Strait_v1n4_1971-11

CONTENTS

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EDITORIAL

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE AT BUFFALO 10 NOVEMBER • 24 NOVEMBER 1971

INTERCHANGE

GUEST EDITORIAL THE OWL 'S CORNER

ANDREWS ELSTON Editor

MIND'S EYE

KEEP KENT STATE ALIVE

HELENE HEIT Business Manager

NEWS

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THE CANNIKIN TEST :

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BEVERLEY CONRAD News Editor

MAN 'S BIGGEST BOOM

EAST COAST CONSPIRACY

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LARRY FRITZ Feature Editor

DESTROYS DRAFT LAWS

NEWS ANALYSIS

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CAROL EDMONDSON Arts Editor

ERIE COUNTY EXECUTIVE

PHOTO ESSAY : PENNSYLVANIA COUNTRY BREATH : GETTING DOWN TO A SOURCE

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NANCY DICK Graphics Editor

DINING : THE BLACKSMITH

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HEDDA GORDON Copy & Proofs

THE REAL WORLD

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Cl RCUM LOCUM A few issues back, we presented the facts, background and possible future of the Atomic Energy Commission's planned test of the Cannikin bomb . on Amchitka Island. We also circulated a petition calling for its cancell4' tion. Thousands of other concerned groups around the nation & the globe paralleled our concern. Members of the STRAIT staff participated in a demonstration with over three thousand Canadians last week on the Rain- bow bridge, and in a follow-up (& hopefully, wrap-up) story, Bev Conrad, News Editor, reports on what happened there as well as on the island itself when the bomb was detonated on Saturday . Supporting another petition & an- other nation-wide P.f- fort to win Washing- ton's ear, we prerent here an article con- cerned with Kent State and the sta- tus of the investi- In Th1·s Issue gations associat- ed with it.The art- icle, drafted by Barry Levine, a stu- dent at the Univer- sity of Buffalo, will be appearing in a UB publication. Re- garding America and her world reputation Bill Davis, Editor of Punch, provides us with a view from the otherside of the Atlantic. Other attractions in this issue include: a very en- lightening and instructive article on yogic breathing by Larry Fritz,Feature Editor, who teaches a course in yoga at the Human Dimensions Institute; a photo essay by Mark Kozlowski, a student at the Rochester Institute of Technology on the quaint and serene Pennsylvania Dutch region; a strik- ing and unique review by Art Critic Wendy Hughes; and an exclusiverepcrt on the New and Improved East Coast Conspiracy to Save Lives as gleaned from a communique with representatives of the group.Read, think,enjo- GRAPHICS CREDITS : Nancy Dick : Cover , 5, 8; Beverley Conrad: 23, 11 (map), 12 (graphic) ; Barry Cohen : 24, 25, (correction : Barry Cohen was photographer of last issue 's photo of Rockwell Hall in the midst of an ocean of drugs.); Eric Chaffee: 12, 13; Heather Ingram : 19, 20, 21.

BILL SEWARD Circulation Manager

STAFF: Eric Chaffee, Barry Cohen , Steve Baskin, Michael Brookman, Frank Castillo, Joy Cummings, Bob Frank, George Howell, Wendy Hughes, Michael Sajecki, Thomas Fontana, Christopher Sajecki, Charles Fontana, Richard Man- ning, Jo Ann Pizzo, John Ryan, Gretchen Seibert, Gloria Simon, Mary Sullivan , Steven Waldman, Ann Schillinger, James Pastrick, Nancy Doherty, Mike Kaiser, Heather Ingram. STRAIT magazine is published fortnigh tty by the students of the New York State University College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo , New York, 14222. Office in the SUCB Student Union, room 401; telephone (716) &62-5326, &62-5 327. Publishing and operating funds allocated through the Publications Board at SUCB under the auspices of the United Students ' Government, SUCB, and through advertising income. STRAIT is distributed free to all members of the SUCB community and to students at other selected campuses on the Niagara Frontier. Price per copy for all others : 35 cents; $4.50 year (14 issues). For advertising rotes, contact the Business Manager at &62-5326. Circulation: 8,000. Unsolicited manu,cripts will be considered for publication by the respective editors, but STRAIT will not be responsible for their return. Persons not auociated with SUCB will not be discriminated against in terms of manuscript or graphic publication. Letters to the editor must be , designated as such and must be received by this magazine five full days prior to the issuance of each magazine. Letters and short articles for the Interchange will be printed verbatim and uncensored, and must be received one week prior to the issuance of each magazine. Editorial policy is determined by the Editorial Board. STRAIT is temporarily serviced by Alternate Features Service (AFS) and is a subscriber to College Press Service (CPS), De,11•er. Colorodo. Copyright 1 971 ; all rights reur,,ed: no portion of this magazine, its uerbal or pictoral content may be reprinted in any n1anne,· 1L'il/aoul the express consent of the Editor-in-Chief. Printed in the United States of A.merica by Record/lrcss

