encentnic EdCentric ... a journal of educational change. A wholistic approach to the politics of education. EdCentric links the educational move- ment with other movements for libera- tion throughout the country. Diverse articles on alternatives, organ- izing, reform projects, education in other countries, book reviews, and a resource directory describing what people are doing and offering. EdCentric is published by the Center for Educational Reform, an anti -profit
SENIORS! Senior Week MAY 15-21
Activities: 1. N ight at Buffalo Raceway 2. Afterno on at Studio Arena ( "Man of La Mancha") 3. Dinner Dance 4. Picnic S. 50 's Night 6. First R un Movie 7. Graduation (Optional)
project which also publishes assorted pamphlets, directories and manuals as well as books like the Source organizing catalog. The Center also spon- sors the Educational Liberation Front (ELF Bus) Mobile Resource Center. Your $5.00 subscription will support our magazine and your donations will support our work and subsistance. Complete information on all Center projects and publ ications are sent with each subscription. Enclosed is $5.00, please send me 10 issues of EdCentric magazine. Name______________________ Address•----------------------. City_________ State _______ Zip ____II If you want a sample copy, send 50 cents to the Center with your name and address. Center for Educational Reform, 2115 S St. NW, Washington, DC
LETTERS W I LL BE SENT TO ALL SENIORS
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STA,e: UNIVE RSIT Y COLLEGE AT BUFFALO VOLUME ONE NUMBER NINE 23 FEBRUARY. B MARCH 1972
LETTERS THE OWL'S CORNER AN INTERVIEW WITH DR. SPOCK NEWS WARN I NG : MARIJUANA.
Editor-In-Chief ANDREW ELS1"0N Co.Qrdjnating Editor GARY CUMMINGS Business Manager HELENE HEl1" Advertising Manager CHARLES KAPLAN News Editor BEVERLEY coNR~ D Arts Editor CAROL EDMONDSON Graphics Editor NANCY DICK Con tributing Editor LARRY FRl1"Z Copy & Proofs HEDDA GORDON
8 10 13 16 22 .23 26 30
ELECTION '72 PHOTO ESSAY MIND'S EYE
THE REAL WORLD BLACK THEATRE CIRCUM LOCUM
STAFF: Barry Cohen, Eric Chaffee, Linda De Tine, George Howell, Joy Cummings, Michael Sajecki, Steve Mackey, Dick Manning, Marcia Ry bczn ski, Jo Ann Pizzo, Ann Schillinger, Heather Ingram, Mike Kaiser, Dave Schwab , Mary Sullivan, Bill Mallowitz, Jan Nuzzo, Peggy Burke, Pat Bumstead, Jackie Michelin, Hobo, Grindle, Moochie, Cat. STRAl'J' ma,!azine i.< 1rnblished fortniglllly by the students of the New Yori, State Un iversily Col/el(e at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York, 14222. Offices are in the Student Union, 401 and 421; telephone (716) 862-532/i, 5327. l'ublishinl/ and opera/in/I funds allocated lhrou11h the United Students' Government under the auspices of Publications Board and l/uou11h the advertisin11 income. STRAJ'J' is 1·epresented fur national adverlisin11 inco 111e by Nationul .Educational Advertising Services, 360 Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y. STRAIT is distrit,u/ed free to all members of Ille Buffalo S /ale Community and to ather students al ol her selected campuses of the Niagara Fron tie,·. !'rice for all other.<: 25 cents per copy; $4.50 per year (14 issues). Unsolicited manuscripts will be conside1·ed for publication /,ul STRAIT will not be responsible for their re turn; persons 1101 associated with SUCB will not be discriminated against in the terms of manuscript publication. Editorial /icy is determined by the editorial baard. RA 11' s u bsc ri bes lb Colle11e Press Service ,Cl'S) Denver, Colorado; and Dispatch News Service Jnlernational(DNSI) . Copyright 1972; all riJ!hts re:;erued: no portion of this ma)!azine, its pic:torial or verbal conlenl may he reprinled in any manner tvithout the l'xpre."is consent of 11,e Editor-In-Chief. Printed in the United Slates of America by RecordPress.
In This Issue
Some people say that we are too political. Well. Some people say that we are not too political. Well. Are junk cars political? Guess that's just a matter of how well you know your economics. Is Angela Davis, the Harrisburg Seven, the Black Arts Festival, or the legalization of marijuana political? Guess that's just a matter ... But - Is Dr . Spock (you remember him, good old Dr. Spock who floated past your mother's eyes on pages and pages of freshly bound copy and taught her how to pin a diaper, and how NOT to pin you.) is HE political? Guess. So despite all the political-political-political things In This Issue we thought we'd throw a tree on the cover to throw YOU. And you know why?_ Because politics DOESN'T grow on trees.
Graphics credits: Barry Cohen - 25; Nancy Dick - 27,24; Dick Manning - 2,10; Beverley Conrad-13. COVER BY NANCY DICK.
