Customer Delight through Process Excellenc…


JULY 2017 | VERSION 12 D I G I B O O K

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3 INTERNAL CUSTOMERS ................................................................................................ 3 EXTERNAL CUSTOMERS ................................................................................................ 4 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERNAL CUSTOMERS AND EXTERNAL CUSTOMERS...................................................................................................................... 5 CUSTOMER SERVICE....................................................................................................... 6 CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS OF SERVICE .................................................................. 7 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION .......................................................................................... 9 CUSTOMER FOCUS GRID ............................................................................................. 10 CUSTOMER CENTRIC ORGANIZATION ................................................................... 11 IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER FOCUS THROUGH PROCESS EXCELLENCE..... 12 INTRODUCTION TO KAIZEN...................................................................................... 13 5S ELEMENTS: ................................................................................................................. 14 TIMWOOD: THE SEVEN DEADLY SINS OF WASTE ................................................ 16 VISUAL CONTROL......................................................................................................... 19 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS EXCELLENCE ..................................... 19 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................. 27


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INTRODUCTION Customer service is dependent on the term ‘customer’. Let us first see what exactly the meaning of a customer is: In an organization, a customer may be defined as the person or organization receiving an outcome of process/a product/a service.

CUSTOMER stands for:


Critical to the existence and survival of the organization


User/recipient of the products and/or service

Sets the standard



Treated with dignity and respect


Our ally


Made of flesh and blood


Entitled to the best product/service we deliver


Right to change his mind

Hence, you must be your customers’ first choice!

INTERNAL CUSTOMERS Managers and employees at your business place represent the internal customers. The people and employees who work in the same organization and who use your products and services are called as your internal customers. They stand by your side,


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support you and make you appear good in front of the external customers. For example - the IT department and human resources department meet with the internal needs.

Now – a - days, the concept of internal customer is receiving tremendous attention. The internal customer is a member of the organization who receives products and services from others within the same organization. Large organizations feel that it is necessary to measure and monitor the internal customer satisfaction. An organization which holds a commitment to treat its internal service users as customers holds a similar commitment to measure their satisfaction with the delivery of those services. Satisfaction levels among the customers can be measured which helps in providing a quantitative base for distinguishing the results over extended time periods and enabling data based decision making.


External customers are the people or organizations that have an urge to buy your product or service. They possess the money and they will pay you some of it, if you provide them with a solution that fulfils their needs and expectations. They are financially independent to choose where and how they would

like to spend their money. Stakeholders constitute:  Shareholders  Suppliers  External customers

 Employees/Internal customers  Government/Public agencies


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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERNAL CUSTOMERS AND EXTERNAL CUSTOMERS Internal customers i.e. the employees and external customers i.e. the consumers can be compared with each other. Businesses may benefit from such comparisons, as employee satisfaction is gained if customer service techniques are applied. Internal customer needs are more important than the external customer needs. Until and unless employee needs are fulfilled, consumer needs cannot be satisfactorily met. It was observed that internal customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction was created due to the particular behaviours undertaken by internal service providers and the attitudes with which they were performed. The same was seen in the case of external customers. Many organizations were astonished to discover that internal customer satisfaction is much lower than previously perceived. Organizations should first understand the necessity of the internal customer service, in order to provide a premium quality external customer service. As much as the external customer service is important, internal customer service is also important to organizations, which indicates more effective performance, less wastage and less expense. As a result of this the external customer is also satisfied.

Internal customer

External customer

Employee of the organization



Totally unknown

Requirements (expectations) precisely known

Requirements (expectations) intangible/unpredictable

Direct communication + feedback

Indirect communication

Problems can be managed

It impacts the brand


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Don’t pay bill

Pays bill (money)

High technology awareness

High business awareness

Part of your culture

Completely different culture

Contributes to personal growth

Contributes to organizational growth


It is the organization’s responsiveness to the needs of customers. The organization combines the technical knowledge and professionalism with a touch of friendliness and courtesy towards the customers.