f ditorial The Cannikin nuclear test was detonated last Saturday at 5 pm EST - precisely as scheduled - and with no irnmediate overt damage to either man or his environment. The bomb, the largest ever det- onated by the United States, and possibly by man, had approximately 250 times the potency of that dropped 0 n Hiroshima . While it was a "success " from all nuclear and technical standpoints and did not in fact cause any quakes or floods , it most certainly cannot be termed a success for anyone but the Atomic Energy Commission, the physicists who engineered it and President Nixon and his national defense schemes. Few could argue that the purpose of "preserving the peace" was accomplished . Certainly no one can now relax and feel any "safer " now that the United States government has demonstrated the tremendous power necessary to perpetrate such an overtly vio- lent and malicious act against its citizenry and the world . Not only has the federal government displayed its nuclear strength to the world, but its executive strength to all of America and her allies who in someway attempt-~d to have the blast cancelled or least postponed. Not only can the United States etonate a bomb that threatens the environment and human lives, but it can also disregard the wishes and demands of its citizenry and officials. The Amchitka incident is by no means over. People are still dying in Hiroshima from burns and wounds inflicted by our bomb dropped there at the close of the Second World War. Children are being born with deformities caused by chromosomal breaks in their parents who were present there when the bomb was dropped. The possibilities of similar developmen_ts for the wildlife in the Amchitka area are very real. But what is every bit as frightening - if not even more so - is the fact that the entire matter was secretly planned and strictly adhered to; that no amount of public dissent, international protest, or domestic law suits would override the executive pre- supposition that the blast would go on as scheduled. In light ·of other current attitudes of the federal government and the executive himself, one wonders what priorities the government has in mind. There are many priorities already set which seem to be inherently in opposition to the continued testing of nuclear weapons. We are currently engaged in the ....i.trategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) which are 'W1der way for the purpose of controlling - or at 1east limiting - the current international anti-ballistic missile race. Our credibility at these talks is certainly not without doubt.

And President Nixon seems to be giving a very high priority to warming relations with Red China - at the risk of waning friendship with some of our allies. Since the Safeguard anti-ballistic missile pro~ ject, which this test was a phase of, was designed as a defense from the Chinese, it seems that the executive feels that mere talking is not enough; that warming relations and dialogue do not preclude the inevitability of nuclear war. Five days prior to the detonation of Cannikin, on 1 November, President Nixon announced a new program to "reward and encourage,... efforts to clean up the nation's environment." The program is being administered through the Environmental Pro- tection Agency and the Commissioner of Education. The attempt of this program is to encourage "environmental awareness", to help "establish wild- life refuges" and to "participate in renewal projects." Unless Mr. Nixon feels that the purpose behind the Amchitka blast was to provide for pro- jects for such a program - a very beserk possibility - these two programs are in direct opposition to one another: Teach and encourage the kiddies to estab- lish new wildlife refuges, and blow up ones already in existence. (Amchitka Island is part of the Aleutian National Wildlife Refuge.) We might all have reason to be more fearful of our lives now than ever before - even though the blast was initially successful. The executive strength and lack of foresight displayed over the Amchitka situation is too wieldly to be passed off lightly - and much too successful for those using it to be kept from using it again. At the risk of sounding evil or sadistic, one might venture that perhaps it would have been better for world peace - certainly for domestic peace - if the blast had not been successful. If thou- sands of lives had been threatened by earthquakes and floods both here and abroad. Even if no lives were lost, the impact of such a threat might con- vince the AEC and others that this nuclear blasting business must be stopped. Now that the U.S. and the AEC have "proven" that there was no danger, there is no reason for them to ever again listen to the critics. The govern- ment has once again proven to itself that it is right-,- "' and just, and infallible. · · Testing on Amchitka began several years ago . The last test to be conducted there was a 5 mega- ton b.)mb in 1969. If we progressed from 1.5 megatons to 5 megatons in two years, what is to stop us now from trying 6, 8, 10 or more? -ASE

Men arc never so likely to settle a question rightly as when they discuss it freely -Macaulay Macaulay was right. And we probably all recognize this as a maxim . But often times we do not care to exercise the opportunity to argue a point, express an opinion or add some personal emphasis to an issue. That's is what this section of STRAIT is for: to give you - who are on the other side of the page from us - an opportunity to express yourselves uncensored. That's more than a lot of other publications offer. Our attempt is to bring to you the highest level of collegiate journalism and graphics possible. And in so doing, we think that we are providing our readers much food for thought . A magazine, a newspaper, etc. is a medium: that means that it is a means, a way of presenting things to people. But it should work in the other direction, too. The reason this magazine was begun was because we were not satisfied with the existing media. We wanted to go beyond the others. If we are not satisfying you, let us know. Articles, letters, complaints should be sent in care of the Editor, STRAIT magazine, Union 401. As Paul McCartney wrote (under different situations): "send me a postcard, drop me a line, stating point of view; indicate precisely what you mean to say ... "

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Few people talk like this today. The main rea- son, of course, is not just President Nixon's con- ciliatory moves, but American's defeat in Vietnam. It never occurred to me, I confess, that any- thing good could ever come out of this tragic con- flict, but like Hiroshima it has produced at least one welcome result . People have become less trigger- happy . Americans were told they could win, and for a long time saw no reason to doubt it. Defeat (and no-one bothers to pretend that it amounts to any- thing else) has been a shattering blow to their self- esteem. This particularly applies to the older generation - in other words, the people who hold the most influential positions today. Ten years ago, they were immensely confident. They eagerly and willingly embarked on America's own age of Empire. The same people, now, are sub- dued, and disillusioned. The urge to fight has gone. The young, of course, can claim a lot of credit for this. Their distaste for war has proved in- fectious . There is no longer any need for noisy demonstrations against the bomb: the risk of nu- clear conflict is smaller now than it has been for two decades. The change of mood is welcome, but would be more welcome still if it did not have one disturbing aspect: a general desire to pull back from the world altogether. Having decided that it doesn pay to be the free world's champion, many Americans are anxious to be rid of all obligations. They would like nothing more than to dismantle old alliances, withdraw from Asia and Europe, drop out of the arms race, and forget about everything except America. This is why a lot of people applauded the Sen- ate's astonishing, and short-sighted, vote on foreign aid. And why Mr. Nixon has earned such warm ap- proval for his projected trips to Peking and Moscow. It is by no means clear, from Mr. Nixon's pub- lic statements, what he hopes to achieve. Many commentators think that it will turn out to be very little. But there are millions of Americans who badly want to believe that the desired goals have already been reached, and who are prepared to re-arrange national priorities accordingly. Warnings that much still depends on Moscow and Peking, and that it would be rash to assume that the communists have profoundly changed their ideas and ambitions, tend to be brushed aside. There is a large element of wishful thinking in the average American's current attitude, and much of it inevitably strikes the outsider as naive. It is, I suppose, in Mr. Nixon's intere~t to encourage it. But I suspect that, before long, attitudes will become a little more realistic. At least; I hope so. It would be absurd. for America to go' from one extreme to another.