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To the Editor: Please accept a few words of praise for Melvin Hoffman's article "Surviving the System" (Strait, 1/27-2/10). Gruesome title graphics aside, Mr. Hoff- man offers excellent insight into the functioning of educational institutions . It is difficult to strike a balance between philosophical thought and prag- matic action - calls for active reform are often devoid of rational content. Mr . Hoffman avoids the temptation to pontificate and offers instead prac- tical alternatives to the problems facing all members of the Buffalo State Community. He desires change and offers that rarest of quantities - the first work- able steps to effect this change. Although Mr. Hoffman fears charges of "complicity" from those dedicated to the system's overthrow, my own limited experience with the system leads me to believe that hindrance to meaningful change will most likely come from seem- ingly well-meaning, Consciousness II administrators and faculty. But beware Power Structure, Melvin Hoffman and his type are all around you! Sometimes they even give the appearance of being loyal members of the Establishment. Fred J. Wetzel Financial Aids Counselor P.S. How about including reprints of this article as part of future new-student (and faculty) orienta- tions? To the Editor: I am writing this letter in the hope you will place it in your college paper. I am now serving time in the Ohio Penitentiary and I do not have anyone to whom I can cor- respond. I would like to hear from any young ladies whom would wish to corresp::,nd with me. I would answer each and every letter I receive. I was born and have spent most of my life in New York. My hobbies are writing poetry, reading and music - jazz, blues and some country music. I will be glad to let anyone know more about me when they write. Eugene N. Taylor
To the Editor : I really enjoyed the International Perspective [10 February] by Larry Fritz. Maybe this type of feature will initiate some of the self-examination which will be required of all of us ·in the near fu- ture . Traditionally Americans have shown consid- erable disdain towards the opinion of the rest of the world . (Especially if those countries don't happen to be especially submissive towards the U.S. and its policies .) Americans are going to realize shortly that they comprise a small segment of world opinion and th2t they are going to have to start listening to the rf ,t of the people . Would it be possible for STRAIT to do some articles giving profiles of a cross-section of the fac- ulty of the college? As a newly-arrived transfer student, I find that I have to rely mostly on gossip to ascertain the quality of the instructors . Needless to say, that leaves much to be desired . Allan Jeff - For information on professors, their policies in grading and course load and content, etc., students should check out the SCATE (Student Couse and Teacher Evaluation) Committee's pamphlet pub- lished this winter and distributed during manual registration. The SCATE project is working toward eliminating the risk and the gossip involved in sel- ecting courses and professors at State . The project is expected to be an on-going one and is sponsored by the USG. ---
No. 114-242 P.O. Box 511 Columbus, Ohio 43216
STRAIT 23 f"EBRUARY, 1972
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THIEU • iU ~in
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deserve it for they have votes to deliver or contri- butions to make, and are we not stern and forbidding to those who expose our weaknesses and moral turpitude; and still we are not loved and a mired? Have we not spent billions upon billions in bringing about a balance of payment and a world bank with hardly any interest except world dom- ination and a few investments in oil, copper, and other natural resources, and now these ungrateful curs do not appreciate sudden unilateral abrogations of treaties and agreements ; and again we are not loved. Are we not about to conclude a war which, for the last three years the terrible Chinese - by way of their North Vietnamese allies - have forced upon us . And did we not save Indo-China so thoroughly that a recent report of our scientists stated: with us as friends, the South Vietnamese did not need any enemies (as reported by David Brinkley on NBC), so completely destroyed was the good earth, the pop- ulation disrupted - if not outright killed or maimed - all in the interest of protecting the governments from its peoples. Still we are not loved? Are we not going to reconstruct all these countries and any others, consolidating those whom we recognize as our enemies and oppressing our friends and still we are not loved as we deserve? Is not our foreign policy a very wonder of cona sistency in betting on the wrong horse - and thel9 the welchers do not wani. to pay off, in love, vener- ation and adulation. "Historically speaking there has never been an American foreign policy. Of course, the U.S. has lived moments of great historical importance such as its entry into the last two world wars. What is lacking is a sense of destiny. A great country sub- ordinates its domestic policy to its foreign policy. President Nixon maneuvers as if he were the Pres- ident of Luxembourg." Thus spake Andre Malraux (as quoted by Pierre Galante reported by Time Magazine, November 15, 1971). Obviously domestic and foreign policy should be reversed. Is it not one of the ironies of our times that President Nixon had to turn to Malraux as one of his most recent advisors for his forthcoming trips; visiting with Malraux 's old comrades in arms , Chou- en -Lai and Mao-Tse Tung, a poet-warrior like Malraux himself. After this trip, and the next one and another election will we still not be loved and admired? · Why do we not try to love our neighbours like ourselves which means, says Hillel: "according to ourselves as we can love," instead of considering · and treating them as if they were poor misguideA Americans. In the same measure that we realize tha~ they are not; we shall be loved as we deserve, perhaps a bit better.
