Art of Delegation DigiBook V51

JULY 2017 | VERSION 51 D I G I B O O K ART of DELEGATION

TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3 MANAGERIAL GRID ....................................................................................................... 4 SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL.......................................................................... 6 PYGMALION EFFECT ...................................................................................................... 9 EXPECTATIONS’ CYCLE ............................................................................................... 10 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM............................................................... 11 PMS AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT - A COMPARISON.......................... 11 9 BOX MODEL OF ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS ..................................................... 13 COACHING ..................................................................................................................... 16 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................. 20

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INTRODUCTION

Delegation is one of the aspects of managerial functions whereby the employees are expected to utilize their skills and potential to get a task done. The person who is delegating needs to ensure that to whom the task is being delegated knows thoroughly what is expected from him/her, how to go about achieving it and the level of authority that he/she is entrusted with.

Delegation, as an organizational function is crucial for proper work allocation among subordinates so that the manager can concentrate on the more strategic issues like planning, business analysis, etc. It acts as a motivational factor for subordinates since there is independence and transfer of authority, gives them a sense of job satisfaction and also helps in the development of their skills and capabilities. Yesteryear talked of the need and importance of having managers. Today the focus is predominantly on being an effective leader. The corporate wants leaders and not mangers. However, the role of a manager cannot be completely side tracked. Hence, what is needed is the ability of a manager to transform into a leader, to aid and guide in performance enhancement. The new age manager is much more than just a manager he is someone who influences his followers while infusing change in their environment and attitudes. There has to be a shift from the managerial style to the leadership style if you want to develop a high performance team. The table below gives a glimpse into the difference between a manager and a leader.

Characteristics

Manager

Leader

Style assumed

Authoritarian

Charismatic

Focus

Task focus

People focus

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Dealing with risks

Risk-averse

Risk-seeking

Works towards

Objectives

Vision

Orientation is

Reactive

Proactive

Relationships

Subordinates

Followers

A manager works in teams whereas a leader deals with high performance teams. There is an increasing need felt for the development of high performance teams. The difference between the conventional teams and the high performance teams is that the latter is highly goal focussed. This brings us to comprehend the various facets of a high performance team.

MANAGERIAL GRID The managerial grid model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1957 related to the behavioural relationship model. This model was developed to focus originally on five different leadership styles, which are based

on people and production concern. The model is shown on a grid with production concern as the (X-axis) and people concern as the (Y-axis). Each axis ranges from 1 (Low) to 9 (High). The leadership styles are described as follows:  The ‘Indifferent style’ (1,1), previously known as ‘Impoverished style’ - Evade and elude In this style, managers neither show much concern for people nor production. Managers use this style to uphold their job or job seniority, by protecting themselves from getting into problems. The manager is just concerned about not being held responsible for mistakes, which further results in less or no innovative decisions.

 The ‘Accommodating style’ (1,9), previously known as a ‘Country club style’ - Yield and comply

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This style has more concern for people and less for production. Managers use this style to pay more attention to the security and solace of the employees, in the hope that this will improve the performance of these employees. By adopting this style, the atmosphere becomes friendly, but might not prove very productive, as employees might start taking targets casually.  The ‘Dictatorial style’ (9,1), previously known as ‘Produce or Perish style’ - Control and dominate In this style, managers are more concerned about the production, and are less concerned about the employees. Managers, who use this style, often treat their employee needs as unimportant. Managers pressurize their employees by imposing rules and punish them if the organizational goals are not achieved. This style is based on ‘Theory X’ of ‘Douglas Mc Gregor’ therefore this style is mostly used during crisis management.  The ‘Status-quo style’ (5,5), previously known as ‘Middle of the road style’ - Balance and compromise In this style, managers try to balance the organizational goals with the needs of the employees. By showing concern for both people and production, managers hope to achieve desirable performance.

Country club style

Team style

1, 9

9, 9

5, 5

Middle of the road style

1, 1

9, 1

Impoverished style

Produce or perish style

Low

Concern for production

High

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 The ‘Sound style’ (9,9), previously known as ‘Team style’ - Contribute and commit In this style, managers show high concern towards both people as well as production. As suggested in ‘Theory Y’, managers who adopt this style encourage teamwork and commitment amongst the employees. This method heavily relies on making employees feel important and become a constructive part of the organization. In addition to the above, there are two additional styles. However they are not plotted in the above grid. The two more recent styles are:  The ‘Opportunistic style’ - Exploit and manipulate This style was added to the grid theory before 1999. Managers using this style are not located in fixed area on the grid. They adopt the most suitable behaviour that offers the most benefit. This is different from middle of the road style and has a negative connotation to it.  The ‘Paternalistic style’ - Prescribe and guide This style was added to this theory before 1999. Managers often praise and give support to their employees, but do not like challenges. They are too guarded and avert risks.