Customer service is a very critical area in business activities. Customer service is gained when you present and deliver a product of your organization with the aim of achieving customer satisfaction. All the employees or staff should maintain the standards of customer service in order to keep the customers happy and satisfied. Customer service is the technique of presenting and providing a product as it is expected by the customers. It requires skills and the knowledge to provide a product to the customers. Customers should be respected and treated with honour. The ultimate aim of customer service is to provide satisfaction to the customers. You should build a trust in the customers and they will be loyal to you. Interactions between you and the customer do affect the customer service.

Professional qualities in customer service The professionals who constantly come in contact with the external as well as internal customers must imbibe in themselves certain qualities which will enable


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them to respond to the customers’ needs. The basic needs of the customers are as follows:  Customers like people who are courteous  Customers need to be assured that their needs are being considered  Every customer feels that they must be treated equally and be given justified answers  Customers require variety in their products so that they are able to choose from the available alternatives CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS OF SERVICE Customer expects that the product delivered to him must be of the superior quality. Customer expectation is the primary stage in delivering true quality service. Expectations:

Person 1

Person 1

Group 1

Group 2

Expectation 2

Expectation 1





Defined expectations

Joint goal is to get the new product out

The above diagram shows that, when one person expects something from the other person, the other person tends to expect something back from the first person. Similarly, when a group expects something from the other group, the other group expects back from the first group. The defined expectations, once formed, cannot be changed. The E1/E2 area is purely functional. Its joint goal is to launch a new product. Customers’ expectations vary regarding the service provided. These expectations are:


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 Desired service Desired service is the service expected by the customer.  Adequate service Adequate service is the service which is acceptable to the customers.

Customer expectation model Offering great customer focus is all about knowing the layers enumerated below:

Ideal expectations

Normative expectations

Experience based norms

Acceptable expectations

Minimum tolerable expectations

The attributes as the customer expects, which may be behavioural or technical indicators are:  Minimum tolerable expectations Here a customer expects that he/she is heard (listened), helped and the chemistry between the customer and the supplier is formed.  Acceptable expectations Here a customer expects communication, decisions in order to keep him/her informed and to show him/her the future.  Experience based norms Here a customer expects that solutions should be offered and technical problems should be handled. There should be an existence of innovation and alignment towards corporate mission and vision should be intact.

The above three expectations offer, performing the job and most people can do the same. However, below are the two expectations which offer experience:


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 Normative “should” expectations Here a customer expects that the solutions offered fit his/her constraints, something which is out of the box, problems should not repeat. The customer also expects that his/her requirements are taken care of.  Ideal expectations or desires Here a customer expects a collaboration mode, a proactive environment and a preventive layer for him/her should be formed.


Satisfaction refers to the contentment of a customer. This is based on the product or service provided to the customer.

Understanding the mindset of a customer:  Customer satisfaction Customer is satisfied, when his basic requirements are fulfilled. However, this is considered as an old thought now, and is not practiced anymore.  Customer delight Customer delight is achieved through experience.  Customer loyalty Customer loyalty depends upon the brand, trust and uniqueness of the product. It’s also achieved through phenomenal experience, because of which, the customer keeps going back to the brand. Research suggests that customers do not judge the quality based on only one factor. He may judge it based on multi dimensional factors. These factors are:  Reliability Capacity to deliver the expected service reliably and precisely.  Responsiveness Urge to help the customers and make service available to them whenever they require.


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 Assurance To build and develop trust and confidence.  Empathy Attention to be given to the customers. Also care should be taken about the needs of the customers. Customer perceptions of quality and customer satisfaction

Situational factors

Service quality

Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles

Customer loyalty

Customer satisfaction

Product quality


Personal factors

CUSTOMER FOCUS GRID This is the customer focus grid, based on the organization and team/individual.  First quadrant In this quadrant, neither the organization, nor the team/individual is customer focussed. Usually in such organizations, there exists fun loving environment. However, there is lack of development of the organization and the team/individual. They become swamps.  Second quadrant In this quadrant, the organization is customer focussed, but the team/individual is not. Due to this, the growth of the organization is compromised. The culture displayed in the organization is positive, but the team culture can be negative. As a result, team’s branding becomes negative. Team’s work is outsourced. There arises retrenchment in the organization.