GUEST ~~!.IQ RIAL •

Mr. Davis is the editor of Britian 's inter- nationally-known humor magazine, Punch. This column was written during his visit to New York last week for Buffalo State's Humor Symposium and appeared in The Man - che st er Guardian , Manchester, England on Friday, 5 November.

RED DELIGHT

John Wayne must be really mad with the new Nixon. The old one had everything neatly mapped out. All Americans were good guys. All communists were bad guys. The world was delightfully simple . The new Nixon has completely confused the issue. Nothing has been the same since the ping- pong players were treated so well in Peking and Mr. Nixon decided that, if they could be friendly with the Chinese, a President coming up for re-election could try it too . Public opinion about relations with Red China d the Soviet Union has reached a state of eu- phoria which even I find quite remarkable. It's hard to believe that these are the same people who, not so long, rushed to buy fall-out shelters and solemnly intoned that it was better to be dead than red. There are, to be sure, still people who don't go along with the President. But the general verdict is clear: the Communists are not so evil after all. If there are villains in the world, they are Japanese or West European. Don't think I'm complaining. The "better dead than red philosophy", with its built-in itchiness for showdowns, always struck me as rather terrifying. The old Nixon's America not only expected war, but frequently gave the- impression that it actually longed for it. This manifested itse1f particularly when the United States suffered. some slight, real or imagined, at the hands of a smaller nation. Americans were proud of being the wodd's greatest power. It was intolerable to think that anyone should try to shove them around. I vividly remember "beihg in Los Angeles at the time of the Pueblo affair, and hearing many intelli- gent and influential people urging the administration • f the day to use atomic. weapons "to teach these eople a lesson". It was .the gunboat approach all over again, but this tirrie' with vast1y more serious implications. 5

THE OWL'S CORNER

the sake of the family, personal advancement, racial or religious interest and pride; these are the lures of the occupation and the wiles of the rackets, but the attitude is thoroughly unprofessional and will pr_. duce thoroughly unprofessional students. • There is only one proper motivation for study: not money to be earned (or grades) not positions to be held, not race or country to be served, but to study for studying's sake. Take holidays as an example: many students consider vacations as earned free time; indeed, it is pleasant not to have to meet classes; but anybody, students or teacher who does not greet this time as a welcome opportunity to work undisturbed, to have finally a batch of time at one's disposal, for the ingathering of intellectual harvest, the preparing of future creativity, in brief an eagerly expected occasion to work freely; anybody who does not, consider holidays in this spirit is not a professional. This should and does not prevent a professional from enjoying family life, art or sport as long as it serves the necessary re-creation for work - and not everybody has to be a professional. The professional attitude does not tolerate dis- honesty, especially in methods of biases stated; the professional attitude demands insight it does not look downward to see how many are less advanced, but upward to see how many are more so; the pro- fessional attitude asks for discipline and self- discipline for an end to rationalizations, to easa excuses to ready-made denials. W, This attitude is not restricted to the tradition- ally professional fields (theology, medicine, law) it can be practiced in many careers and occupations but unless it is study for study's sake, work for work's sake it will lead to nothing but a racket; a very successful racket, perhaps, but a racket never- theless. That is why we must look with distrust, disgust, and with deep contempt to the hunt for grades, for degrees to the . ever-increasing stress on qualifications over competence, the assembling of credits rather than the expansion of knowledge or the deepening of insights. There are those who read only the books they must read; study the articles they have to study; who want to get •through, get by, get out; they are non-professionals no matter how many credits and degrees they accumulate, no matter how much money they make, no matter what their importance in the community might be, how many honors they receive - they are non-entities. We do live in a period of change, it is true; but there are certain eternal verities, certain abso- lutes, certain lawfulnesses and true securities; what we know, what we are, what we become. The true professional is the past the present and the future - the others are insignificant by-products for their time and place.

• JOSEPH H BUNZEL VOCATIONS, PROFESSIONS & RACKETS

At least twice a year , sometimes even more frequently, the students are greeted as leaders of the future, to carry on our tradition and culture, and with a feeling of pride and relief we relinquish our task. This is true for youth everywhere but especial- ly for the youth of the United States, its college and university population, right down to Kinder- garten graduation. However, they are leaders only in the most obvious chronological sense; some students are the future simply because they will survive - if they survive. Actually today's students are less pre- pared than any generation ever to assume responsi- bility, because, to put it quite simply and starkly, two-thirds or more will live in a world that is un- known to us at present, work in jobs that are not yet created, and grope for goals that neither we nor they can even dimly sketch. What then can we teach them to discharge our responsibility? Certainly not a variety of new curri- cula, of novel courses, of fresh gimmicks and devices, though some of these may be useful. What we can and indeed must teach is attitudinal, rather than behavorial; it is an approach rather than a goal. Here is where the difficulty lies; the development of our incorrectly called higher-education has made it almost impossible to teach what might be called the professional attitude. As usual, the name covers a changing, and quite devalued concept, although the historical deve- lqpment is clear enough: first the vocational call (voco: I call), then the medieval insistence on quali- fications regardless of competence, more and more prevalent with increasing specialization and division of labor, then the proud professionalization of here- tofore semi-professional occupations, and finally the collective grouping, the power-and-interest blocks, briefly what might be called the racketization of our educational and communal life. Thus, the line goes from occupation to profes- sion, from there to organization and the terrorizing of legitimate concerns, complete with vocabulary, hierarchies, rituals and myths, briefly the racketi- zation. At the risk of being considered a spoilsport: it should be pointed out unmistakably that today's "higher" education is an easy victim of ignoble super-gratification; students are asked to study for 6