The Owl's Corner
• JOSEPH H BUNZEL
WHY ARE WE NOT LOVED ? Warum sind wir so unbeliebt? why are we not loved? was the whining cry of the German tourists when they visited Austria and other countries in the interwar years demanding the best and getting on everybody's nerves . That cry is being heard in- creasingly in the halls of Congress, in the news- papers, in universities, and on television screens . Why indeed? Have we not rebuilt at the cost of billions of dollars and lives the Germany that Hitler left in ruins? not for our benefit, of course, ,but only so that poor old Europe would not be overrun by the gruesome commies who only lost 22 million lives. We left the murderers and their children enjoy their booty. Why are we not loved? Can no one see the sacrifices we have been bringing day by day in ,rebuilding Japan which start- ed a war and which we made into a respectful prostitute, asking nothing in return but a few votes our way, and now having pulled the economic rug from underneath, still we are not loved. Have we not just exploded a mere 5 megaton device vowing it to be the last, to' save the tax payers money, of course, unless the awful Sowjets force us to start another series. Still we are not loved . Have we not given our "redskins" millions upon millions after having reduced their number, slaughtered their children, banned them in reserva- tions, stolen and are still stealing land and un- touched natural resources from them and now we do not find the recognition for our good intentions. Have we not paid a million and a half to the Turkish government to kill the livelihood of a poppygrowing village in Anatolia, reducing them to beg their daily bread, and now these people curse the U.S. Why? Are we not a "government of laws (fifty-one legislatures to be sure) and not of men," only oc- casionally adjusting these to fit the case. And do we not show mercy and understanding to those who
STRAIT Z3 FEBRUARY, l97Z
. ollege Press Service conducted a two hour interview with Dr. Benjamin Spock during his recent campaign visit to Denver. Dr. Spock, world-renowned pediatrician, author of child care books (including Baby and Child Care, which outsold every other book ever written with the lone exception of the Bible), and long-time antiwar activist, is now running for the Presidency on the People's Party ticket. The People's Party, formed last fall, is a coalition of leftist political groups which believe that there is no real difference between the Democratic and Republican parties. c PS: In 1967 you said "Since carrying signs has not halted the monstrous war in Vietnam, people are entirely justified in moving to civil disobedience. " In 1969 at Columbia you echoed that by saying: "Since faculty and students have spent two years trying to get things done through legal channels, they now have the right to stage sit-ins." You felt that rifling the president 's desk and smoking his ci- CPS: ... dubious and you have been quoted as saying you respect the Weather - a n's courage, but not their tactics. What ..teria do you use to draw the line in your philosophy? What is moral? SPOCK: I was brought up a naturally law-abiding person. It was only reluc- tantly that I moved into another position. It seemed so clear to me that the war kept being escalated and the government refused to heed or even answer the pro- tests of the protesters. The war got more and more illegal and immoral in the way it was being fought. What are you meant to do after polite protest? You have to dramatize the issue and get it to the people in order to win converts to your side and to apply pressure on the govern- ment. Obviously this is not justified morally if you 're a criminal and are up to criminal pursuits. But if you believe that the go- vernment is criminal and that in a demo- cratic country you 've got to apply pressure, it seems to me the logic says you've got to keep on trying. The principle of democracy doesn 't say try only at election time every four years and then ·subside for another four years. You've got to keep on applying pressure . Civil disobedience is very ef- fective if it 's designed right. I would al- ways want to be fairly sure that even in a AI disobediance it would be carried out ..,a way that would enlist the sympathy of a majority of the people who heard about it, otherwise you're failing your cause and alienating people. You can't tell ahead of time how a demonstration is gars was somewhat. .. . SPOCK: Yes, dubious.
going to end up or in the long run what will alienate and what won't. When I heard of the Berrigan's first pouring duck's blood and later burning up draft records I thought, "oh no, you can't go in to government buildings and destroy government property." In the law-abiding way that I grew up this seemed beyond the pale. I thought " It will alienate ten times as many people at least as it will win over." I think there I was entirely wrong. The very fact that these were Catholic priests who felt so strongly about the immorality of the war , that they felt driven to what would normally be considered a very il- legal and criminal act, had a profound ef- fect on Catholics and Protestants. But the very daringness of the civil disobediance was what attracted a lot of attention and got a lot of people thinking. Obviously I don't feel as I and other civil disobedient people have been accused of doing, that anybody has a right to choose what he will obey and what he won't. I feel justi- fied in breaking a law in a symbolic civil disobedient form. I have to feel the right is on my side. I never claimed the right to pick and choose, I say when clearly the government won't listen, then you're morally justified in going on. It's the go- vernment that's evil. Now, about violence, which is another part of the question. I had learned during the years of the escalation of the war that it was the violence of the government in Vietnam, the violence of Mayor Daley's police, the violence of the U.S. Marshalls on the march on the Pentagon, in the fall of '67, the violence of the police called in by the administrations of Columbia and Harvard, for instance, who beat students after they got them out of the building ... this violence clearly brought millions of people over onto our side. Therefore I would say one first practical rule is don't use violence because it tends to build up sympathy for the people who are the victims of the violence. My feeling about violence is relative. It depends on how much violence is used against you. If the President were to suspend the Constitution, and dismiss Congress, and begin throwing all radicals and liberals into concentration camps, I would feel that was justification to join the guerrillas right away. One has to feel out the situation as one goes along and take the least disobedient, the least vio- lent action every time . But you must be willing to admit that if you are really seri- ous about your cause and serious about your belief that the government is wrong, then you are g going to have to go at least to civil disobediance. (cont'd on page 15)
r f t s
s e il1
• • 1nterv1ew with DR. SPOCK
n s s s
by college press service
STRAIT 23 FEBRUARY, 1972
CUES FOR SAFER CITIES A publication of the National Alliance on Shaping Safer Cities came out with twenty steps to safer neighborhoods. Cues for Action described measures from improvement of street lights to long range crime prevention . They cited the example of Washington D.C., which after installing sodium vapor lighting in one area (eight times brighter than the conventional street lights) saw a decline in robberies by 25 per cent within three months. Citizen police auxiliaries were also found to be effective, as revealed by this statement from Cues for Action : "Crime dropped 40 per cent in a precinct in Queens, N.Y. because of the efforts of 120 male residents of the Electchester Housing Project who have volunteered their time to the N.Y.C. Police Auxiliary."