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 Third quadrant This is a quadrant, where team/individual is customer focussed, but the organization itself is not customer focussed. As a result, attrition is high. It leads to disharmony. Goals of the organization as well as the team/individual are compromised. This further leads to negative branding of the organization.


Customer focussed

Non customer focussed

 It’s diffcult to achieve this state due to organizational pressure  Once achieved creates an industry benchmark

 Attrition high  Disharmony  Goals compromised  Organization’s branding negative

Team’s moving up

 Organization’s growth is compromised  Team’s branding negative  Team’s work outsourced  Retrenchment in the organization  Culture displayed positive, but team cuture can be negative

 Fun loving enviornment  No growth  Becomes a swamp

 Fourth quadrant This quadrant consists of customer focussed team/individual as well as the organization. However, normally, it is difficult to reach this state due to the organizational pressure. But once achieved, creates a benchmark for the market. Hence, the intention is to move the second and the third quadrant up in the fourth quadrant, by improving upon customer focussed team/individual and organization respectively. CUSTOMER CENTRIC ORGANIZATION Following are the key features of customer centric organization:  Customer centric organizations' understand principles of the clients as well as the moral that the customer corresponds to the bottom line


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 They seek to combine their operating models with the customer segmentation strategy  They contribute in providing the best value to their customers at a low price

Analyzing a customer centric organization:

Type of customer

Novice customer

Demanding/Difficult customer

Expert customer



support team

Customer centric support team

Exercise great patience

 Exercises patience

 Displays


Is empathetic

 Deals assertively

 Understands needs


 Doesn’t give in

 Provides all




 Effectively

possible solutions



 Is precise

Non customer centric support team

 Gets irritated

 Acts rude

 Intimidation by the customer

 Is curt with the customer

 Confronts head to head  Often ends up in argument

 Gets defensive

 Complacent

 Doesn’t pay much heed considering they are self- sufficient

 Acts condescending

IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER FOCUS THROUGH PROCESS EXCELLENCE Every employee in an organization has a customer, external or internal and tries to meet or exceed their requirements. The employees will deliver products and services to meet those requirements through efficient, effective processes and methods. To increase the customer focus and satisfaction, it is essential to lead the organization towards process excellence.


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INTRODUCTION TO KAIZEN The Kaizen philosophy and methods have been established for decades with significant impacts in organizations both large and small. It is an underlying principle of lean techniques which have boosted Toyota to the world’s number one car maker, it has been used in small service organizations to reduce repair cycle times by over 60%, it has been used to reduce employee accidents to zero.

5 S


Eliminating waste

Visual management

Kaizen tools and principles can be useful in any work environment. Their application is equally applicable to a call center as they are to a production line, as they are to a sales team, as they are to a board of directors, as they are to your home office, as they are to your own life and family! Returns begin the same week that you deploy! A typical deployment begins with a Kaizen Blitz – a hands on training and implementation session that applies the techniques as they are learnt. Improvements to your live processes start right away with immediate benefits, for example, cycle time reduction, defect elimination and capacity increases. Kai-Zen definition Kaizen is both a definition and a philosophy. Literally translated from the Japanese: Kai = Change Zen = Good Kai + Zen = Good change, generally interpreted as “improvement” And because the premise is that this is a never ending pursuit then we get the phrase “continuous improvement”.


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Kaizen continuous improvement efforts take place daily in organizations committed to the Kaizen philosophy. It’s their way of life! Kaizen achieves the results that some other improvement programmes don’t because they are completely inclusive, involving employees at every level of an organization. It could be the members of a production cell, the triage team from a helpdesk, it could be a sales team, a product development team and it could even be the board of directors or any combination of all of these working together. The concept is that everyone has the opportunity to express their views on the work that affects them and are involved in identifying, testing and implementing improvements. It’s a way of life at a Kaizen organization! 5S elements The 5S reduces waste and improves efficiency and productivity. These are the words beginning with the letter “S” and derived from the original Japanese terms, which when put together as a systematic and disciplined approach will immediately start to bring benefits to what you do.