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL

It is important to develop people in order to help them grow. Self growth within the organization is directly dependent on growth and development of people under you in the hierarchy. Situational leadership model was

extended to include the level of people development. The leader should select the respective style based on the competence and willingness of the followers. The development of the followers was classified from D1 to D4. This grid categorizes leadership styles into four behaviour types, which are as follows:

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S2, D2

S3, D3

High task

Low task

and

and

High people development

High people development

S4, D4

S1, D1

Low task

High task

and

and

Low people development

Low people development

Task behaviour

 S1 The S1 leaders allot suitable roles and tasks to the followers, and monitor them personally. Decisions are made and declared by the leader. Hence, here the communication is a one way process. These leaders manage well under crisis. This style works best when the person or group being led is not performing tasks to an acceptable level or is intimidated by tasks. This could also be helpful when followers are unclear about directions or are defensive and uncomfortable. The leaders set the critical objectives. This style works well because the followers are low on self efficacy and lack confidence.

D1: Low competence, high commitment – Such followers do not possess the skills which are required for their jobs. But they have the urge to learn those skills and implement them.

 S2

Though S2 leaders decide upon the tasks to be allotted to each follower, he is willing to consider any suggestions, ideas or opinions given by the followers. Ultimately it’s the leader who takes the decisions. He is the one who

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executes the communication is a two way process. This style is best suited to the followers who are willing to perform the task by being receptive. The followers have the ability to perform well and show the results, but do not get the authority to take any kind of decision. the plan. Here

D2: Some competence, low commitment – Such followers may possess pertinent skills required for performing a particular task, but require leader’s help to complete the task. The task or the situation may be new to them.

 S3 The S3 leaders give the authority to the followers to take the daily decisions. As a result followers take the charge of performing any task. The leaders do involve in their followers’ decisions. Leaders help in enhancing the skills as well as the abilities of the followers by giving them such a responsibility. Even though followers have the ability and knowledge to take the decision and perform accordingly, they are scared to do so as they are afraid and not sure if their decisions will work. Hence they are looking out for continuous feedback from their leaders. This style helps people develop as they have the ability and possess the skills to perform a particular task. However, at the same time they are scared to perform it all by themselves.

D3: High competence, variable commitment – Such followers are capable of doing the task but are not sure if they can perform it alone or they may lack the motivation to perform it within time.

 S4 The S4 leaders give full authority to the followers to take the decisions. The followers are the ones who decide when they require leader’s help. They share with their leaders good and bad reports without hesitating. As a result of this they

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become highly performance oriented and can make impressive task related decisions. As soon as the leader comes up with a new strategy, he develops it and hands it over to his followers for its implementation. People are developed tremendously, as they possess the ability and confidence to perform the task well.

D4: High competence, high commitment - They are aware of their abilities and know that they can perform well. They also have the experience required for the job. They may be better than the leaders. This shows that it is necessary to remain either in S3 or S4 quadrant for development of people as well as the organization. S1 and S2 leaders get increments. However, people, who get promoted first, are S3 and S4 leaders. A situational leader is capable of adapting various leadership styles depending on the circumstances.

PYGMALION EFFECT

The power of expectation is immense. Employees’ performance is affected by their manager’s expectations. Pygmalion effect postulates that if you keep higher expectations from employees, their performance improves. Others performance can be managed,

if you are able to manage your perception and expectations from them.

Every manager has certain expectations from his subordinates which influence the manager’s actions and behaviour while interacting with the subordinates. Hence the manager is constantly communicating his expectations to the subordinates purposely or accidentally. Pygmalion effect works on this basis.

Manager has different expectations from each of his subordinate. He treats the subordinates differently according to his expectations. Manager does not give much

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attention to the employees from whom he has fewer expectations. He provides them with low prestige offices which are possibly away from him. He gives them lesser insights as to what all is happening in the

department. He allows them to contribute very less on the special projects. He criticizes them more frequently than the employees from whom he has high expectations. He interrupts them more. Even after they make successful efforts, they are not praised by the manager. This communication which may be either verbal or non-verbal is internalized by the subordinates. This in turn affects the subordinates’ self-concept and self-esteem. Ultimately the subordinates’ perform in ways that are consistent with manager’s beliefs and expectations. This is valid not only in the work situation but also in our personal lives.

