues are an ideal fit for Indian dance, “we like the theaters to be intimate, it really allows the audience to experience the subtleties in the dance, like the movement of the eyes.” With all this growth and expansion, the festival seems on quite an upswing in only their second year. What might that mean for the future? “I would love for the festival to carry on, for it to be even longer, and to have talks and panels that could foster exchange between artists and audiences,” she says, “ but at the same time, for it to continue, we must have the right resources and I don’t want to put pressure on it to be an annual event.” So stay tuned for what may lie ahead. But in this moment, Ramaprasad’s time and energy is dedicated to the present day, to the here and now. When Eyes Speak: Indian Choreography Festival is only a few weeks away, and Ramaprasad is excited to bring the event to viewers and see what emerges, “I hope that people will come and witness the reach and potential of Indian dance; that it inspires them; that they connect with it and seek out more.” Heather Desaulniers is a freelance dance writer based in Oakland. She is the Editorial Associate and SF/Bay Area columnist for CriticalDance , the dance curator for SF Arts Monthly , a contributor to DanceTabs as well as several other dance-focused publications.

dance could be part of my RAW journey,” Ramaprasad shares, “Joe was really the driving force behind the festival and wholly encouraged me to both curate and organize it.” The project had been hatched; soon, plans and designs were underway. And at the end of January last year, When Eyes Speak: South Asian Choreography Festival (now known as When Eyes Speak: Indian Choreography Festival ) debuted at SAFEhouse Arts with two days and two dis- tinct programs of Indian dance. Ramaprasad characterizes this first event as “scrappy, with not too many resources.” But like so many grassroots endeavors, there was a strong sense of camaraderie and community among all the par- ticipants. “Everyone really came

When Eyes Speak: Indian Choreography Festival: March 21-24, at American Conservatory Theater’s Costume Shop, SF.

Arun Mathai / photo courtesy Chella Videos


in dance mar 2019

DO YOU KNOW? Highlighting the Activities of Artists/Organizations in Our Region

Alicia “the Dance Dragon Slayer” Langlais is a self-described dance entrepreneur; whose work includes teaching and coaching. Ali- cia says she hopes that her students “find the inspiration and courage through my classes, workshops, and coaching to slay and reclaim that human birthright to dance and allow it to be a vehicle that brings them back into align- ment with their bliss and authenticity.” Danc- ers’ Group asked Alicia a few questions to share more about her teaching and activities. ALICIA LANGLAIS How did dance enter your life? The dance bug bit me HARD when my mother took me to see Swan Lake at Lincoln Center in New York City when I was 4 years old. Perhaps my mother could see some- thing in me that told her I would appreciate it because I have a 4-year-old son now and I know, FOR SURE there’s no way he’d ever be able to sit through something like that! My mom says that as soon as the first bal- lerina hit the stage I gasped in awe. I was in LOVE with Dance and it would be an affair that will last for the rest of my life. I asked my mom to put me in Ballet les- sons. Thinking I couldn’t tell the difference, my mother put me in tap. Though tap was fun, it was NOT ballet. I wouldn’t find my way into a ballet class until I was 7 years old. I attended Kat’s Dance School, a small bou- tique Dance school in the Bronx that was made from a converted studio apartment. I was taught by Ms. Lori Baird, whom I love dearly and still connect with today. I’m greatly indebted to her for the trajectory she set me on through her teaching and nurturing. Simultaneously, my North Bronx neigh- borhood was thriving with Afro-Urban cul- ture, as Hip Hop, Dancehall, and Soca oozed from the seams of the city. The Caribbean flavors were ubiquitous as my neighborhood was primarily comprised of Caribbean immi- grants, including my own family. So while I did not realize I was receiving dance “train- ing” from all the fun my friends and I would have, I now appreciate that Afro-Urban dance and music culture are a part of my identity being that they were so influential in my formative years. How would you describe your style? My dance and choreographic style is less moves, more grooves. Afro-Pop meets Carib- bean Vibes laced with ballet technique and contained in free-spiritedness. Describe your Diaspora Dance classes? Diaspora Dance is a Caribbean Vibes meets Afro Pop non-stop dance party class! Half dance fitness, half dance technique choreog- raphy, ALL FUN! My class features poppin' music and contemporary dance styles from across the African Urban Diaspora including Afro-Pop from West Africa and Soca, Dance- hall, & Reggaeton from the Caribbean! After we heat it up with Dance Fitness routines and learn a vocabulary of authentic movements with across-the-floor work, the class culminates in an Afro-fusion routine that captures the vibes of the cultures that progressed each dance style. My class is peer non-competitive by design. Each class begins with a moment to express gratitude for life, goal-setting, and a commitment to use class time to wit- ness, support, and celebrate one another in the learning process. The choreography is designed to challenge you as a mover, but my teaching style is designed to nurture and guide you through that process…and also make you laugh, holler, and sweat!