Sort: Get rid of all the unnecessary things in a workplace

Set in order: Frequently used things should be at hand

Shine: Cleaning is checking

Standardize: Standardize processes, tools, layouts, desk equipment, etc.

Sustain: Sustain the benefits achieved from the first 4S

 Sort ( Sei-ri ): Discard all the unnecessary things that are lying around and seldom if ever used. End up with just the right tools and materials to do the job. Get rid of the things that have been kept for the last 3 years “just in case”, shred the paper that has been sat in your recycling pile for the last 6 months, throw away the magazines


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that you said you would always read but never have and so on. The first stage is just one big clean up and de-clutter!  Set in order ( Sei-ton ): Arrange all the remaining items after sorting in an orderly manner. The intent is to arrange the tools, equipments, and parts in a way that promotes work flow. How often do you need that stapler? Who really needs access to that manual? Could we share that printer? Things that you need frequently to do the job should be at hand. Those needed every so often could be in a drawer or cabinet. Items needed just time to time and perhaps by others could be in a central storage location somewhere else. The idea here is to categorize use and to organize storage – applying general rules for all to follow.  Shine ( Sei-so ): When you only ever put your precious car through an automatic car wash how do you ever notice that the tyres are wearing, or that the bumper is loose, or that a new spot of rust has appeared on the wheel arch? “Cleaning is checking”. If you hand wash your car you will be amazed at all the minor things you notice about your car including that new scratch that some generous soul added for free at the supermarket! And it’s no different in the Kaizen organization: cleaning is a regular and individual activity – and we are not talking about general facility maintenance – we are talking about your immediate work area whether that’s a desk with a computer and telephone or a maintenance bay at the local garage and your toolbox. When you adopt a regular (daily) routine for even just 5 minutes per day you begin to notice that the printer is starting to run low on paper, when your calculator is missing or you missed out to respond to an important inquiry from a customer.  Standardize ( Sei-ke-tsu ): Standardize work practices or operate in a consistent and standardized manner

can lead to higher level of productivity. There must be set standards and ways for keeping the workplace, machines, etc. clean and neat. This will help keeping things organized, even in personal and environmental aspects. It


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can be done by spending time with the teams, getting them to see the benefits of common process, tools, layouts, desk equipment, procedures, etc.  Sustain ( Shi-tsu-ke ): To maintain orderliness and to practice the first 4S as the way of work is a sign of commitment. One should be able to sustain and maintain the Kaizen way. Employees must follow established and agreed rules at each step of the process. By the time they arrive at Shitsuke, they will have to discipline to follow rules in their daily work. Benefits of 5S at workplace  Revitalizing the workplace and improving employee morale and motivation  Helping employees acquire self discipline, take positive interest in Kaizen and adhere to standards  Highlighting many kinds of waste at workplace; first step in eliminating waste  Eliminating waste at workplace, enhancing 5S  Indentifying abnormalities like rejects and surpluses  Reducing wasteful motion, needlessly strenuous work and cutting down on accidents  Allowing problems with shortage, line imbalances, breakdowns to be identified visually and solved  Making quality problems visible  Improving efficiency and reducing costs of operation  Cutting down on industrial accidents and improving safety TIMWOOD: The seven deadly sins of waste People get so used to doing things the way it is done just because “that’s how it is done by others” or because “that’s the way it has always done”. It’s so easy for any organization or individual to just keep doing what they’ve always done. Over time bad habits build, we come to accept waiting time and delays as part of the process; manufacturers make more than they need to allow for faulty units, someone continues to write that monthly report even though we’re convinced that nobody


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reads it. When something new comes along in organizations all sorts of excuses and reasons are found. The issue is that in the absence of a continuous improvement strategy there is no focus on what is happening within an organization. People come to accept the status quo as the norm and allow delays, defects and all manner of other inefficiencies to creep in and take over.

T ransportation waste

I nventory waste

Waste of M ovement

Waste of W aiting time

Waste of O verproduction

Waste of O ver-processing

Waste of D efects

Key to uncovering value and eliminating unnecessary work at Toyota is Taiichi Ohno’s categorization of 7 fundamental forms of waste. By identifying and eliminating them any organization would already be making leaps towards improvement – even if they did nothing else. And when combined within the overall Kaizen framework they are a fantastic aid to ensuring that an organization focusses primarily on adding value to its customers, clients or consumers of its output.