EXPECTATIONS’ CYCLE

Manager’s expectations from subordinates

R einforce

Influence

Subordinate’s performance results

Manager’s behaviour towards subordinates

Pygmalion effect

E ffect

Impact

Subordinate’s self-esteem and self-concept

Now that we know that our expectations have immense potential to manifest in reality, we should consciously set high expectations for people. Even if the expectations are initially inaccurate, people tend to act in ways that are consistent

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with the expectations. Surprisingly, the outcome is congruence between the results and the expectations set.

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Performance management and development is the process by which all employees are trained, developed and evaluated to enable them to contribute effectively to the plans and objectives of the organization. PMS ensures:

 Effective appraisals of employees  Measure of results against agreed targets  Better communication at the workplace

PMS advantages  Best opportunity to be honest, free and frank  Can be used as a system for accurate reading  No longer operate on perceptions that people may create  Good review mechanism  Great opportunity to drive values and growth  Performance goes up

PMS outcomes  Indicating how many people are performing

 Providing a direction to employees  Setting objectives for the next year  Helping in succession planning

 Defining training needs  Giving effective feedback

PMS AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT - A COMPARISON Performance monitoring Monitoring the performance is a part of performance management system.

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Measuring productivity

Team hurdles

Gap analysis

Performance monitoring

ICRAs and performance trackers

Root cause analysis

Looking at the big picture

Feedback on feedback

Performance monitoring is a metric to understand where employee stands as compared to the predefined targets for him/her.

Performance management

Clarity in goal setting

Coaching/ training

Environment creation

Performance management

People development

Aiding performance

Looking at the big picture

Feedback on feedback

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Performance management system entails motivating employees by setting goals, measuring progress, giving feedback, coaching for improved performance and rewarding achievements.

Performance monitoring

Performance management system

1

Part of PMS

Operates as entire system

2

Monitors performance of an individual or a department

Monitors and manages performance of the entire organization

3

Scope is restricted to measuring progress against targets

PMS consists of measuring progress, giving feedback, training or coaching to achieve the set goals

4

Operates at tactical level

Operates at strategic level

5

Aims at meeting predefined standards

Aims at continual performance improvement

9 BOX MODEL OF ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS This model shows us, how the ability and the willingness of a person, affects his/her development. The second matrix shows developmental interventions that are effective for various kinds of people.

8

7

9

Some level of pain existing Increase willingness through coaching Confused people Change the environment by doing job rotation Give routine work to increase ability Give them training and coaching

Gold mine Give challenging tasks to increase willingness

Talent Needs right directions from the mentor

4

5

6

Troublesome people Deliver around boundary Move them out Need not to be a write off Increase willingness first

Potential employees Develop ability through training

2

1

3

Gives marginal challenges

Low

Medium

High

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Willingness

Box

Feedback

Counselling

Training

Coaching

Buddy

Mentor

1





2







3





 

4





5





6







7





8









9







 1 st box Such people are low on both willingness as well as ability. They need not necessarily be write-offs. These people can improve, if they are given regular feedbacks on their performance. They should be counselled for an attitude change, in order to move them into the 2 nd box.  2 nd box Such people have average willingness but low ability to develop. They need to be given routine work. They also need to be trained in order to increase their ability, as willingness already exists. A feedback on performance needs to be given. They must also undergo counselling on their attitude, in order to perform better. Thereafter, such people move into the 3 rd box.

 3 rd box Although these people have low ability, their willingness to perform is very high. Such people need to be given regular feedback. They can be considered ‘Hungry

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samurais’ as they are ready to take challenges. They should be given marginal challenges, in order to increase their ability. Training and coaching should be provided to develop their skills and competencies.

 4 th box These people have an average ability, but no will to develop. They are troublesome people. Maximum they can deliver is, only around the boundary. They create extensive pain for the manager. Hence it is better, if they are moved out of the organization.  5 th box These people have medium ability and will to perform and develop. Such people are confused about their work. They need to be groomed well. They need to be trained and coached in order to develop their skills and competencies.

 6 th box Such people are average on ability but have a high will power to develop. These are the people who have got the potential to perform their work effectively and they grow high. They need to be trained and coached, so that they prove beneficial to the organizational development.