Auxiliary police patrol in pairs ne the precinct where they live. They pu chase uniforms and equipment but do not carry guns. Other steps to safer neighborhoods given were : the use of silent burglar alarms (flashing light at police head- quarters) to help apprehend burglars ; creation of youth and adult excort pa· trols as in Harlem 's Crime Prevention In- stitute ; and tenant patrols in N.Y . public housing projects (they now have 11 ,000 volunteers in 666 buildings.) The Alliance warned , however, that unless all citizens were involved in such crime reducing campaigns , a reduction in one neighborhood with such protection may increase crime rates in another area without it.
NEWS • Compiled by Jo An n Pizzo
DANIEL BERRIGAN TO BE PAROLED Parole will be given to Reverend Daniel Berrigan on 24 February after serving 16 months of his sentence of 3 years for destroying draft records in 1968. The Harrisburg Defense Committee reported Berrigan 's health had been declining in prison since the beginning of his sentence in the summer of 1970. He has been in such poor health that he needs a few hours rest during a day's work. His first parole hearing was last year in Washington and he was turned down . His attorneys tried to protest this decision but were again turned down. Philip Berrigan, his brother is on trial along with six others in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania for allegedly conspiring to kidnap Henry Kissinger and to blow up underground heating ducts in a Washington building. He is also serving time for destroying draft records.
MARIJUANA ON THE BALLOT Three U.S. states are attempting to put the marijuana question on the November ballot. California , Arizona , and Washington an- nounced plans to qualify the grass referendums for the ballot. Although none of the states has plans pushing the direct legalization of the plant, they are pressing for an end to criminal penalities as a result of pot possesion .
HOOVER 'OUT' IN '72? News from "reliable White House sources" that FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover may be replaced after November's election was revealed by reporter Glen Elsasser of the Chicago Tribune. He said that Hoover will either be asked to resign or will be promoted such that he would be out of control over the FBI. Hoover's handling of the "Harrisburg Conspiracy" had particularly dis• appointed the Nixon administration. The FBI Director told a senate subcommittee about an alleged plot to kidnap Henry Kissinger and to blow up heating ducts in Washington D.C. buildings. _He made his charges long before a federal grand jury announced indictment in the case. Elsasser's story was called "specula- tion" by Attorney General John Mitchell. However, Mitchell did not deny its truth either. Hoover is 77 and has been the head of the FBI since it was founded . STRAIT 23 FEBRUARY, 1972
VICTIMLESS CRIMES QUESTIONED A public hearing on victimless crimes was to be held under the joint sponsorship of the Alliance for a Safer New York and the New School's Center for New York City Affairs. The Chairman of the Alliance, Donald H. Goff intended to describe the burdens placed on law officers and the courts by the prosecution of these crimes, and was to consider the alternatives to present laws re· garding the punishment of them. "Our present system of dealing with gamblers , prostitutes and marijuana users has led to congested court schedules, overcrowded prisons and corruption among law enforcement officials .. . " state Professor Henry Cohen, Director of the New School's center for N.Y.C. Affairs. Mrs . Margery L. Gross from the Alliance for a Safer New York declared: "The Alliance feels that victinless crimes should be . transferred where appropriate to the social and health agencies that better equiped to deal with them. Laws dealing with each of the crimes mentioned were described and a group of "witnesses" including ex-officers and others with differing views were questioned as to how the laws might be changed. 8
STRANGERS IN THE DARK What do you think would happen if a group of total strangers--say four men and four women were left in a totally dark room? A very interesting occurence in this situation was observed by a hus- band-wife psychological research team. Kenneth and Mary Gergen reported after they tested this experiment : "With simple subtraction of light from a room a group of complete strangers can be brought into a state of advanced intimacy within less than an hour." The test followed a general pattern. The first few minutes there was simple talking but they observed that within 40 minutes some kissing resulted. Mrs. Gergen said that nothing "scan- dalous" has happened during their one-hour experiments . .. " But my hus- band wants to expand the sessions to two hours.''