How and when did Dias- pora Dance get started? I would say that the foundation for the choreographic struc- ture of Diaspora Dance started while I was at the Hipline stu- dio in Oakland. At the time, the class was called Hipline Tech- nique-: Afro Vybez. Though the choreography and style were always my own, the experience was folded into the Hipline brand. When I left Hipline in 2017, I continued to expand on the same teaching structure, adding in more elements of my Dance Dragon Slayer inspira- tional all-levels inclusive teach- ing approach and created space for student-led participation in each class. Also, there was more focus on what truly moved me as an artist musically and stylistically, as I was learning more about myself as a choreo- graphic teacher rather than just dance fitness, which I had been doing for years. I was able to dive more deeply into developing the Diaspora Dance brand which embodies my personal values of Culture, Creativity, Com- munity, and Charity. I part- nered with Carla Service of Dance-A-Vision, who had been supporting me as a dancer for years, and she brought Dias- pora Dance into the Malonga

is contrary to authentic human experience. I believe we were ALL born to dance. So I pro- vide experiences where many can begin to slay those Dance Dragons. What activities do you have coming up? I’m so excited to launch my new online course! This course will allow everyday mov- ers and dancers to learn my Dance Dragon Slayer Mindset Transformation formula so that they gain greater confidence and eliminate anxiety. Students will be able to OWN their value, passion, and potential as everyday mov- ers and dancers and make real steps towards living their dance dreams personally and pro- fessionally. I use this formula exclusively with my one-on-one clients as a Dance Inspiration Coach and now I’m excited to be sharing it in a way that allows me to help more people. I am also excited about my upcoming workshops including Absolute Beginner Afro Dance, Slay Your Dance Dragons Move- ment Confidence and Afro-Fusion Mindset Transformation Workshop, Curvy Queens Afro Dance workshop, and the annual Dance

Dragon Slayer Inspiration Conference, which will fea- ture more amazing diverse and inspirational dance teaching artists. What’s a future goal or dream? Through my online courses, I will connect with more Dance Dragon Slayers around the world. So my dream is to hosts retreats so that the far reaching community will have a chance to meet in a beauti- ful location to heal, celebrate, dance, inspire, and slay!

Alicia Langlais / photos courtesy of artist

Center for the Arts. This was a huge step as I was able to join a legacy of amazing, well respected, and long serving community art- ists by teaching in such a monumental space. It really solidified Diaspora Dance as part of the new wave of contemporary Afro-Urban dance artists adding to the culture of this great city of Oakland. Do you have a favorite dance perfor- mance or memorable moment? My favorite moment was when I was facili- tating a MASSIVE freestyle circle in one of the Jack London Square events hosted by Carla Service. There were about 300+ peo- ple and the energy was electric as this circle was happening after I lead a dance class. I ‘mean everyone was on fire. I was trying to make it so that a few people, may be two or three, went at a time. But more and more people kept joining the center. I tried to hold folks back a little and just decided, “what the hell!” I gave the signal for everyone to come

in and the circle was swallowed by joyously moving human bod- ies! A full out party had erupted! It was AMAZ-

What (or who) is

inspiring you right now? I’m really inspired by Danielle Leslie and Ashani Mfuko. Danielle Leslie created the #CourseFromScratch online course that teaches entrepreneurs, of all kinds, how to create online businesses. I am enrolled in this course and excited to learn how to con- vert the quality experiences I’ve created in my in-person classes, workshops, and coach- ing into a results driven high quality online experience. Ashani Mfuko is a Business Strategist for Dancers. She is also a mom with three children. I’ve been working closely with her for guidance and inspiration. Being an entrepreneur can some- times be quite solitary work. So, I’m glad I have her as a resource. These two amaz- ing, Black, women entrepreneurs have built

