IPA Inter-Regional Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychoanalysis

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analysand, and this can be considered in terms of analytical deferred effect. Bion (1962) situates the process of transformation, establishing the alpha function and alpha elements, in maternal reverie . The psychical work of the intervening stage takes place first outside the mind of the child, in the mind of the mother. The ideas of assistance, of a helping object, of positive and negative projective identification, find their coherence and justification in this point of view. III. C. Contemporary European Scene: Complexity in Progress The dynamic of a deferred action including the two protagonists in analysis has been the object of numerous studies, among them Winnicott’s transitional space and object, Michel de M’Uzan’s chimera , André Green’s analytic object and Thomas Ogden’s analytic third . It is the result of the deferred action, which is targeted by the studies on transitionality and play (Winnicott, 1971) on shared animism and working as doubles (César & Sara Botella, 2005). Referring to the “analytic site”, Jean-Luc Donnet (2006) emphasizes the random dimension of the realization of the deferred action. It comes into conflict with the determinism that weighs on this process. So the subject searches to find and create (or not) the perceptions and perceptive traces which this process needs in order to be accomplished. Bernard Chervet has pointed out that in the last (dual) drive theory the regressive attraction is no longer subject to limits or checks. Regression no longer stops at the memory of the scene of seduction (Freud, 1895) or at the return to the absolute narcissism of the maternal bosom (Freud, 1914c). An extinctive regressivity (Chervet, 2006) becomes apparent which requires in exchange the intervention of an imperative of inscription (Chervet, 2009) and psychical elaboration under the aegis of the superego. This is the work that is carried out by the process of “après-coup”. The latter thus finds its function and the reasons for its specific diphasic form in two manifest phases and an intermediary latent phase. “Après-coup” is the method available to the psychical apparatus for dealing with this primitive quality of the drives that is brought into play by the numerous traumas of daily existence, and for establishing the pleasure principle. To accomplish this task, the process is divided into three phases with three operations. Initially, it follows the regressive path, then transforms the regressive libidinal economy, and finally directs it along the progressive path. The latter is then inscribed within the mind in the form of drive impulses reprised by human desire and its many vicissitudes. It is animated by a regressive attraction and a necessity to produce progressive material. It proves to be the model for an ideal mental functioning, and thus a reference for all evaluation of psychical material. Actually, Chervet develops a conception of après-coup as the process of realization and fullfilment of all the thoughts and all the psychic productions; it is the process of thought itself. Thus, it is the basic process of the psychoanalysic cure that makes healing possible.

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