IPA Inter-Regional Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychoanalysis

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change ‘ghosts’ (unconscious complexes) into ancestors (well-integrated psychic structure) via a transitional ‘demon’ (or regressive transference) stage. In his view, transference is viewed also as crucial to health, not merely as pathological. Finally, the “integrative experience longed for” is formulated, an inherent developmental and clinical tendency toward higher integration. Organizing activity of internalization , as a developmental clinical tendency is central in Loewald's work. Within this frame, he recontextualizes many drive-psychological terms as organizing activities. Loewald reaffirms the centrality of the Oedipal complex for all clinical work, essentially by redefining the oedipal stage with an emphasis on the emergence of the capacity for self-reflection, personal responsibility, and individuality—the capacity to be an individual. Object, object relations and self, in the analytic, intrapsychic sense, do not exist until the oedipal stage. Further, by a sophisticated discussion of parricide and incest, he brings the narcissistic and preoedipal directly into the Oedipal core. There are resonances with Melanie Klein's depressive position in the stress on guilt and reparation, and with Kohut and Winnicott in the symbiotic and transitional character of Oedipal experience as defined by Loewald. Otto Kernberg ’s version of Object Relations Theory within Freud’s Structural Model and Hartmann’s Ego Psychology, has been in development since 1970’s. In his formulation, self and object representations are linked by affective dispositions. The focus here is on early conflicts of individuals with borderline pathologies. In his approach, object relations are seen as “an essential ego organizer” (Kernberg, 1977, p. 38) and ‘self-object-affect units’ as the primary determinants of the overall structures of the mind (id, ego, superego). In his paper “Self, Ego, Affects, and Drives”, Kernberg (1982) clarifies his views on development and structure formation, suggesting a modification of dual drive theory. In defining the self as an intrapsychic structure that originates from the ego (‘Ich’/I) and is embedded in it, Kernberg remains close to Freud’s implicit insistence that self and ego (‘Ich’/I) are indissolubly linked. Addressing the development of the earliest self and object representations, Kernberg integrates findings from contemporary neurobiology and studies of infant development with his revised formulation of the dual drive theory in the light of relation between affects and drives. Here, numerous affects are the primary motivational systems, linking gradually differentiated and integrated self and object representations, with affects consolidating gradually into libidinal or aggressive drives. In this model, affects are seen as the building blocks or constituents of drives. Kernberg would continue, update and refine his integrative work throughout the next 30 years. Kernberg’s version of Psychoanalytic Object Relations Theory (1982, 2004, 2015) relates the levels of development of psychic structure to the personality organization and psychopathology. He recognizes two basic levels of personality organization (borderline and neurotic), implying two basic levels of development, following the initial level of lack of differentiation and blurring of self and object boundaries (psychosis): Extending Jacobson and Mahler, selectively integrating certain aspects of Kleinian thought, Kernberg views the preverbal infant building a dual psychic structure, under the dominance of peak affect states. Under these conditions, self and object are split or dissociated


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