An easy way to remember the 7 wastes is by using the acronym TIMWOOD as follows:  T ransportation waste:

This refers to physical items and data rather than the movement of people. For example, transportation of two truckloads of partly disassembled parts whereas one truckload is sufficient to transport fully disassembled parts.


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 I nventory waste: Having too many of the wrong things in stock and not enough of the right things, too much work in progress or unfinished goods can lead to inventory waste. For services this could be too many open or partially completed cases.  Waste of M ovement: This refers to the physical movement of people. For example, due to poor office design always having to go upstairs to visit important co-workers or walking halfway across the building to the nearest printer.  Waste of W aiting time: People or things are waiting around for the next action. It could be the delay in getting approval for that key item of safety equipment, a car off the road waiting for a spare part, or even the time spent waiting for your computer to come on line every morning.  Waste of O verproduction: Put simply, making or doing things that are not required now. Building inventories of anything unnecessarily is not required as per Kaizen and Lean.  Waste of O ver-Processing: Over-engineering a product, including featuring or doing extra activities that the customer has no requirement for may lead to over processing. Filling in more fields on a form than you need to and nothing worse than having to enter the same data twice!  Waste of D efects: Just the time and effort wasted when the “things” that you make are wrong or faulty – typo’s in a report, wrong price in a quotation, a system incorrectly installed, a faulty widget. The Kaizen focus is to be always “right first time”.

These are just a few examples of the different categories of waste but if you look around you can see some of these things going on right now in your team, office, etc. These wastes must be eliminated immediately from the organization so that it will not affect the productivity of work.


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Visual control Visual control is a powerful and integral element of Kaizen. It links directly to the last 2 S’s so that people know how information is communicated and what it means in sustaining the gains. Be creative, stay relevant and keep things simple. Visual control is a technique employed in many places where information is communicated by using visual signals instead of texts or other written or verbal instructions. Visual control mechanisms give you information at a glance helping to know what’s good or bad, ready to go or not, checked or unchecked. It intends to increase efficiency and effectiveness of a process through making the process steps more visible. When the steps of the process are visible, one is clear about what is to be done and the processes are followed appropriately.

Communicating status of something without the need for words

Visual control mechanism gives you information at a glance

It links directly to the last two S’s – standardize and sustain

E.g. good parts in green box and bad parts in red box

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS EXCELLENCE SIPOC: Supplier, Input, Process, Output and Customer In all processes improvement projects one of the key steps is to identify who are the suppliers, what are the inputs they provide, what are the activities done during the process, what are the outputs produced by the process, who are the customers the process outputs are impacting. This can be represented in a diagrammatic form and is called SIPOC


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diagram. SIPOC stands for Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer. The team should conduct a ‘focussed brainstorming’ session to arrive at a common answer to the above set of questions.

One way to do this is to apply process flowcharting or mapping to sub processes until reaching the part of the process that has been assigned to the team for improvement. A series of questions are asked such as:  For which stakeholder does this process primarily

exist?  What value does it create? What output is produced?  Who is the owner of this process?  Who provides inputs to this process?  What are the inputs?  What resources does this process use?  What steps create the value?  Are there sub processes with natural start and end points?

Cause and effect diagram Cause and effect diagram is a tool for organizing information to establish and clarify the relationship between an effect and its main causes. It identifies the root cause(s) of the problem so that the corrective actions can be taken to eliminate their recurrence. It assists in reaching a common understanding of the problem and exposes the potential drivers of the problem. It is also known as Ishikawa and fishbone diagram.