can no longer be ignored . It is encouraging to note that these people have applied pressure on matters which concern students as well as themselves, for when a good teacher is held back and even released, the students not only lose the friendship and exper- tise of that teacher, but they lose much more in terms of demoralization and frustration. The at- tempt to expose inadequacies in the administration is a much needed display of concern for the prob- le ms which restrict the broad potential which Buffalo State has for development. The problems which presently exist have little chance for correct- ion if there sources are incorrectly understood. We must be prepared to deal with the fact that Pres- idential appointment in itself creates many problems . Rather than creating a position of strength, it often creates a position of pacification. The end result is that people are not satisfied, they are appeased. It is bad enough to maintain indif- ference toward college policy, but it is despicable to hinder due process of law. The solution to the problem of management at State lies in several areas . The first of these is recogmt1on of the complexities of the problem. Everyone, in effect, must make himself aware of the political nature of the college institution. We must recognize that presently, Buffalo State is far from an institution of learning. It is an incredible maze of small power pacts designed to maintain our slow pace and to prevent any progressive changes from occurring. Even though there is much talk which claims the opposite, the talk does not concur with the facts. Secondly, it is important for everyone to realize that each one of us is a part of and bears responsi- bility toward this college. None of us can afford to look the other way and to assume that someone else will correct the injustices -- we must all bear the burden of correction . Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, we must never forget who we are. In a situation such as this, there is little room for hysterical emotionalism and subjective self-righteousness. We can fight for what is right without being destructive and certainly without losing our dignity . There is no better road to defeat than to scream demands, for such be- havior can easily be written off as nonsense and stupidity . But rational debate and positive action must be dealt with on the same high level upon which it is delivered . It cannot be disregarded, it cannot be laughed off, it cannot go unnoticed. Most of us, faculty and students alike, have too much to lose from misguided and arrogant ad- ministrative policies. What is needed now is deter- mination and energy to end the destructive attitude which the administration proposes to perpetuate at this college. In short, we should realize that one man is in no position to determine that the des- tinies of thousands -- we hold that power in our own hands -- we can and must use it.

• JAN NUZZO

MIND'S EYE

MANNEQUIN ON PARADE

Ii has often been remarked that power is one thing which causes drastic changes in persons who have acquired it . To win a high public office is, in itself, an achievement which often lends itself to inappropriate self-esteem. On both large and small scales, election or appointment to a high office may have little or nothing to do with merit, but more en results from popularity smooth public p sentation, and political attachments. It seems that this very situation presently plagues Buffalo State. We are forced to deal with an administrator who holds all of the keys, but refuses to open any doors; one who is defensive instead of understanding, and evasive rather than direct. The current problems at this college are an inevitable outgrowth of a miserable attitude which has existed for years - a total disinterest in priorities and justice and a total preoccupation with political ploys and passing the buck. No one can deny that the position of College President is a difficult and demanding one. How- ever, it seems reasonable that a person who is willing to stand up for his beliefs, and who attempts to see to it that proper channels for change and justice remain open and viable, will receive co- operation in carrying out his duties. Regretfully, students, faculty, and even other administrators do not find themselves in this agreeable situation. Rather, they must deal with a President who side steps every issue, who openly supports discrimina- tion in policies which affect the college community, and who neglects to use his power in situations A re he is needed, all for the purpose of saving ,.e. I ask you Dr. Fretwell, whose face are you saving? How can you expect anyone to respect kindergarten games on the college level? Most recently it was necessary for the faculty of Arts and Sciences to take a stand on issues that 7

of the troops that day, would repeatedly speak of sniper fire coming from the rooftops . To this day General Cantebury maintains that his troops were about to be overrun by a group of more than cA hundred students that were charging to wit~ "three to four yards " of them, shouting and scream- ing "Kill the pigs ." This account was given under oath before the President 's Commission On Campus Unrest. He also said that his men were surrounded, and because they feared for their lives , the shooting was in self defense and therefore justified . Del Corso has said that some fifty of his men received injuries on that day . That is how the Ohio National Guard justifies the shooting. --·--

he smoke was still flowing from the barrels of the M-ls when a campaign was launched to obscure (if not completely bury) the facts surrounding the murders at Kent State . Reports of two dead guards- men were rapidly sent over police radio . That same afternoon, this unconfirmed rumor found its way into print in the Kent newspaper. The headlines read: "Two guards one student killed at K.S .U." This was typical. In the following weeks and even months, Adjutant General Sylvester Del Corso and General Robert Cantebury, the two men in char e

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• BARRY LEVINE

he Federal Bureau of Investigation spent two months and one hundred men investigating the in- cident. They say :

"There was no sniper . . . . The FBI has conducted an extensive search and has found nothing to indicate that any person other than a guardsman fired a weapon. " "Some guardsmen, including some who claim their lives were endangered and some who fired their weapons, had their backs to the students when the firing broke out." "There was no request from any guards- man for permission to use his weapon . . . . There was no initial order to fire ." "The guardsmen were not surrounded . Regardless of the position of the students following them , photographs and televi- sion film show that only very few stu- dents were located between the guards and the commons . They could easily have con- tinued in the direction in which they had been going.''