ING, every race, age, gender, ability, we were ALL dancing our hearts out under the stars! It was a moment the truly embodied why I do this work…to make dance accessible to EVERYONE! What about your work inspires you? As a dance teacher and Dance Inspiration Coach, I’m so inspired by the transforma- tion I see in my dance students, especially the ones that come to me initially dealing with some serious Dance Dragons. Dance Drag- ons are what I call those voices in your head that criticize you when you make a mistake, convince you to dance inhibited by fear, guilt, or shame, or prevent you from dancing at all. They push limiting beliefs that you are not worthy to dance which, in my opinion,


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The Salimpour School at 70


careers that inspire me to feel confident that not only can I accomplish my life purpose through dance, but it can also be a key to financial freedom. Do you have a favorite dance move? My favorite dance move is a commercial Afro-Pop move called Fuji. I subconsciously wind up putting it in the majority of my choreography. I also love to wine my waist. Though I'm not as good at it as so many amazing movers out there, I really love that you'll find wining as a foundational move among Black cultural dances all over the world A favorite song or type of music to dance to? I absolutely love Soca and Afrobeats! They just make me feel GOOD! What advice have you been given that you still hold on to today? Know your worth and trust the timing of your life. Those are pieces of advice I apply in all areas of my life, especially as a dance entrepreneur. What haven’t we asked? I’d like people to know that I used to have a paralyzing fear of dance. I started train- ing as a child, but I became burnt out over the years and I let me Dance Dragons get the best of me. I used to be ashamed of the fact that I quit dancing, especially because I thought dance was the only thing that made me special or worthy as a human being. And because I missed several years of training due to my fear, I used to be embarrassed by my rusty technique compared to my peers that continued their training. But now I know that it was this journey back to dance, this journey back to self-acceptance that allows me to connect with so many people. And so, I find inspiration in my own story.

SF DAnce gear

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Established in 2018, SF Dance Gear is centrally located in San Francisco, while still being close to public transit and boasting some of the easiest street parking in the City. SFDG hopes to connect with and serve danc- ers here and in the greater Bay Area. Founder/Owner, Rose Kirshner, and Manager, Dominique Nigro, have assembled a staff of local, working dancers who are just as passionate about their art as they are about sharing their knowledge with customers. SF Dance Gear currently stocks clothes and shoes for ballet and pointe work, jazz, contemporary, tap, musical theatre, and ballroom in adult and children’s styles. They are always looking toward their customer base for what should be added to inventory! SF Dance Gear, 351 9th St, Suite 101,

a subscription-based online class website, which now has a library of thousands of classes in a variety of techniques. The stan- dard Salimpour language facilitates the transmission of technique and choreogra- phy, and Salimpour School students study with Level 5 instructors through video chat platforms like Skype. With five levels from beginner to official teaching certifica- tion, the school has thousands of students around the world, including five autho- rized Level 5 instructors. With Salimpour hubs around the United States in Santa Cruz, Austin, San Diego, Fort Lauderdale, and upstate New York, as well as internationally in London, Brussels, Santiago, Taipei, and Stockholm, the Salim- pour method has gained popularity and notoriety amongst belly dancers for being one of the most, if not the most, compre- hensive training programs in the form. Last year, the Salimpour School moved from its longtime studio space on San Pablo Avenue in Albany and joined forces with the Mahea Uchiyama Center for Inter- national Dance. This spring, Suhaila and Mahea will move into a space together at 1800 Dwight, in Berkeley. Suhaila contin- ues to teach intensives around the world, and the school’s roster of certified teachers grows each year. Suhaila has made it her life’s work not just to create work for the stage but to empower the next generation of leaders in belly dance. Her method and training develops dancers dedicated to learning not just a movement form, but a genre of dance rooted in Arabic culture and music. Abigail Keyes is a dance writer, educator, and performer based in Berkeley, California. She holds Level 5 certification in both Salimpour formats, as well as an MA in Dance Studies from Mills College.

Photo courtesy of SF Dance Gear

rotunda dance series

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Ballet Folklórico México Danza Friday, March 15, 12pm City Hall Rotunda, SF FREE Based in Hayward, Ballet Folklórico México Danza was founded by René González, with collaboration from Martín Romero of Mexico City. González and Romero each have over 30 years of dance experience at national and international levels. The group’s original purpose was to serve as an after-school program to keep children from drug use and gang activities. Today, México Danza continues to be a safe space for children to develop a love of dance and learn about their heritage, and has grown to include individuals of all ages and nationalities from diverse Bay Area communities.