PRISON ATROCITIES Angela Davis revealed in a recent inter- view that California State prison officials employ drugs and in some cases brain sur- gery on inmates to effect personality changes. She stated that "unwilling volunteers" at Vacaville prison were injected with a drug called "anectine ." This drug causes life processes of the body such as breathing and muscle functioning to stop and the patient experiences a death-like grip. The fear induced by the injection is so great that a prisoner will do anything to avoid receiving it a second time . Miss Davis also said that frontal lobo- tomies had been suggested by the Depart- ment of Corrections for those inmated prone to violence. State prison spokesman Phil Guthrie responded that "anectine" had been used on a number of "volunteers" (in 1968) but the results had been ineffective and it had since been discontinued . He also added that the lobotomies had only been mildly considered, although he admitted that three inmates at Vacaville underwent the operation a few years ago and it was not very successful. SINGER WARBLES SLOGANS Carol Feraci, a 30 year old singer asked to join Ray Conniff singers for a White House engagement originally con - sidered refusing the offer. She thought she could not sing "for a man who was perpetuating the war ." However, on second consideration she decided to accept the offer and plan a surprise for the occasion. Before the per- formance was to begin she stepped to the microphone and pulled a sign from her dress that read "Stop the Killing." She then pleaded with Nixon to stop bombing ' 'humans , animals and vegetation." Knowing beforehand that there would be T.V. coverage of the performance she changed her previous plans to wait until after a few numbers to have her say. As she spoke the cameras whirred. This incident has pointed out to the White House the problems in checking out people invited to perform for the Pre- sident and other dignitaries. Miss Feraci ws not known to have spoken up like this before but claimed she would do it again if she had the chance. She stated that she kept her courage as she remembered the picture she had seen of "what happened at My Lai and I looked around the room and saw who was there and I was O.K."
ds ar 1d- rs; ia- .n- lie DO 1at ch in )n ea
FDA WARNS 'FDS'
Consumer Reports has taken the word of their medical consultants who warn again st the use of feminine hygiene sprays. They report that they are very wary of the premarket chemical testing by the largest maker o f such products, Alberto Culver Co . "There is always a risk involved in spraying chemicals on the body, especially on such sensitive areas as the genitals, 11 says Consumer Reports. It adds that the manufacturers do not give significant attention to possible risks (extreme irritation to the woman and sometimes to her partner in intercourse.) They maintain that soap and water is the safest and most effective hygiene. The insistence on the part of the industry that the sprays are cosmetics and not drugs means that ingredients need not be listed on the product. Thu s, people wanting to avoid certain chemicals such as hexachlorophene which is known to be an ingredient of several hygiene sprays would not be aware of this . The Consumers Union says that if the Food and Drug Adminis- tration does not reclassify feminine hygiene sprays alternative action for the FDA would be to declare them mislabeled for failure to reveal information on consequences that may result from their use .
e of e- id d te C. k
STRAIT 23 FEBRUARY, 1972
as is currently the practice for cigarette smoking, and I support these efforts. But who would seriously suggest crimi- nal penalties for those who smoke ci- garettes or drink alcohol? Yet both these drugs have far more proven har ful effects than marijuana. Our current laws must be based on rnedica 1 research, rather than on the mrny • ~e myths surrounding marijuana .' ' "I have reached this decision after much thought and considerable study. I've watched the numbers of marijuana arrests and convictions reach tremendous proportions, yet I have been unable to find any evidence which justifies the harm that is inflicted by these laws." "We have to deal realistically with the marijuana issue before we can get to the more serious drug issues. The rhetoric and emotion surrounding the marijuana debate make significant progress in other areas an impossibility for both law enforcement and educa- tional efforts." "My views are also based on the pragmatic belief that the many priorities facing law enforcement officials today cannot permit the allocation of energy and resources to be utilized for the en- forcement of the marijuana laws. Today , we must redirect our efforts against the more debilitating drugs . Violent crimes against persons and property in this country are at an all time high, yet countless numbers of citizens aA arrested for smoking marijuana . If the9 laws were changed, most lawmen would be pleased to spend their time on more serious matters." "I have lectured at more than 40 college campuses over the past few years, many during the turbulent 60's when drug experimentation of all kinds was flourishing . Today I see a more cautious and reasoned approach . LSD and heroin are rarely seen on campuses. The illegal drug used is predominantly marijuana. And more often than not, it is being used by upper-level students, whose grades are high, and who have in- corporated the casual use of marijuana into their lives without apparent harm. More and more we are seeing that this is also the case among young professionals, atheletes and in industry." "In making my views known, it is not my intention to promote or to en- courage the use of marijuana. However, I am promoting the immediate de- criminalization of that drug. We must stop sending people to jail for smoking marijuana. From my vantage point, I predict that eventual legalization with government control, similar to that used for alcohol, is inevitable. When t. i country decides to honestly deal w· the marijuana question, perhaps then can begin to make some progress in the battle against serious drug abuse in the United States."•
Warning: •• mari1uana smoking , may be hazardous to you'i health. .