"At the time of the shooting , the Nation- al Guardsmen did not believe that they were being fired upon. No guardsman claims that he fell to the ground or took any other evasive action and all available photographs show the guard at the critical moments in a standing position and not seeking cover ." "Some guardsmen (unknown as yet) had to be physically restrained from contin- uing to fire their weapons. " "Although many claim they were hit with rocks at sometime during the confront- at i on, only one guardsman , Lawrenp Shafer , was injured on May 4, 197 , seriously enough to require any kind of medical treatment. He admits his injury was received some ten to fifteen minutes before the fatal volley was fired ."

Concerning Cantebury's claim of one hundred screaming students within four to five yards of the oops :

"As a guardsman who was present at Kent State, I cannot wholly dismiss the possibi- lity of a deadly collusion . Just as I know many fellow guardsmen who were appal- led by the murders . I know others who welcomed the deadly confrontation." · a guardsman

"General Cantebury also testified that the closest students were within four to five yards of the guards . In the direction the guard fired, however, photographs show an open space in front of the guardsmen of at least 20 yards. " • President's Commission on Campus Unrest "Of the nine students who were wounded, Joseph Lewis was probably the closest to the guard. He was shot while making an obscene gesture about twenty yards from the National Guard. " · Justice Dept . summary of FBI Report

Ayear ago the Ohio State Administration con- vened an obviously biased grand jury. It was sum• moned by Republican State Attorney General Brown, who appointed two other Republicans, Seabury and Balyeat, to direct the proceedings. All three were political buddies of Republican Governor James Rhodes.

"We're going to employ every force of law that we have under our authority ... We are going to employ every weapon possible. "The same group that we're dealing with here today • and there are three or four of them · they only have one thing in mind and that is to destroy higher edu- cation in Ohio. "These people just move from one campus to the other and terrorize a com· munity. They're worse than the brown shirts and the Communist element and also the night riders in the vigilantes. ·They 're the worst type of people that we harbor in America. '' I th ink we are up against the strongest, well-trained militant group that has ever assembled in America." • James Rhodes, speaking at a press conference on Sunday, May 3, 1970 in Kent, Ohio

It is quite evident that members of the Nation- al Guard are lying. Attorney General John Mitchell knows this. He also knows that if he convenes a federal grand jury, Del Corso and Cantebury will be reed to substantiate their stories with evidence. e fact is, there is no evidence to back their stories and they are well aware of it. John Simons is an Ohio National Guard Chaplin who was on the scene of the shooting. He has since been sharply critical of the command decisions that led to the shooting. Robert Shakne, a CBS reporter, was in the office of General Cantebury last year and heard him say over the telephone, referring to the chaplin: "We 've got to shut him up. This could be fatal." Not only do the National Guard alibis crumple in light of existing evidence, but there is sufficient evidence to support the theory that a group of the soldiers conspired to shoot specific students, and formalized their decision minutes before the actual firing.

Withheld from the grand jury was the Justice Department summary which included the testimony of five guardsmen all of whom stated that the lives of guardsmen were not endangered and that it was not a situation that in any way required shooting. Yet Seabury Ford, the special prosecutor said, "The National Guard should have shot all the trouble- makers." Also withheld from the grand jurors was the report by seven Knight Newspaper Chain report· ers who spent two weeks interviewing students, guardsmen and townspeople. These attempts to whitewash the incident have failed. The job of the special grand jury was done so inefficiently, that some three months later a federal judge in Cleveland ruled that in their invest· igation the members of the grand jury exceeded (cont'd. on page 22)

"Aside from any question of specific in- tent on the part of the guardsmen or a predisposition to use their weapons, we do not know what started the shooting." • Justice Dept. summary of FBI Report "Five persons interviewed in Troop G, the group of guardsmen closest to Taylor Hall, admit firing a total of eight shots into the crowd or at a specific student." (emphasis added) . · Justice Dept. summary of FBI Report 9