Photos by RJ Muna

More at

April 26 – May 5

HOST Share your work by holding a free event! ONE DANCE with Rhythm & Motion Join together in dance with hundreds at Yerba Buena Gardens to kick off the festival. Fri, Apr 26 at noon. Sign Up Grab a spot at one of hundreds of classes, workshops performances, & more

Alonzo King LINES Ballet Dance Center | © Chris Hardy


All dance, all free, all week.

Alonzo King LINES Ballet | Dance Center | © Chris Hardy


in dance MAR 2019

calendar MAR 2019 visit the online community calendar, to find additional events and to submit a performance.

UNA Projects, Mar 8-9 / Photo by Stephen Texeira

Jessica Lang Dance YBCA Theater, SF

Deborah Karp Dance Projects The Flight Deck, Oakland

San Francisco Performances introduces chore- ographer Jessica Lang and her company to Bay Area dance audiences. Thu-Fri, Feb 28-Mar 1, 7:30pm; Sun, Mar 2, 2 & 7:30pm, $45-70. First Friday Fiesta: Danza Venezuela Bay Area MACLA, San Jose Directed by “Chiquy,” Danza Venezuela Bay Area showcases a variety of new and tradi- tional Venezuelan dances through audience participation. Mar 1, 8pm, FREE . Brannigan Dance Works Joe Goode Annex, SF Bones reflects nature itself, accessing the in- nate wisdom and feminine intuition that lives with bodies and the earth. Fri-Sat, Mar 1-2,

This Is How We Begin is an examination of ongoingness as a somatic state, as the desire to hit life's non-existent pause button when intense news keeps on coming. Fri-Sat, Mar 1-2, 8pm, $10-20, *NOTAWLOF.

Akram Khan Zellerbach Hall, Berkeley

Cat Call Choir and ka·nei·see | collective, Mar 7-10 / Photo by Robbie Sweeny

Cal Performances presents XENOS , a work that reveals the beauty and horrors of the human condition through the myth of Prometheus. Sat, Mar 2, 8pm; Sun, Mar 3, 5pm, $15-78. Black Choreographers Festival and SAFEhouse Arts SAFEhouse Arts, SF Featuring natalya hoaf and.fLEE/Frankie Lee Peterson presenting new works developed through the support of the SAFEhouse Arts sponsored RAW(resident artist workshop) program. Sat-Sun, Mar 2-3, 7:30pm, $15. San Francisco Renaissance Dancers St. Mark’s Lutheran Church, SF St. Clement's Episcopal Church, Berkeley A fully-costumed performance of 18th-century (baroque) dance with live music of J.S. Bach. SF: Sat, Mar 2, 7:30pm; Berkeley: Sun, Mar 3, 2pm, $25-35.

Vishwa Shanthi Performing Arts McAfee Performing Arts and Lecture Center, Saratoga Vyakrita brings the message of universal peace, our deep interrelationship with all be- ings in nature, and innate potential for bliss. Sat, Mar 2, 2 & 6pm, $25-35. Pre-professional performers, CIRCUS SPIRE, perform a blend of circus, physical theater, and aerial dance. Sat, Feb 23, 8pm; Sun, Feb 24, 1pm; Sat, Mar 2, 9 & 16, 4 & 8pm; Sun, Mar 3, 10 & 17, 1 & 5pm, $17-50. Kathy Mata Ballet Alonzo King LINES Ballet Center, SF End of Winter Dance Celebration will pres- ent classical and contemporary ballet pieces performed with live accompaniment. Sun, Mar 3, 3:30pm, FREE . Kinetic Arts Center Kinetic Arts Center, Oakland

Abhinaya Dance Company of San Jose School of Arts & Culture at Mexican Heritage Plaza, San Jose Si Se Puede is presented in the classical Bharatanatyam idiom, the concert portrays the struggles of Cesar Chavez and his fight for farmworker rights. Sun, Mar 3, 4pm, $15-50.

8pm, $15-20.

Cat Call Choir and ka·nei·see | collective Z Space, SF

Nevertheless interweaves the companies of Cat Call Choir and ka·nei·see | collective in explo- rations of gender-based harassment. Thu-Sun, Mar 7-10, 8pm, $25-40.