0 DICK M.ANNING-
John Finlator, recently retired Deputy Director of the Federal Bureal of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, today said he strongly favors the immediate decriminalization of marijuana, and predicts eventual legalization. And until this is done, Finlator said, he doubts that any of our efforts to combat the heroin problem in this country, or any other serious drug abuse problems can be effective . Mr. Finlator, age 60, retired from
than 50,000 smokers in the whole coun- try. Yet today, after four decades of in- credibly harsh penalties, the Marijuana Commission tells us that 24 million Americans, including 15% of the popula- tion over 12 years of age, have smoked marijuana. Regardless of one's views towards marijuana, the ineffectiveness of the criminal laws as a deterrent to use is astounding. Meanwhile, we have ruined the careers and lives of hundreds of thousands of otherwise law-abiding citi- zens by needlessly subjecting them to the ramifications of being defined crimi- nal." "Secondly, I believe that society must accept the fact that there is such a thing as 'recreational' use of drugs. In other words, some people use drugs not for medical use or to relieve pain, but simply because it is enjoyable. Ob- viously, I don't believe that people should be permitted indescriminate use of all drugs. Many have such a deleteri- ous effect both on the user and on society as a whole as to preclude their use. But drugs such as cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana are different. Their poten- tial for harm is limited, and falls within that area which the people of this country have apparently decided is acceptable. We may discourage their use, 10
his number two position with the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs on 1 January , 1972. Formerly Director of the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Mr. Finlator has spent thirty-six years in government ser- vice. He is currently writing a book to be published by Simon and Schuster, about the drug abuse problem, and is a private industrial consultant. In announcing his views, Mr. Fin- lator stated he was joining-the Advisory Board of NORML (The National Organi- zation for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) and planned to take an active role over the next several months in getting the current laws changed. NORML is a Washington, D.C.-based lobby which takes the position that criminal penalties for the use of marijuana are inappropriate and unjustified, and argues for a governmentally-controlled system similar to that used for alcohol. The following is a statement by Mr. Finlator on this subject : "First, I have learned through many years of experience that repressive crimi- nal laws will never solve our drug abuse problems. In the l 930's, when marijuana was first made illegal, _there were less
STRAIT 23 FEBRUARY, 1972
tte ts. i- ci- t h, hs ter y . a US to he th to he he t ity ca- he ies ay gy n- y , he es is et ld re 40 w 's ds re SD es. tly ' it ts, in- a m. is ls, is n- er, e - st ng ' I ith ed
When the necessary signatures have been obtained, the petition will be taken to Albany and presented to the State Uni- versity 's Board of Trustees asking them to authorize the formation of WNYPIRG . SUCB representatives of WNYPIRG at Albany will try to institute an inde- pendent voluntary student fee of two dol- lars to be collected by the Bursar at re- gistration as the means of funding the project at Buffalo State College. At present Bergevin and workers plan on applying for board status to the United Students Government for fall of 1972, in hopes of getting a small budget to keep interest alive . It is unlikely that professional services will be obtained until a permanent plan of funding has been established, however the group hopes to begin the publishing of a small newsletter and the beginning of student research on a small level at that time. There are a number of other schools in Western New York that have expressed interest in forming a PIRG . The outcome of WNYPIRG at Buffalo State College may affect the future of the establish- ment of PIRGs in all of New York State. AMCHITKA REPERCUSSION News reports now estimate the num- ber of sea otters killed by the AEC's 6 November, 1971, Cannikin test is some- where between 900 and 1100 animals, according to the preliminary surveys made by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and a biologist under contract to the AEC to do sea otter studies. The original Cannikin environmental impact statement had asserted that fewer than 20 sea otters would suffer mea- surable physiological effects from the blast. The June redraft stated that as many as 100 sea otters might be killed, and the AEC's final prediction, released in October, was that up to 240 otters might suffer ruptured ear drums and eventually die as a result of the bomb test. Scientists state that the Bering Sea side of Amchitka Island is "80 to 90 per- cent" devoid of sea otters.
elective Service Good news for 11,000 Selective Service has some good news for some 126 ,000 young men who faced possible induction in February or March . Selective service Director Curtis W. Tarr instructed local draft boards to cancel out- standing induction orders for more than 11 ,000 young men and to place them - as well as all of the 115 ,000 members of the 1972 Extended Priority Selection Group - into the less vulnerable Second Priority Selection Group - Thus ending the possibility of their receiving induction orders, except in the event of a national emergency . The action by Tarr follows an announcement by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird that there will be no draft calls in February or March .
Affected by the 8 February order on cancelling induction notices are those young men whose original 1971 induc- tion dates were postponed "to the first call in 1972," or until further notice," as well as those whose postponements of in- duction were scheduled to terminate on a specific date prior to 1 April. Initial post- ponements which are to expire later that March are not affected by the directive . The 1972 Extended Priority Selection roup consists of men who became eli- gible for induction in 1971, but did not receive induction notices. These men had to be at least 20 years of age and 1-A on 31 December, 1971 , and have lottery numbers lower than RSN 126. Under Se- lective Service directives , registrants with lottery numbers lower than the highest number reached during the year (RSN 125 in 1971) who become 1-A and liable to induction too late in the year to fill draft calls have their liability to induction extended for the first three months of the following year. Thus, because there will be no draft calls in the first three months of 1972, there will be no inductions from the 1972 Extended Priority Selection Group. The Selective Service directive also set RSN .200 as a temporary administrative processing ceiling for the men facing pos- sible induction during the remaining months of 1972. Men who reach age 20 during 1972 who are 1-A with RSNs of 200 and above--as well as older men with RSNs of 200 and above who drop or lose deferments--will be reclassified into Class 1- H --an administrative holding cate- gory--and will not be processed any fur- her for possible induction. Tarr emphasized that the RSN 200 _ iling was a temporary measure and that the 1-H processing ceiling would be lowered at a future date . A 1-H cutoff ceiling will be set each year. Those young men with RSNs below the 1-H cutoff
ceiling will form the draft pool and will te actively processed. Those with RSNs above the 1-H cutoff, such as those in the 1972 pool, will be reclassified into Class 1-H and will not be considered further unless there is a major change in military manpower needs. This action in no way relates to the lottery drawing held on 2 February 1972, since 2 February lottery dealt with registrants eligible for induc - tion in calendar year 1973.• WNYPIRG PETITION DRIVE EXTENDED •DAVE SCHWAB The WNYPIRG petition drive has been extended another week. The drive , originally planned to last only until Friday , 18 Februray, lacked about five hundred signatures that would have given the group the necessary 51 percent go -ahead on the establishment of a PIRG on the Buffalo State Campus. As of Friday 3500 undergraduates had signed the petition with about two hun- dred graduate students and thirty faculty members expressing a positive interest. Carl Bergevin, WNYPIRG co-ordinator for Buffalo State College is planning to continue the petition drive with hopes of getting the necessary 4,5000 under- graduate signatures by the end of this week. Bergevin expressed a conc·ern that students may be misinterpreting the peti- tion as a pledge of money to WNYPIRG . The petition is merely an indication of support for the idea of a PIRG at SUCB. The continuation of the drive will be slightly different. WNYPIRG workers will be visiting the classrooms of interested teachers, informing students of the pro- ject, distributing pamphlets and asking for signatures. Signs will be hung in the Union and other buildings on campus to help push the drive.