NEWS

STUDENTS VOTED 'IN ' ACROSS THE U .S. • Student elect ion power got its first major test around the nation last week as college students thems~s, won elections to local offices in Rhode Island, Ohio, and Minnesota . Despite the controversy over whether students should vote in the communities where they attend school , or in their hometowns , there were few reports of trouble over the students 1 residencies . In Bloomington , home of Indianna University , Francis McCloskey, 32 , a Democrat , defeated Mayor John Hooker , Jr., 45 , a Republican . McCloskey, a graduate of the university 's law school , won all but two of the city's sixteen precincts and ran especially well in the four precincts that lie partly on the campus . Elsewhere , David Passman, 19 , a junior at Ashland College and a write -in candidate for mayor of Newcomerstown , Ohio, won a landslide victory over four challengers . Final unofficial returns showed Passrran with 1067 votes and his nearest challenger with 329 votes . In Boston , election officials said a " couple of hundred" 18-21 year olds were forced by challengers to cast paper ballots in areas where there were large numbers of college students. CENTRAL POWER FOR DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM The NYS Board of Regents recommended on 29 October that the present City Board and position of Chancellor of City School District in New York City be replaced with a single commisioner of Education. New York City now has thirty-one popularly elected boards of education . The Board stated that if a single board was to stand as an unpaid body of laymen, only persons of means or leisure could serve , and it would not be truly representative of the public. Conversely, a salaried board would have its own staff and the option to become involved in functions other than those designated to the board . The success of the educational enterprise depends largely on pinpointing the ultimate responsibility, the Board of Regents concluded, and in a decentral- ized system the central authority should be powerful in monetary responsibilities, and have the strength and prestige of the mayor . A City Commissioner appointed by the mayor, and working side by side with the Department of Correct- ions, Health , Welfare and all other municipal agencies would best use the vast non-school resources for e benefit of the children . PENAL REFORM FROM THE OTHER SIDE OF THE WALL A luncheon of the Oregon Correctional Association convention was disrupted recently by a group of ten protesters who identified themselves as Black Panthers. The demonstrators, opposing speaker, Louis Nelson, Warden of San Quentin Prison , carried signs and chanted slogans throughout the room as the conventioneers were being served. After leaving the room briefly, and being locked out of the building, they left. Meanwhile , Nelson opened his speech, Prison Riots, by stating : "In California we haven 't seen an Attica. But we have been blessed · or plagued, depending on your point of view • by many minor disturbances." He stressed that trouble can be started from outside the prison as well as from inside . "The events of 1968 [ San Quentin prisoner's strike] showed the public pressure from the outside, and the use of rock bands could foment trouble." Nelson cited the demonstrators outside prisons as not being simply concerned with prison conditions, but a "continuation of the campus demonstrations." He said that San Quentin had made more prison reforms in the past four years, than in its history : "We must stop trying to isolate penal reform. I can remember the time when South-Asian nations of Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonisia have responded with anxiety and some bewilder- ment to the economic waves created by the new Nixon economic policy according to report by Dispatch News The effect of the ten percent import surcharge is still being debated and calculated, but their irritation at being what Singapore's New Nation described as "the helpless spectators of a crisis" cannot be denied. The composure of these countries is shaken even more by the knowledge that the European nations and Japan will be able to fight back in a trade war, and the developing nations will be the ones most severely damaged in an economic battle. Singapore is the business center for Southeast Asia and is highly dependent on foreign trade . There has been a substantial increase in trade between the U.S . and Singapore during the8 t year. Neighboring Malaysia has as export-oriented economy receiving about fifty percent of its GNP ~m exports, with the U.S. as its top trading partner. The devaluation may, according to a Singapore economist, cause uncertainty among Indonesia's regional neighbors and foreign investors who are already touchy enough about her past volatility. He feels that the only advantage Indonesia will gain is a rise in tourist trade since it will now cost foreigners less to go to Indonesia. penal reform was giving the inmates an extra bath a week. 11 SOUTH-ASIAN NATIONS · SPECTATORS OF A CRISIS

Cannikin test:

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•BEVERLEY CONRAD

What do you do with a five-megaton H bomb? According to the Atomic Energy Commission, four members of the U.S. Supreme Court and President Nixon, the answer is- test it. And that's what they did on Saturday, 6 November, 1971. The Cannikin test that took place on Amchitka Island is, to date, the biggest efficiency blast that the ~ C has undertaken. The test, designed to gain information on the Spartan warhead for the Safeguard ABM ~ anti-ballistic missile] system, had all the power of five-million tons of TNT. It was detonated at 5 p .m. Eastern Standard Time, despite the pleas of thousands of environmentalists and concerned individuals throughout the United States and Canada . The explosion took place in a huge cavern a mile under the surface of the island and was recorded on seismographs around the world. The Institute at Uppsula in Sweden reported a reading of 7.4- man's biggest boom yet.

Several weeks before the detonation of the bomb at Amchitka Island environ- mentalists from around the U.S. and Canada began registering complaints with the Federal government and the Atomic Energy Commission. Their concern was two-fold: Primarily, the area in which Amchitka Island is located is highly sensitive to earthquakes. In 1969 an H-bomb of 1.5 megatons was tested, with no killer tidal waves or major earthquakes. Their concern lay in the fact that although there was no major damage done in l 969, the multiplication factor of the intensity of a 5-megaton bomb could spark an earthquake. The Japanese asked that the U.S. cancel the test due to the possibility of earthquakes and tide! waves. The bomb, 250 times the capacity of the one used on Hiroshima, was also reacted against by the Canadian government. The second concern of the environ- en tali st s was that a leak in the underground chamber would cause further pollution of the surrounding natural environments. Amchitka Island is part of the Aleutian National Wildlife Refuge, and a

nesting place for bald eagles. Off-shore kelp beds containing large concentrations of sea otters and salmon for Canada and the United States might be killed or irre- versibly affected by a radiation leak. Radioactive materials from the blast could also seep into the Bering Strait causing the contamination of surrounding areas. The plea was brought before U.S. courts in a suit filed against the govern-

ment by the National Environmental Protection agency. According to the agency's 1969 National Environmental Protection policy, the AEC and the U.S. government stood the risk of violating the precedents set by the group. An appeals court last reversed the decision of the U.S. District Court in Washington. Saturday morning on 6 November, the day of the big bomb, a group of environmentalists led by the

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seriously affect Canada. One of the students commented : " If you want to do that , do it in Nevada where you always used to do it. It bothers me that this is going to affect Canada." Another, on the fact that Amchitka was the nesting place for the bald eagle, said: "Why do they want to kill their own symbol? " People from all over the i:rovince ia\ Ontario were represented. About aw· hundred U.S. students marched. U.S. - Canadian borders across the continent served as demonstration points throughout the controversy. A major cry during the rallys was, "If it's so safe - test it under the Penta~n!"