UNA Projects ODC Dance Theater, SF

COLORING asks the question “What do we have in common?” and draws inspiration from personal narratives, interviews and artwork from LGBTQ people. Fri-Sat, Mar 8-9, 7:30pm, $15-35.

Nava Dance Theatre, Mar 29-31 / Photo by Amitava Sarkar

6 in dance mar 2019




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Maranda Barry, AnnaLise Constantz and Chloe Rosen SAFEhouse Arts, SF SAFEhouse’s Resident Artist Workshop [RAW] presents new dance works from Maranda Barry and AnnaLise Contantz & Chloe Rosen. Fri-Sat, Mar 8-9, 8pm, $15-20. Femina - Celebrating Women Joe Goode Annex, SF Join Sangam Arts and Guru Shradha for a cel- ebration of women featuring master choreog- raphers and artists representing traditions from around the globe. Sat, Mar 9, 4pm & 7:30, $40. The Black Choreographers Festival: Here and Now ~ 2019 New Voices / New Works Odell Johnson Performing Arts Center, Oakland Celebrating 15 years of presenting African American art and culture with performances, master classes and special events. Sat-Sun, Mar 9-10, 7:30pm, $10-25

Performances. Fri-Sat, Mar 22-23, 8pm; Sun, Mar 24, 3pm, $17.50-35.

Tiny Dance Film Festival Roxie Theater, SF Featuring short dance films (10 minutes or under) from across the globe. Sat, Mar 23, 4:30pm; Sun, Mar 24, 2:30 & 4pm, $12-25. OnenessButoh/Judith Kajiwara; Rain Ensemble/ Kallan Nishimoto Douglas Morrisson Theatre, Hayward UMI (The Sea) weaves butoh dance and taiko drumming. Sat, Mar 23, 7:30pm; Sun, Mar 24, 2pm, $25-30. An open rehearsal and Q&A for their new indoor work Strings , in preparation for a European tour. Wed, Mar 27, 5:15pm, FREE . Jory Horn, Gama Hsu, and Hien Huynh Asian Art Museum, SF New choreographic works by Jory Horn, Yi-Ting (Gama) Hsu, and Hien Huynh inspired by their mothers. Thu, Mar 28, 6pm & 8pm, Free with museum admission. Celebrating 30 years with the reprisal of one of its major works, The Sleepwatchers which looks at sleep metaphorically and literally. Thu-Sat, Mar 28-30, 8pm, $15-50. Jumpin’ at the Sun Dance Company Dougherty Valley Performing Arts Center, San Ramon Winner of Diablo magazine’s 2016 Best of the East Bay for Best Dance Troupe, JATS creates a blend of dance and music styles that is entertaining and fun for the entire audience. Fri-Sat, Mar 29-30, 7:30pm, $18-22. BANDALOOP BANDALOOP Studio, Oakland Deborah Slater Dance Theater ODC Theater, SF

D.I.R.T. Festival 2019: storm SURGE Dance Mission Theater, SF

The biennial social political dance festival returns with two different programs over two weekends. Free pre-show performances at 24 St BART Plaza, Mar 16 & 17. Sat, Mar 9 & 16, 8pm; Sun, Mar 10 & 17, 7pm, $20-30.

Mahea Uchiyama Center for International Dance, part of the Black Choreographers Festival, Mar 9-10 / Photo by Danny Tan

Mark Foehringer Dance Project|SF

popular culture experiences the formation of how and where we “fit” into, and the potential deformity of the fitting. Fri-Sat, Mar 15-16, 8pm, $20. Janey Madamba SAFEhouse Arts, SF See Madamba’s new work Changes in Volume . Fri-Sat, Mar 15-16, 8pm, $15-20. In Echo Chambers, audience interconnects through an immersive web of live projections. Sat, Mar 16, 7pm, $15-35. Rogelio Lopez & Dancers Shawl-Anderson Dance Center, Berkeley The disillusionment of beliefs, the nature of judg- ment, and the intertwining of freedom and pain. Sat-Sun, Mar 16-17 & 23-24, 8pm, $20. Kinetech Arts CounterPulse, SF

Brea Weinreb CounterPulse, SF

Cowell Theater, Fort Mason Center, SF Like an Ox on the Roof and the restaging of Foehringer’s Concerto Grosso . Fri-Sat, Mar 22- 23, 8pm, $20.50-52.50.

A reception for works by Brea Weinreb on view through April 14, with drag performer Venus Soleil. Wed, Mar 13, 6pm, FREE .