Problem statement


How do we construct cause and effect diagram?  Write the problem statement in the head of the ‘fish’  Determine the major categories (potential causes) of the effect  Identify potential root causes/input indicators


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How to determine the major categories? There are different approaches used to determine the major categories:

 Using ‘generic’ categories of people, methods, machines, materials and environment. Match them with major contributors to the problem. For example, a team of truck drivers is working on a problem within their functional area:


‘Major contributor’




Driving process




Truck content



 Use the major activities of the process from your flowchart, assigning each a major bone on the diagram  Brainstorm possible causes of the observed effect. Generate the list, distribute into major categories to be used as major bones on the diagram  For every cause, ask at least five ‘why’ every time to get to the real root cause Cause and effect matrix It is a tool that can help with the prioritization of key input and process indicators (X’s) by evaluating the strength of their relationship to output indicators (Y’s). The matrix is useful when no data exists to establish correlations. It is most effective in a team consensus environment. Understanding variation in business process Variation means that a person or machine does not produce exactly the same result every time the product or service is delivered. It exists in all processes. It also costs money. Measuring and understanding variation in our business processes helps identify specifically what the current level of performance is and what needs to


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change in order to reduce the variability and therefore reduce the defects delivered to customers. How does variation affect process performance?  Measuring variation means that we can clearly define how well we are meeting customer requirements over a period of time.  By observing or measuring the process over time, mean and standard deviation can be determined and therefore, the performance of the process against customer requirements can also be determined.  The goals of business process improvement is to centre the process well within customer requirements through reducing variation, first by eliminating special causes of variation and then the common causes that are necessary in order to align the process outputs fully within customer requirements. Data stratification: Pareto analysis A Pareto diagram is a vertical bar graph showing problems (or perhaps more directly opportunities) in a prioritized order, so it can be determined which problems or opportunities should be tackled first. The categories for the vertical bars represent mutually exclusive categories of interest. The categories are sorted in a decreasing order from left to right in the Pareto diagram by their count or cost, whichever is being displayed. The basis for building a Pareto is the 80/20 rule. Typically, approximately 80% of the problems result from approximately 20% of the causes. How to construct a Pareto diagram?  Identify data to be used  Select categories to be explored and sort the data into categories  Make the graph with the bars ordered in decreasing frequency beginning from the left  Check your Pareto for the pattern, a ‘flat’ Pareto – categories having similar

percentages indicates the need for different stratification of data  Check to make sure dissimilar categories are kept separate


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An example of Pareto analysis is shown in the below graph:

FMEA: Failure mode effective analysis FMEA is a technique used to define, identify and eliminate known and/or potential failure modes; and also problems or errors arising from the system, design, process or service before they reach the customers. The emphasis is on preventing things from going wrong, to

improve reliability of products and services. FMEA is a tool for risk assessment and for initiating actions to reduce the risk. It is also a technique for risk assessment prior to release of design, process or service. It is a cross functional team exercise to list out the following points:  Potential failure modes

 Causes of these failure modes  Severity of these failure modes  Probability of their occurrence  Probability of their detection in the event of occurrence

Types of FMEA:  System FMEA (SFMEA)  Design FMEA (DFMEA)  Process FMEA (PFMEA)  Service FMEA


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Process FMEA FMEA is always performed by a multi-disciplinary team. It is important to involve the appropriate functions when performing this analysis. In process, FMEA the team:

 Understands and identifies the process steps and functions  Brainstorms and documents how each process function can fail  Quantifies the

 Severity: How negative is the impact of the failure?  Occurrence: How often is the failure expected to occur?  Detection: How difficult will it be to notice that the failure has occurred?

Risk Priority Number (RPN) is the product of the three ratings:








Sources of solution /Prepare for idea generation The process of identifying, evaluating, selecting and developing solutions is rarely linear. Teams are often required to rethink ideas and reconsider options once the practicality of various solutions is further explored. For the teams that have applied data based decision making and analysis, the identification of root causes is half the battle.

