IPA Inter-Regional Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychoanalysis

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always indicates that the object they fall on include projected body experiences linked to phantasies about corporalized object relationships. She also formulates the existence of a specific relationship between obsessive defense and hypochondriacal defense characterized by a) an attempt of an ego to reinforce the hypochondriacal splitting through obsessive control; b) intensification of obsession when hypochondriacal defenses break down; c) the concrete, corporeal modality of obsessive defenses when they control the body itself and its contents. Among examples is an obsessive exploration of the object through the smell in hypochondria as a technique using the renifleur’s trends, in order to control confusion. Nieto also writes on the implications for psychoanalytic technique: Since obsessive mechanisms work in two stages, they must be reduced following those two ways in the direction of regression. In the first stage, the displacement is from the object onto the body (or a part of it) and in the second stage it works from the body towards some thought or feeling. If the interpretation skips over corporality and tries to link up directly mental phenomena with internal objects it is not effective, because it leaves the basic defense untouched. VI. Al. Brazil: Object Relations Theories Extended: Ruggero Levy and Raul Hartke – Intersubjective Dimension and Trauma Ruggero Levy (2014) studied the evolution of the concept of object, from Freud to Klein, Bion, Winnicott and Meltzer. He concludes that the changes in the concepts of object and object relations occurred because of the continuous expansions of the psychoanalytic metapsychology beyond its classical dimensions (Meltzer, 1984). Initially, in Klein, the expansion of metapsychology included the dimension of the geography of mental spaces. Her notable deepening of the understanding of the projective and introjective processes constituting the baby's inner world, made it possible to appreciate the prominent role of the object in the construction of the subjectivity of the subject. Later, with contributions by Bionians, an additional epistemological dimension was added to psychoanalytic metasychology (Meltzer, 1984). To understand mental functioning, it became necessary to understand if it allows for learning through experience. The notion of a containing/transformative object appears through its alpha function of the subject´s subjectivity. In this way, it adds meaning and transforms the nameless emotions of the baby. For Levy, Bion considers that all new knowledge, through the expansion of the symbolic network, occurs in the K-link (knowledge), to which he almost grants the status of a drive. This leads to knowing and learning from emotional experience, thus promoting mental growth. If initially the core idea, upon which the construction of the psychic apparatus was understood, was in the vector drive / in the experience of satisfaction / in memory / in desire / in psychic representation, it was diverted and the emphasis went on to the subject-object relation. As of Klein, the presence of the other, of the object, of her or his mind, acquires prominence. Advances of Bion, Winnicott and Meltzer led to the idea that the presence of the other and their mind provoking an emotional experience. The mind of the subject is affected by protoemotions, by emotional and sensorial experiences from the encounter with the object

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