Natasha Carlitz Dance Ensemble Cubberley Theater, Palo Alto

Alif is for An(n)als CounterPulse, SF

A queer revolution far off in the Muslim world finally overthrows Western imperialism and colonial settler projects. What happens when the revolutions are over? Wed, Mar 13, 8pm; Thu, Mar 14, 6pm, $15-35.

Metamorphoses addresses how choreogra- phers relate their dance to music. Fri-Sat, Mar 22-23, 8pm, $15-45. Kularts and Alleluia Panis Bindlestiff Studio, SF Inspired by Pilipino Americans between the 1920's-60's in SF, In the Belly of the Eagle – Man@ng is Deity is a tribute to the Pilipino diaspora. Fri-Sat, Mar 22-23, 7:30pm; Sun, Mar 24, 2:30pm, $20 Quote Unquote Collective Zellerbach Playhouse, Berkeley A two-woman show, Mouthpiece follows a woman over the course of a day, as she struggles to find her voice. Presented by Cal

Sean Dorsey Dance Z Space, SF

Nava Dance Theatre CounterPulse, SF

BOYS IN TROUBLE is a commentary on con- temporary masculinity. Thu-Sat, Mar 13-16, 8pm; Sat, Mar 16, 4pm, $15-30. Rotunda Dance Series: México Danza City Hall Rotunda, SF Presenting Mexican Folkórico by the renowned company. Fri, Mar 15, 12pm, FREE .

Broken Seeds Still Grow: Taking Root is an immersive performance experience featuring story-telling, bharatanatyam, Indian miniature painting, video animation and live music, tak- ing inspiration from the South Asian American immigrant experience. Fri-Sat, Mar 29-30, 8pm; Sat-Sun, Mar 30-31, 3pm, $22-35.

Amerta Movement Mini-Symposium CounterPulse, SF

The day will explore the interconnections of ritual, performance, and everyday life. Sun, Mar 17, showings at 3:30pm, $10-15.

Wax Poet(s) ODC Theater, SF

In fey/done/a/weigh , Heather Stockton and Garth Grimball examine through mutual

Sally E. Dean CounterPulse, SF

Performance showing from participants of Somatic Improvisation Workshops during the CounterPulse Festival. Sun, Mar 17, 5pm, Free .

When Eyes Speak ACT Costume Shop, SF

A festival of Indian choreographer showcasing different artists each day. Thu-Sun, Mar 21-24, see website for detail.

Chris Babingui, part of D.I.R.T. Festival, Mar 9-17 / Photo courtesy of artist

Deborah Slater Dance Theater, Mar 28-30 / Photo by Robbie Sweeny


in dance mar 2019

ALONZO KING LINES BALLET World Premiere with Vân-Ánh Vanessa Võ Emmy award-winning Vietnamese musician and composer April 12 - 21 | Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco L INESBALLET .ORG / SPR ING- 2019


Alonzo King LINES Ballet | Dancer: Madeline DeVries | © Alex Farnum

music dance theater Performances Cal U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A , B E R K E L E Y



Akram Khan XENOS A Cal Performances Co-commission

Quote Unquote Collective Mouthpiece Created and performed by Amy Nostbakken and Norah Sadava Directed by Amy Nostbakken

A two-woman show acclaimed for its raw honesty and insightful portrayal of womanhood.

The legendary Akram Khan’s final solo creation before his planned retirement as a performer, XENOS explores the shell-shocked dreams of an Indian colonial soldier during the First World War. Combining classical Indian kathak and contemporary dance, Khan bravely explores the soldier’s alienation as he finds himself trapped between two cultures.

“A smart show, beautifully put together and performed, and one that speaks up for all the women who daily bite their tongues.” — The Guardian , London


Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater Robert Battle, artistic director Masazumi Chaya, associate artistic director

“This is a work of defining greatness, and a fitting farewell to a stage career that has illuminated

60th Birthday Celebration! FEATURING THREE BAY AREA PREMIERES: Lazarus by hip hop pioneer Rennie Harris , inspired by Ailey’s life and legacy Ronald K. Brown ’s The Call , which blends Bach, jazz, and Malian music Jessica Lang ’s vivid, celebratory work, EN ALSO FEATURING Timeless Ailey , a retrospective program of Ailey’s choreography