CAN YOU SPELL?
AS OF MAY 17, 1972 STRAIT MAGAZINE WILL NEED A NEW EDIT.OR-in-CHIEF. CALL 862-5326 OR 862-5327 FOR MORE INFOMATION . APPLICATIONS ARE DUE FEBRUARY 29.
Harrisburg Seven 'They're not guilty until
opinions of the law at issue in making a decision . if they understood that the bringing o the indictment did not imply that the de- fendents were guilty. One women in dis- cussing this point stated : " They 're not guilty until they 're proven innocent ." The final selection of jurors included a group of persons who might be con- sidered, at least in some respects, peers of the defendents. Three of the jurors are college graduates and two others have at- tended some college . One black is in- cluded in the twelve jurors and four of the members are under thirty-five. One of the defen se attorneys, J. Thomas Menaker expressed his acceptance of the jury . In a pre-trial state- ment , Menaker said, "We are not seeking a mistrial, and we are not seeking to re- place anyone of the jury because there isn ' t sufficient evidenct to warrent that . .. at this time , there is no reason to believe this is not a fair jury . We feel there is no bias." ONE INFORMER FOR PROSECUTION The trial began with the prosecution stating that the indictment and prosecu- tion of the Seven is based solely on the word of one informer - that informer is an ex-con . According to the Chief Pro- secution Attorney , William Lynch, Boy lliuglas, a two-time prisoner (once for pul- ling a gun on an FBI agent) turned informer for the FBI in lieu of parole and evidence on the Berrigans. The parolee- informer will be a prime witness for the prosecution . Ramsey Clark, defense attorney for the Seven and the former Attorney General under the Johnson Administra- tion, delivered the opening statement for the defense by lambasting the prosecu- tion for its questionable tactics. Ac- cording to Clark, the FBI is using the prosecution as a " political tool." After Clark's opening remarks Phillip Berrigan requested that he be allowed by the court to reaq a prepared 18-page statement of his own. The district judge denied him the priviledge, stating that he already had several excellent attorneys to plead the case. Later, Berrigan offered to dismiss his defense team in lieu of self-defense . Again, the court gave its denial. Leonard Boudin, another attorney on the defense then called for a mis-trial and contended that Berrigan was being denied "consit- utional and statuatory rights to represent himself." There still seems to be some confusion over the matter : Berrigan contends tha he has fired the defense team. Clark, say that he has not been fired, that he is "still on the court record as a defense attorney.".
they're proven innocent.' •MARCIA RYBCZNSKI The Harrisburg Conspiracy Trial has begun . Seven antiwar act1v1sts, including Father Philip Berrigan , stand facing official charges of " con- spiring to commit offenses against the United States" and planning to enact a series of raids on draft boards and federal offices in several states . The first charge centers around an alleged plot to kidnap presidential advisor Henry Kissinger and to also sabotage tunnels beneath the nation 's capital. But the defendants see their case in a completely different per- spective.