Root causes

Discoveries during analysis

Best practices

Brain storming

Generate improvement ideas

Ideas from other



Sources of variation

Benchmark ideas


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Solution evaluation process To select the best solution out of multiple solutions, each potential solution can be taken through this process:  Remove show stoppers The solution must not have obvious impacts that would preclude its usage.  Consider organization fit The solution must be capable of obtaining management commitment, and fit the customer and the strategic objective, the organizational values, and the organizational culture.  Narrow the list Further a team gets into the evaluation of solutions, the more complex and time consuming the evaluation become. The solutions can be narrowed down using multi voting, pair wise ranking, force field analysis.  Develop solution selection matrix The value of the solution must be determined based upon data and facts. The matrix is composed of four major factors: sigma impact, timing, cost and benefits and other impacts for example - morale, compliance etc.  Weight the evaluation criteria Each of the four solution selection matrix factors are weighted according to the overall importance of each factor.  Determine sigma impact The solution must have a sufficient impact on the process to achieve the desired sigma performance levels.  Evaluate time impact The total time required to implement the full solution and experience the anticipated performance improvement.  Evaluate cost benefit impact

The relationship between the total costs and the expected benefits the business will realize as a result of


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implementation.  Evaluate other impacts There are impacts that the organization wants to keep visible during the decision making process. Common examples include safety and morale. Solution selection matrix The matrix is composed of four factors that are important to the decision making:  Quality impact: The effect the solution will have on the quality goal  Timing: The time required to implement the solution  Cost-benefit: The financial impacts associated with each solution  Other impacts: Special items that the organization wants to keep visible during the solution making process, example morale impacts, compliance. Each solution is evaluated against the four factors (quality impact, time, cost benefit and other impacts). To conduct the evaluation a scale is developed for all four factors (contains range usually 1 through 10) for each factor to enable cross category comparison.

Control charts

The primary objective of control chart is to ascertain process stability, which is assessed continually by taking random samples from the process at regular and pre planned intervals. It is expected that the process

would be stable for a short period of time. This is reasonable as the condition of process determinants such as machines, settings, parameters, tools, fixtures, etc. is unlikely to alter within this relatively short period. A control chart can be plotted after collecting data from sufficient number of consecutive samples.

A process is said to be stable and in statistical control when no “special” or “assignable” causes are present. Once the process is confirmed as stable, process capability can be assessed using control charts. The primary objective of control


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chart is to assess the stability of processes and minimize the process variation so that only random causes remain.

The estimated centre line (CL) is computed from process data when the process is stable (in statistical control)

Centre line (CL) of a control chart is an estimate of the mean of the process summary statistic

UCL – Upper control limit

CL - Control limit

LCL – Lower control limit



Customer is satisfied only when his needs as well as expectations are fulfilled. Many organizations have developed strategies to improve the quality of service provided to external customers. However organizations tend to neglect the main source due to which external customers are satisfied – internal customers. The internal customers should be given recognition and their needs and

requirements should be considered. Every effort to fulfill them ought to be given priority. Only then it is possible to attain total customer satisfaction. Each person should try and improve their surroundings and indulge in new things in order to satisfy their customers. They must also consider others requirements in the organization and work together in order to achieve them.


IPR belongs to Atyaasaa

A lot of emphasis should be given on teamwork. This is because unless and until all the employees are not willing to work with each other, customer service cannot be met. Employees should thrive and work together in order to achieve the common goals. In brief, overall customer service comprises meeting the needs and requirements of the internal as well as the external customers. Process excellence is a systematic approach to quality improvement to drive business performance. Process excellence draws from the methodologies of Six Sigma, Lean Thinking and Design Excellence to empower workforce to diminish errors, reduce expenses, improve customer satisfaction, increase capacity, productivity and grow revenue. Process excellence brings the tools that can make a difference and reshape a culture in the areas of: lowering operating costs, improve productivity, reduce errors and adverse effects, maximize profits and reduce the flight of talent by empowering and involving workforce Business excellence can be achieved by having quality in every process of the organization with objective of meeting expectations of customers and all other stakeholders. Processes are managed efficiently to minimize waste and to assure compliance with the “Right First Time, Every Time” rule. Business excellence often perceived as near perfection in various business processes. It is not limited to products and services but also encompasses processes that affect other stakeholders, i.e. employees, shareholders, suppliers, society and government.

References:,,,,, , The Six Sigma handbook by Thomas Pyzdek and Paul Keller published by Tata McGrew Hill edition 2010, Six Sigma for business excellence by Hemant Urdhwareshe published by Dorling Kindersley edition 2011


IPR belongs to Atyaasaa


IPR belongs to Atyaasaa

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