British dance.” — The Guardian , London



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44 Gough Street, Suite 201

Somatic Costumes: from Choreography to Socio-political Acts

by Sally E. Dean

“ Dance is political not because of its subject mat- ter but because of the way dances are made, how they are structured, and what they show about people relating to each other. ” — Stephanie Skura ( Politics of Method, Reimagining America ) Costume is a powerful agent for personal and socio- political action and trans- for-mation. How costumes

com/178071468). The site also played an important role in the choreographic process: Something’s in the Living Room journeyed across cul- tures (Indonesia-UK-Finland- Spain) through traditional performance venues ( The- atre Guerra , Spain & Taman Budaya , Solo, Indonesia), to universities ( Chester Univer- sity & Edgehill University , UK), to site-specific venues such as a 15th century living room in Edinburgh (Edin- burgh Fringe Festival), a vil- lage hall in the south coast of England, to a private home in Helsinki, Finland. These sites became co-choreographers with costume design. Wearing a Somatic Cos- tume can also uncover new relationships with others, as the audience can become part of the choreography. In a series of Pointy Hat perfor- mances ( Myth of the Porter’s Mess Room , Here and There , and In Search of Water ), the audience is invited into the choreographic experience – dressing up in Pointy Hat cos- tumes and journeying through indoor and outdoor environ-

are structured and designed changes our relationship to ourselves, others, and the world around us. This includes how we dance and the choreography we create. If I wear high heels, the shoe affects the experi- ence of my feet, the movement quality of my walk – transforming the character I present to the world, how I act in it, and how I am perceived by it. Our sense of self, even the parameters of our bodies, blend/merge with the costumes we wear. In this way, choosing a costume to wear is a choreography on the body itself. The costume designs us. For example, the pointe shoe in ballet gives the female dancer a particular relation- ship to the earth, a small point to balance from as her body posture rises towards the sky. The quality of the movement is informed by it, as well as the structure of the foot. They choreograph each other. Today I am wearing my Somatic Costume of Lentil Socks. Filled with dry lentils, these socks respond to tiny movements of my feet, like sand, awakening and massaging with their small, hard, smooth texture – they give my feet a sense of weight that fosters con- nection to the floor. Choosing what I wear is a practice of embodiment and a return to the relationship between the costume and the body. Metaphorically and literally, we move each other. For the last eight years as somatic practi- tioner, performer, choreographer and teacher, I’ve investigated how costume can be applied somatically as the starting point of choreo- graphic works. Since 2011, I have led the Somatic Movement, Costume and Perfor- mance Project (London, UK), collaborating with costume designers/visual artists Sandra Arroniz Lacunza and Carolina Rieckhof. We design Somatic Costumes to illicit specific psychophysical awareness in the performer through the sense of touch. As in somatic movement practices, the aim is to transform movement patterns and psycho-physical hab- its. Internal experience of the body becomes the design and choreographic starting point, as opposed to the external form of the cos- tume or movement. Key somatic practices that are integrated in this project are from my background and training: Amerta Movement (Javanese Supra- pto Suryodarmo), Skinner Releasing Tech- nique (Joan Skinner), Environmental Move- ment (Helen Poynor) and Scaravelli Yoga (Giovanni Felicioni). How do I design a Somatic Costume? Somatic costumes have developed from the somatic practices above and questions that arise in my movement, costume, and per- formance practices. For example, while train- ing in Poynor’s Environment Movement , I quested to understand personal boundaries and the integration of my inner world (in- side the body) with my outer world (outside the body) as a performer. To experience our “skin boundary” between inside/outside, we created the Tube Costume. Constructed from stretchy lycra material, the Tube Costume

Clockwise from top: Balloon Hat Costumes / photo by Luna Pérez Visairas, Tube Costumes / photo courtesy of artist, Bin Bag Skirt / photo by Luna Pérez Visairas