Supporters of the Harrisburg Seven add to the government's explanation of the site with their own comment that Harrisburg , Pennsylvania is an area which is not bothered by "large city " problems, such as an abundance of liberal students and professional people , hippie radicals and active antiwar organizations. The people in the federal court district are,<> · for the most part , middle-aged members of the working class, who tend to give support to their government. Jury selection from this population proved to be an interesting task for both the government and defense. From the 305 perspective jurors , there was a sys- tematic elimination of clergymen, law- yers, doctors , teachers and many busi• nessmen. Questions asked of jurors con- cerned their attitudes toward the Viet - nam War, government, and pre-trial publi- city of the trial. Concerning their reading habits, among those who passed the first round of questioning, there was a woman whose only reading consisted of the food ads, and another woman who only bothered with the "obituary column, the weddings, things that interest women--not the front page ." Another prospective juror was a retired salesman whose main concern with the paper involved the weather re- port and the obituary list. One court official when questioned about the education and political at- titudes of the people stated: "These people have common sense, I've seen them sit on a lot of juries, and they usually come up with the right decision." Jurors were also asked if they could put aside their personal feelings toward the Vietnam War in making a verdict. Those who felt they couldn't were eliminated. The chief prosecutor William Lynch justified the question claiming that "the Vietnam War is not on trial here." He also questioned the jurors to make sure all would disregard their personal
Eqbal Ahmed, one of the seven alleged conspirators, said, "We are not accused so much of kidnapping and bombing, but of opposing the war and subverting the United States of America in a very gen - eralized way." The Seven stake their in - nocence on the guaranteed right of all Arrericans to free discussion , no matter what the topic, as differentiated from the actual planning of the overthrow of the government. Supporters of the Seven claim that if the group is convicted, the government stands guilty of violating the First Amendment which guarantees free speech to all citizens. Even before the trial opened on 21 February, charges were leveled by the press and the defense accusing the govern- ment of biasing the public against the Seven and of manipulating trial pro - cedures to prevent the possibility of a fair trial by peers. The first charge , leveled several months ago, arose from the government's attempts to publish in several prominent magazines and newspapers segments of letters discussing the alleged plot. The re- sulting publicity, the defense claimed, was prejudicial in nature and could un- fairly influence a jury's decision. The go- vernment later claimed, however, that anyone having a "definite opinion" on the case was eliminated from jury duty . The second charge stemmed from the government's location of the trial in Har- risburg, Pennsylvania . Under the terms of the conspiracy law, which the Seven stand accused of violating, the trial is to be held in the federal court district where the overt act of the alleged conspiracy took place. Although the government could have held the trial in the District of Columbia, Baltimore, Philadelphia or a number of other places, Harrisburg was chosen be- cause it is the district in which one of the defendants participated in the plot.
STRAIT Z3 FEBRUARY, I 97Z
Now, the question arises: What type of people vote for George Wallace and why? In an attempt to answer this we must divide his support into two regions - the North and South. During the "ante bellum" south (the period up to the Civil War), the poor white man was at the bottom of the social structure - below the Negro slave - contrary to popular opinion. Then came the Civil War and Reconstruction . After 1877 when the last Federal Troops were removed from the South, the poor white seized the opportunity to elevate himself above the Blacks, or as C. Van Woodward put it: "As democracy came for the Whites, Blacks were alienated. " This also affected the changing at- titude of the upper class white who ruled the South. This pattern continued through to the present with the rich white ruling, while reflecting the racial
From the mid-sixties on, America has witnessed what is believed to be the crest of a social revol- ution - a complete transformation in morals, values nd most of whatever else may have been con- sidered traditionally American. The poor, the black and the young spearheaded this re-evaluation period that resulted in demonstrations, riots , sit -ins, rock festivals and other forms of discontentment . Yet in 1964, the same year as the Free Speech Movement at Berkley, the Civil Rights Act and the Beatles, Barry Goldwater, Conservative-Republican candidate for the Presidency, polled 39 per cent of the popular vote. In 1968, the year Eugene McCarthy described as "the year of the people ," George Wallace polled some 13 per cent of the vote and nearly threw the presidential election into the House of Represent- atives.
e- s- t a ~- f e
views of the poor white Then the bottom L dropped out from under- E neath. From 1954 on the c Blacks have been engaged in the struggle for equal- T ity. This naturally threat- ens the social as well as O the economic status of N the poor white . Wallace s then appears as the savior of this alienated group. 1 He represents the force that will maintain the present status of the poor 7 white . Naturally, he says 2 nothing of elevating the poor regardless of race, but the lower class white has been conditioned for the past eighty years to feel superior because of his whiteness. In all, Wallace seems to be the idol of the poor white who sees the Black advancing while he re- mains stagnant. In the North, Wallace appeals mostly to work- ing class whites whose E 9
Now as election day 1972 approaches we find George Wallace off and running again with the polls indicating that he might just succeed in ac- complishing the feat he attempted four years ago. Althought newspaper headlines were cluttered _.,,ith dissent and upheaval 9>n the left, the most powerful protest to the establishment was exer- cised on the right. George Wallace, the governor of Alabama, has proven him- self to be the leader of this movement. Not since 1912 when Teddy Roosevelt -ran for President on the "Bull Moose II Part did a third party ever pose a serious threat to the other two.In 1948 when Strom Thurmond ran on the National States Rights Party, he polled a mere 2.5 per cent of the pop- ular vote and was virtual- ly unknown outside the
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revolution on the
•MICHAEL KAISER incomes range from 7 to 10 thousand dollars a year .. This working class - a product of the New Deal - suffered from the same type of ethnic and economic discriminations as Blacks face today. The northern working class is mostly eastern and southern European Catholic by background, as opposed to the good White Anglo- Saxon Protestant - the 100 per cent American. Since its acceptance into the American society, the working class has been obsessed with the notion of being more American than his white Anglo-Saxon
deep South . However, twenty years later, George Wallace running on a similar platform not only swept the deep South, but ran strongly in urban industrial cities of the North . Had he not chosen urtis Lemay as his Vice-Presidential candidate, he may very well have done better. In addition, during the closing weeks of the 1968 election, his strength in the North was drastically reduced due to the all-out effort by city bosses and labor leaders such as Richard Daley and George Meany . \ 13Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32
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