A coffin containing individually signed petitions was presented to the U.S. Customs officials refused to accept the coffin, which wa s left on U.S. soil by the students who then crossed back into Canada . The petition read : " We, the People of Canada, are strongly united to oppose the Amchitka Bomb. We protest the American det- onation of such a bomb near our shores or any other shore . We demand that you: as Americans, call a definite halt to Amchitka and to any further testing of such bombs." The major concern of the students was the the bomb , when exploded, would

Committee for Nuclear Responsibility , appeared in the Supreme Court. The con- servation group said that the federal government had failed to adaquately con- sider the possible consequences of the Cannikin test. They moved once again to the question of earthquakes, tide! waves, and radiation. Each side was given one half hour to present its side. The AEC discounted the likelihood of such events saying that the bomb, neces- sary for the development of the Spartan anti-ballistic missile, would be an under- ground test, and that the heat from the blast would cause the chamber to seal itself off by melting of the rocks. The Supreme Court voted in favor of the test in a four-to-three contest. Dis- senting justices argued, however, that the court needed more than the allotted time to answer the serious questions about the test. The government followed with the argument that the purpose of the test was "preserve the peace." Solicitor General Erwin Griswald argued for the government, and David Sive argued for the environmentalists. The vote, however, allowed the AEC and the government to procede as planned with the test. Countless groups around the U.S. and ~nada formed protest demonstrations in opposition to the Amchitka test. Their hope was that the test would either be post-poned or canceled - but all for naught. Pefitions were filed with the U.S. Government asking for a reconsideration in their planned actions, but, again - to no avail. Wednesday on 3 November, a mass of about 3000 demonstrators gathered at Rainbow Bridge in Canada. The group, mostly Canadian students, blocked the bridge and halted traffic through the Canadian-U.S. border.

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External affairs Minister Mitchell Sharp told the House of Commons on 27 tober that he had warned the United tates that Canada would hold the U.S. responsible for any damages done to Canada. The warning was delivered to U.S. Secretary of State William Rogers by phone. Sharp told reporters that the Canadian government would bill the U.S. For any damages inflicted as a result of the blast, and hoped that the bill, if pre- sented, would be paid. I

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Friday evening on 5 November, a phone number that would connect a cal- ler directly to the White House was broadcast over radio stations around the nation. The telephone number - (202) 456-1414 - gave the caller a chance to speak for or against the Amchitka test .A---------------------------------- large number of calls, mostly against, but some for the test, were received. Eco-laws Given "Top Priority"

People seeking further information on the test were referred to the "Complaints Department" of the Atomic Energy Commission. Those who wished to com- ment extensively on the Amchitka test were also referred to the AEC. A spokesman for the AEC said that the majority of the callers were "very polite" and reacted seriously and respon- ibly to the controversy. The callers were reassured that the AEC had checked the possibilities of extensive damage to the environment and had conclusively decided that it was not likely. A statement issued by the President on Saturday confirmed this. Saturday on 6 November the test went along as scheduled. AEC commissioner chairman James Schlesinger and his family, along with several members of congress stood at the control point. It was detonated at 5 pm EST (11 am on Amchitka) and the immediate results showed that the test had gone along as planned by the AEC with no more trem- mor than a slight rolling sensation under the sea. The rocks melted, as planned, in the heat of the explosion with temper- atures equal to that on the surface of the sun. As the melted rocks cool scientists expect some vibrations by the conden- sation of the liquid rock. David Jackson, a spokesman for the AEC said, "It may be a matter of days, or it may not even occur ...there will be a settling and caving in as the gases cool. But," he said, "It could stop below the surface." Data from the instruments left on the surface of the island has already been col- lected, though the AEC technicians have not yet ventured to "ground zero". The information is to explain how the ABM missile worked - the reason for the test. ·

•MARCIA RYBECZNSKI

In a recent statement by U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell a claim was made that the justice department had given "top priority" to the enforcement of federal laws that protect the environment from destruction .

!ems caused by mercury previously dumped in the waterways. The depart- ment has also worked to eliminate such "toxic and hazardous substances" such as cynide, phenol, chromes and lead, all of which have been major water pollutants. Mitchell promised that the department will "intensify its efforts" to enforce existing legislation. He placed an emphasis upon the importance of involve- ment of citizens, especially young people, in the problems of environmental protec- tion. As an incentive, he noted that the Refuse Act authorizes rewards to citizens who provide information leading to the actual conviction of polluters. Students in the nations' 38,000 high schools will now have a chance to display their concern over ecology. President Nixon's Environmental Merit Awards pro- gram, inaugurated on 29 October, this year, will provide a chance for the country "to say 'thank you' to a hard working young people who give their time and their energy to a great goal of a better environment for everyone," and, hopefully, spur the students to work on more environmental projects. The Merit Award will go to "extra- ordinary student achievement beyond the classroom," and the Special Award for Environmental Excellence plus special local awards to faculty advisers, college student planners and community leaders. Students will be able to participate in individual or group activities in at least possible "categories of concern": Educa- tion; Environmental Awareness; Community Service; and Public Affairs.

