IPA Inter-Regional Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychoanalysis

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persistent psychic representation in memory, fantasy, with affect. Continuing frustration of a need may lead to structural regression. Continuing frustration of a wish may lead to dynamic shift and compromise formation. Especially significant in the French tradition , desire is a pivotal concept in structuring of the subject. The French term desir is a translation of term that Freud uses to establish the unconscious dynamics of the unconscious Begierde (desire) and Wunsch (wish) (Skelton 2009). Desire implies a continuous force rather than individual wishing and longing. The unconscious desire, as originally formulated by Lacan, is about the continuity, unstopability and pure insistence of desire that the human subject’s trope of existence is mobilized. Even after the need has been satisfied (by the Other), the subject is left with desire, caused by the subject’s unconscious experience of lack. Due to the distinct character of post-Freudian French psychoanalytic scholarship, this entry carries a separate section of French Psychoanalysis, including both Europe and North America.


III. A. SIGMUND FREUD Freud’s evolution of his concept of Drive(s) underwent various transformations throughout his theory development. Some of the main ides are presented in, among many other texts, in 1905 “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality”, in 1914 “On Narcissism”, in 1915 “Instincts and their Vicissitudes”, in 1920 “Beyond the Pleasure Principle”, in1923 “The Ego and the Id”, and in 1938 “Outline of Psychoanalysis”. Freud first formulated the sexual drive as a life preserving force, which after many theoretical turns would become eros, a life force in opposition to the death drive. As theoretical gaps and clinical observation demanded, Freud changed his conceptualizations about the sexual drive many times over the course of his life. He conceptualized the sexual drive as the psychical representation of the libidinal instinct. Thus, all mental phenomena are characterized by unconscious sexual conflict, enervated by sexual energy and imbued with sexual meanings. It is possible to distinguish the different periods (‘steps’), corresponding to three different drive classifications in which Freud developed his drive theory,


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