in Amerta Movement with Suprapto Suryo- darmo, I witnessed a quality of containment in dancers, and in the everyday movement of people, that I could see and sense, but was not able to embody myself until I wore the Javanese traditional dance costume, the kain which is a long cloth tightly wrapped around the legs and pelvis and secured by a stagen , a sash tightly wrapped around the waist between the pelvis and the ribs. This costume restricted the movement of my legs, kinesthetically “containing” my mid to lower body. The costume’s sensorial experience (as opposed to its aesthetic, symbol or meaning) was a portal into new perceptions, chang- ing the felt-sense of my body. It also fostered socio-cultural understanding, specifically the movement quality of ‘containment' embod- ied within the Solonese of Java. This experi- ence evoked the following questions: How do we design somatic costumes to stim- ulate new movement vocabulary or quali- ties that might be missing from a performer’s repertoire? Choreographically, a costume is often an afterthought in contemporary dance and choreographic process and typically applied at the end. What if it were the starting point? What if costume is approached as a co-cho- reographer and teacher in the creation pro- cess? To begin, we might generate choreo- graphic material by “following” the cos-tume through improvisational and somatic tech- niques. This encourages “tuning-in” to the costume with eyes closed, sensing the cos- tume’s touch, noticing qualities inherent in the physical material of the costume and the effect on the dancer. Dancers can be invited into the costume before a pre-conceived subject matter, theme, aesthetic is determined. In the choreogra- phy of Something’s in the Living Room , the Bin Bag Costume instigated the movement, character, text, sound in the piece (vimeo. How can somatic costumes generate choreo- graphic material?

ments. One meter high and constructed from canvas and bamboo, Pointy Hats alter how the audience experiences their heads, but also how they move their bodies – adapting their body positions to navigate doorways, corri- dors or low tree branches. The audience’s relationships to the envi- ronment became connected to what they wore. Tall trees, a white obelisk and poles, simi- lar to the verticality of the Pointy Hat, were places that the audience felt akin or drawn to. Wearing uniform costumes also connected participants to one another with a sense of group solidarity and security. Wearing some- times evoked vulnerability, as when pass- ersby respond to Pointy Hats with: “Dunce Cap,”“Klu Klux Klan,”“Dick Heads.” Although originally designed to kines-theti- cally sense the axis of the spine out through the top of the head, the visual can create strong social-political associations. As the Skura quote states at the beginning of the article, the socio-political is endemic in how dances are made and the relation- ships we create. It’s critical during a creative process to consider all relationships involved (dancers, costumes, site, audience, etc.). It’s also important to recognize that the non-ver- bal touch of the Somatic Costume can be as equally powerful as verbal and visual expres- sion. As a somatic resource, costumes harbor within them the potential for awareness and transformation in both cho-reographic and socio-political contexts. Experience Somatic Costumes in Impro- visation and Performance as part of To Be Free: CounterPulse Festival 2019. Based in London, Sally E. Dean (USA/UK), is an interdisciplinary performer, choreographer, teacher and writer with over 20 years experience in university, professional and community settings across Europe, Asia and the USA. Her teaching and performance work is informed by somatic-based practices, her cross-cultural projects in Asia and her background in dance/theatre – integrating site, cos- tume and object. She is an MPhil candidate at Royal Holloway University, UK.

allows dancers to expand/contract their boundary to explore the space between body and costume skin. Choreographically, the material reveals/ conceals the dancer’s body, accentuating the body’s form, but erasing details of the body such as the face. Aesthetically, dancers become entities that lie between the human form and abstraction – almost amoeba and tube-like. The choreographic material is devised by the costume’s material and the somatic intention that instigated it: boundaries. Other Somatic Costume designs are: the Balloon Hat, designed to sense the volume and buoyancy of skull (from Skinner Releas- ing Technique) ; and Bin Bag Skirt, designed to experience the light-weight pelvis in orien- tation to sky (from Felicioni’s Scaravelli Yoga approach). Although costume has been involved in performance across history, time, and cul- tures, this work proposes a critical re-framing of costume – costume design and costume- based choreography are not generated from the visual effect of the costume, but from its physical and psychological impact through the costume’s touch while wearing it. This somatic approach, as a design pro- cess, has been implemented by cognitive psychologists/neuroscientists, who create costumes to transform body representation through vibrating insoles (biomedical engi- neer James Collin) to instigate postural align- ment in the elderly; and, a full-body neo- prene suit (Dr. Grunwald) to reprogram body image and schema in those with anorexia. If costumes transform wearers’ bodily experi- ences therapeutically, how do we apply them choreographically? Costume’s potential resource as a somatic, choreographic, and socio-political agent became apparent when I was living in Java (2007-8). When I was learning the tradi- tional Javanese/Balinese dances and training

CounterPulse presents Sally E. Dean and the Somatic Movement, Costume and Performance Project: Mar 9 (workshop); Mar 9-10 (performance-making); Mar 17 (performance & talk); CounterPulse, SF.


in dance mar 2019

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