Since the beginning of Nixon's admin- istration, federal courts have sought fines from over three hundred polluters and filed over sixty-five court orders against the violators. Not included in the state- men t, however, was the number of companies that were actually convicted and forced to eliminate the methods or materials which resulted in pollution . The main thrust of Justice Depart- ment action has been a 72-year old law - the 1899 Refuse Act. This statute authorizes the Corps of Engineers to maintain the quality of all navigable waters by issuing permits to industries using the waterways. This would limit the industrial discharges in the waters to only those substances which do not pollute. Companies that were to be found vio- lating this law faced fines of up to $2,500 a day. It was soon obvious however, that this penalty was ineffective against major polluters. The next approach of the department was to issue civil injunction suits ordering violators to stop polluting. The cases were only brought to court if the negotiated settlements proved impossible. The first injunction was brought against the Florida Power and Light Company whose generating plants were discahrging over- heated water. Upon conviction, the company agreed to work on a $30 million project to rectify the situation. Mitchell noted that the injunction . suits were also successful in eliminating the dumping of mercury in the nation's waters. While this prevented additional l).,Uution, it did not eliminate the prob- 13

East CDast G)nspiracy Destroys Draft Files

Laotian people. But we need not go so far from our shores to find the ugly hand of American military presence. One cans~ it in the Dominican Republic, Guatama!III' ' Panama, and elsewhere • in Latin American. But why look outside our bor- ders? There are many starving children in this country. There are many .Atticas. There are millions of Americans crippled by our system which has consistantly shown greater respect for property and politics than for human life . "And so we act. We confiscate these draft records in hope of giving our young men another chance to reconsider their willingness to comply with the military system. This system has meant instant death to literally millions of people; has turned once life-supporting fields and forests into barren wastelands; and, in short, has been the armed force of a gov- ernment that has denied to entire nations their rights to ' Life, Liberty, and the pur- · "And so we repeat those simple woras of the Buffalo : 'We stand for life, Jove, laughter, music, good food, friends, air, sunshine - all things green and living and beautiful. We stand against fear, hate, systems and structures not in the service of man ... We affirm these things by our action, we are one more set of lives stand- ing on the side of life.'" suit of Happiness 1• .

Through a series of anonymous phone calls and letters to members of the press and various organizations, it was discovered that a group calling itself The New and Improved East Coast Conspiracy to Save Lives is responsible for the recent invasions of three western New York draft boards . Selective Service offices at Niagara Falls, Batavia, and Geneseo were raided during the night of 28 October, 1971. The group succeeded in disrupting, destroying and confiscating a large number of records.

(Editor's note : Metro -Act of Rochester, Inc . received information from the group that claimed responsi- bility for the raids and was asked through an anonymous phone call to make the information public. The information was channeled to STRAIT magazine. We are taking this opportunity to pass it along to our readers.) The information which was destroyed and removed included: NIAGARA FALLS - The total number of files destroyed in the office is un- known. The files included November and December draft calls; files on 18, 18½, and 19 year olds; "First Priority" files were destroyed, along with "new regis- trants". Approximately 1,530 records were removed: 1,200 1-A's, 200 2-S's, and 130 1-Y's. GENESEO · Approximately 400 1-A files were shredded and destroyed in the office. Another 400-500 were disrupted. 921 November and December inductee files were removed, and new registrants (18, 18½, and 19 year olds), and over 500 1-A, six 1-Y, and 20 2-S files were taken. BATAVIA · The total number of 1-A files destroyed in the office is unknown. 630 files were removed, . once again, the files of 18, 18½, and 19 year olds, November and December inductees, and several hundred 1-A's. In a letter entitled "Dear Neighbor", the group expressed its reasons for the disruption of the offices: "We hope that by now you have heard the good news concerning your local draft board. Acting in good conscience and out of a moral conviction that human life, your life, friend, is more important and sacred than property or paper, we, The New and Improved East Coast Con- spiracy to Save Lives took the liberty to confiscate your draft file from Selective Service System. "Brother, we have risked ourselves to give you this opportunity to reconsider. As far as we know we have successfully removed from the draft board office all traces of your registration - your personal file, your 3X5 card, and the ledger. You are NOT legally bound to re-register. If they do not contact you personally (by mail or otherwise) you do not have to respond to any general public announce- ment to re-register.

"We wish you a long life of peace, happiness and freedom." It was signed "Sincerely yours, The New and Improved East Coast Conspiracy to Save Lives." From a statement by the group the reasons for their actions are that: "In spite of the promises made and broken : in spite of the myths created by the present and past administrations, the situation has not improved, but, on the contrary, has worsened. Vietnam con- tinues to quake under the impact of monstrous 'block buster' bombs ; the Congress appropriat~d hundreds of millions of dollars to bolster a self- proclaimed dictator in Cambodia; and billions more are spent to bomb the

In each instance in the western New Yark Draft Board raids, a letter to President Nixon, J. Edgar Hoover, and Attorney General John Mitchell was left behind. The complete text of the letter follows: Dear Dick, "H." and John, The "East Coast Conspiracy To Save Lives" is not dead' You did not "break its ~ck" as you claimed on the morning of August 22 when you arrested 25 of us. As a matter of fact, the "Conspiracy" is ''New and Improved". You see, it is not a conspiracy at all, but a movement; a movement of people concerned about other people and their right to live decently and in peace. We have no political ambitions to further nor material fortunes to protect. Therefore, we will not be bought off like so many others. ' As long as there is a person alive who is free to act according to his conscience; as long as there is a person who believes human life must take precedence over property and politics; then there will be someone to resist what you represent. Our hopes are, Dick, "H." and John that you will realize that the Guatamalans are people, the Dominicans are people, the Vietnamese and Laotians are people--people who want to kiss their children, plant their rice, and grow old happily. If you could stop thinking in terms of Rocky's oil in Venezuela, or United Fruit's bananas in Guatamala, or your own political future in terms of "winning", there would be no need for draft records. There would be nothing to confiscate and we could all Jive in peace happily ever after. What do you say? Yours un.til such a time, The New and Improved East Coast Conspiracy To Save Lives 14 . ' ·,• ,r • .";, •

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