and so on. “The basic concept is that at each layer, you’re creating a little delay, and each layer has a few seconds or minutes attached to it that represent how fast it can be breached,” he explains. “You find out how long it will take the police to get there and engage the shooter, then you design the physical security of the school to keep the shooter away from the children for at least that long,” he adds. But how many seconds does it take to shoot through a classroom door? As the centerpiece of their project, Foley and his colleagues will measure how long it takes a combination of brute force and 5.56 mm, 9 mm and 357 Magnum munitions and 12-gauge 00 buckshot to breach

rural areas and on Native American reservations will receive surveys at the start of the 2018-2019 school year, when parent interest and engagement with the schools runs high. As part of their senior-year capstone projects, some of Foley’s students analyze the physical security of schools, and he says the experience has taught him that security experts and parents and teachers often have different ideas about school safety. He recalls one school that was proud of its locked-door policy, for instance — until he pointed out multiple doorways propped open in hallways that could have been difficult to close or might be blocked by bodies in an active shooter situation. “They had just heard that it’s good policy to have classroom doors locked

the three most commonly used solid birch and steel clad doors; plate glass, wired glass and tempered glass in classroom doors and sidelights; as well as each type of glass covered in two different thicknesses of smash-resistant film. The researchers will also measure and make videos of the range and spread of splintering debris from a gunshot through a door or a window. “We want not only penetration times, but also how much fragmentation will come off a specific product and cause injuries,” Foley says. Gearing up to perform the experiments is Richard Rodriguez, a retired Navy SEAL, former SWAT team commander for the Surprise, Arizona, police department and a recent Embry- Riddle graduate. Rodriguez was a heavy weapons machine gunner and platoon chief who breached everything from doors to armored ship hatches during his time as a SEAL, most of which “were

all the time, but they didn’t really think about what they were trying to accomplish by doing that, and how they can best accomplish it,” he says. INSPIRED BY SANDY HOOK The team is also putting together a detailed buying guide for doors, win- dows and window treatments based on its ballistics results. The idea isn’t to recommend particular brands, Foley emphasizes, but to provide information on how many seconds a particular barrier can add to a school’s security plan. There is a “moral panic” after each school shooting that can spur financially stretched school districts to spend money on measures that


done under less than desirable conditions such as hostile ship takeovers and in combat while in Operation Iraqi Freedom,” he says. Rodriguez has three children. “As a parent, I have a personal interest in this study to possibly help out in making future changes to our schools for the better,” he says. “As a former police officer and SWAT team commander, I can only see positive things coming out of this research.” A COMMUNITY EFFORT The study team is reaching out to 447 Arizona schools in 23 districts for another key part of the project: visiting individual schools to determine their current state of physical security and surveying parents and teachers to gauge their percep- tions of security. Participating schools in urban, suburban and

may not add to campus security, Foley notes. “We hope our buying guide will help schools take whatever their limited funds are and spend them on what’s most effective.” Foley was motivated to examine school safety in greater depth after the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. At a meeting that year of ASIS International, a global security professionals organization, “we started off the meeting with a moment of silence for the victims, and it occurred to me that we had 500 years’ worth of combined work experience in here — I should be doing something other than hanging my head in silence,” Foley recalls. “The Sandy Hook shooting took six minutes from the first to last shot,” he says. “In essence, we are figuring out how to enhance security design to give the kids at the next Sandy Hook six minutes before the bad guy can get to them.”




FALL 2018

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