 7 th box These people have high ability but no willingness to develop. Such people have mostly reached their

retirement age. Hence, though they are experienced and capable, they lack the will to perform and develop. These people are gold mines of the organization.

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 8 th box These people have high ability and an average willingness to develop themselves. Such people need to be given regular feedbacks on their performance. They need to be trained and coached, to increase their level of performance. They should be given challenging and interesting assignments. This will help them grow and move to the 9 th box.

 9 th box This is the last and the best box. Here talent is created. Both the ability, willingness to perform and develop is high. Hence development is also very high.

COACHING Meaning

As human beings we all have dreams and aspirations in life. To fulfill them, there is a need for a precise and clear path. The direction and guidance thus serves mammoth role in trekking up to the summit of success. Since every individual has a unique dream, every path has to be customized to harness the strengths and surpass the weaknesses of the aspirant. This has given boost to the practice of coaching.

Coaching gives us an opportunity to proactively take charge of our lives and direct it in the way we desire. Coaching traditionally has been the scientific art of stimulating, vitalizing and facilitating the learning, development as well as performance of an individual - the protégée. Coaching process Before starting the coaching process, background study of the coaching potential needs to be performed:  Coaching objectives are identified and set.

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 Zero meeting is conducted, in which these coaching objectives are finalized. Consensus takes place between the coach and the protégée.

 Then a reality check is performed. In this reality check, the coach talks to the former bosses and peers of the protégées, in order to develop his performance. This helps in increasing his performance. Hence, PMS plays a vital role in this process.

 There should be timely interactions and discussions on the reality check. It might be very uncomfortable for the protégées but it indirectly helps in their development.

 After performing the above steps, a strategy or a plan is prepared, keeping in view the constraints of protégée’s department. Ideally, to make such strategy/plan effective, two hours per month must be given in order to protégée coach interactions.  After finalizing the strategy/plan, necessary actions should be taken, to implement it. Training, coaching, and timely feedbacks should be provided to implement the strategy efficiently.  Reviewing the whole process is necessary, in order to avoid any mistakes, which can most likely occur. Revise all the steps and strategies listed. This can help you to add or deduct a few points in your strategy/plan.

 The coaching process ends, with coach briefing the protégée on his progress during the coaching. This discussion usually happens after the objectives set in the initial stage are achieved. Therefore, it is important to disconnect at this stage.

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Set coaching objective

Zero meeting

Reality check

Discussion on reality check

Strategy/Plan

Action the plan

Review

End

Six cap coaching system

There are altogether six caps under this model:  Declaring possibilities cap

This cap symbolizes exploring options and finding alternatives. Coach suggests different ways to achieve goals to solve problems and handle situations. Coach may discuss the issue with the individual and make him brainstorm on different options. Issues which were not thought of before are brought to notice by the coach.  Drawing others out cap This cap is helpful when the individual is reserved. The reason behind can be communication gap or unwillingness to contribute. Coach helps to bridge this gap using various techniques. He probes to find out the reason for being reserved and emphasizes benefits of expressing ideas to the individual. He helps the person to come out of his shell.

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Declaring possibilities

Drawing others out

Forwarding action

Assessment

Six cap coaching model

Teaching and advising

Reframing

 Assessment cap Putting on this cap means evaluating available options objectively. Pros and cons of each option are weighed. Implications are carefully analyzed and the best option is chosen. This is the crucial step to reach action plan.  Reframing cap This cap is used when coach encounters rigid mind-sets, wrong attitudes, inapt thinking and restrictive belief system. Coach has to reframe people’s thoughts and ideas in order to bring about change. This step is important for people to see other perspective of their beliefs and make appropriate modifications.  Teaching and advising cap This cap helps when coach wants people to understand and learn some essential things. Coach imparts useful knowledge and skills to the individual. This step equips the person with necessary ways and techniques that are helpful in goal achievement.

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 Forwarding action cap The coach is supposed to wear this cap when enough thinking and planning has been done and it’s time to take steps. Coach also suggests the starting point and way ahead. He emphasizes importance of action and instils energy to act.

CONCLUSION

Delegation is a fine art and to be able to master it, a leader needs to decide on tasks not requiring special expertise and hence can be delegated, also who they need to be delegated to. While empowering team members, leaders need to ensure that precise instructions are given regarding the task and accountability, coaching is resorted to wherever required. Only then will delegation truly benefit the employee, team and the organization.

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