IPA Inter-Regional Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychoanalysis

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archaeology, art, literature, etc., and he based himself on their analogical link without confusing them.

III. Fea. Nachträglichkeit and neuroscience The concept of Nachträglichkeit at the basis of psychoanalytic theory of memory, temporality, in relation to libido and instinct theory, anticipated contemporary neurobiological findings. Interdisciplinary thought about dynamic connections between the contemporary neuroscience and various aspects of Nachträglichkeit have been developed particularly in the United State, Canada and Italy. Nachträglichkeit, as the re-transcription of memory, is analogous to some of the characteristics of a current neurobiological theory of memory as re-categorization (Edelman, 1987, 1989; 1992; Freeman, 1995). According to Edelman’s Global Theory of Brain Functioning (GTBF), what is stored is potentiality (categories) awaiting activation. In addition, Freud repeatedly stressed that the affective traces of the earliest non-represented and non- symbolized scenes of events happening prior to age 1-year-old — their ‘quota of affect’ — are inscribed in the mnemonic system. He was convinced that the non-‘discharged’ quota of affect remained fixed as a representative of the drive, so that its mnemonic trace was stored in memory. The recent neuroscientific proof of this proposition has been celebrated by Mark Solms as a “triumph of psychoanalysis” (Solms, 2006, p. 849). Dominique Scarfone (2006, 2015) reviewed different types of memories, as formulated by contemporary developmental, cognitive and affective neurosciences, in relation to psychoanalytic concept of Nachträglichkeit: a) A relatively stable and organized form of memory that was described by Freud in the 1895 Project as a network of well “facilitated” neurons, recognizable as the precursor of the Ego or Self: a constellation of traits, habits and tendencies that induce a sense of continuity in the midst of personal growth and evolution. A Self or an Ego, is the objective memory of the traces left by the most significant experiences and encounters of one’s lifetime. This form of memory is sometimes referred to as the character or personality organization, with individual’s characteristic defense mechanisms, object-relations etc. b) A relatively stable, but not so well organized form of non-declarative memory, which manifests itself in the various clinical modalities of repetition compulsion . These can vary from the very subtle expressions of transference to more spectacular forms of enactments, both accompanied by affective tonality. Repetition is here at work at every level, ascribed usually to deeply ingrained engrams, not readily transformed into symbolic thinking. This kind of memory manifests itself through forms of action, which require the psychoanalytic method of investigation to integrate them in a more “usable” form of memory. Memory, manifested primarily in embodied form, or appearing in the form of action, is at the heart of work on trauma (Van der Kolk, 1996) and on implicit knowing (Reis, 2009; Boston Process Study Group, 2007). It can be seen without any accompanying representation in the usual way this term is


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