King's Business - 1962-10



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Over 50 years of training Christian Youth for Christian Service




The King's Business A publication of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, Inc. Louis T. Talbot, Chancellor S. H. Sutherland, President • Ray A. Myers, Chairman o f the Board OCTOBER, in the year of our Saviour Vol. 53, No. 10 Nineteen Hundred and Sixtv-two Established 1910 Dedicated to the spiritual developm ent of the Christian home STRANGE TALK AM ONG THE SA INTS — Vance Havner .......... 8 CHR IST IAN COUNSELING CENTER — Feature Article ......| .... 10 W H A T HAS HAPPENED TO AUTHORITY? — Truman G. Esau .... 12 M Y W IFE W ON 'T TALK TO ME — Jeannette Aerea ................. 15 ALMOST PERSUADED, BUT . . . —— Melvert Byers ................... 16 THE LOST ART OF WORSHIP — Howard B. Carptenter ............ 18 STRANGER AT YOUR DOOR — Lorrie Auvinen ..................... 19 THE NECESSARY INGREDIENTS OF A CHR IST IAN HOME __ Margaret Bailey Jacobsen ................................... 24 HARRY, THE NEWSBOY — Martha S. Hooker ........................ 40 F e a t a A MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR — Samuel H. Sutherland .......... 4 CULTS CRITIQUE — Betty Bruechert ....................................... 20 DR. TALBOT'S QUESTION BOX — Louis T. Talbot ................... 26 TALK ING IT OVER — Clyde M. Narramore .............................. 28 PERSONAL EVANGELISM — Benjamin Weiss .......................... 29 BOOK REVIEWS — Arnold Ehlert ........................................... 30 WORLD NEW SGRAMS — James O. Henry ................................ 34 SCIENCE A N D THE BIBLE — Bolton Davidheiser ..................... 35 THE CHR IST IAN SENTINEL — Nelson Dilworth ...................... 37 THE CHR IST IAN HOME — Paul Bayles ......... ......................... 38 UNDER THE PARSONAGE ROOF — Althea S. Miller ................. 39 A LU M N I NEWS — Inez McGahey .......................................... 43 Cebvu READER REACTION ............................................ 4 VO X POP ............................................................................... 22 HOM ILETICAL HELPS ............................................................. 27 TOWN A N D CAM PU S ........................................................... 42 PEOPLE IN THE NEWS ......................................................... 46 — All Rights Reserved —


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lations of the Bible. Must we as funda­ mental Christians be so belligerent in these matters? Mrs. R. D. McIntyre, Ventura, California. I have enjoyed THE KING’S BUSI­ NESS magazine for several years now. Each renewal time is a real time of test­ ing for me as it looks as though each year I will not he able to renew. But the Lord comes through and supplies me with enough money for another year. Praise Him! Each article fills a need in my life and at the right time. They have helped me to grow so much spiritually. Mrs. Doris Shields, Auburn, Washington I wish to renew my subscription to THE KING’S BUSINESS magazine. It is such marvelous spiritual food. God bless all of you for your wonderful ministry. You have no idea how many people are led to Christ and built up in the faith by listen­ ing to Christ speak through your yielded lives. Mrs. Helen Fortum, El Paso, Texas EXPRESSES APPRECIATION We are subscribers to THE KING’S BUSINESS and cannot tell you how much we enjoy the timely articles. With the widespread present-day apostasy, it is good to know of one more fundamental school that will not lower its standards to cater to whims and whams of modernists. We Christians all know that only God can lead us—not the N.C.C. nor liberal min­ isters. Please, Biola, never fail us who need true Bible teaching so desperately. God’s beautiful plans will be carried through, finally, and we must help Him by serv­ ing Him faithfully. Mrs. Ed Reynolds, San Diego, California This is just a letter to express my appre­ ciation of your magazine. I look forward to receiving it each month. I especially enjoy the editorials by Dr. Sutherland. Dr. Talbot’s Question Box is interesting also. God bless you all and your work for the Lord. Hugh R. Cawthon, Kennett, Missouri Every time I read our denominational magazines, I like THE KING’S BUSI­ NESS better. Thanks for sticking to what God said. Mrs. E. L. Kenyon, Los Angeles, California Your magazine is tremendous. We are so grateful to Dr. Sutherland and his arti­ cles warning against the new movement in fundamental circles. Thanks to my family and the articles my eyes were I was introduced to THE KING’S BUSINESS by the chaplain of the Uni­ versity of Oregon Medical School while a patient there. It is a wonderful maga­ zine and many of the articles have been a comfort to me. Thyra Sillan, Portland, Oregon opened. F. N. S.


THANK S FOR FREE FUND Many, many thanks for the “free-fund” subscription to KING’S BUSINESS. I look forward, month by month, for the very interesting “Message from the Editor” and have always derived great blessing from the timely comments and exhortations. BIOLA is greatly blessed of God to have a real man of God heading things up, especially in these days. Like other missionaries around the world, we find that we get out of touch with the various world situations that affect other Christians at home. Therefore THE KING’S BUSINESS and its timely, articles keeps us well-informed on the various problems experienced in the home­ land and the trend of thinking, etc. Thomas E. Northen, Jamaica, West Indies We have recently received your maga­ zine for the first time. We have thorough­ ly enjoyed it and profited spiritually by it. We do not know who is sending it to us, so rather feel it is from your gift sub­ scriptions. We are deeply grateful to our Lord and to you. When we finish with the magazine, we send it on to the Indians with whom we work in South Africa. Rev. and Mrs. H. R. McLewin, South Africa I am completing my second term of service in Japan and have been receiving THE KING’S BUSINESS during most of these years, but have never taken time to say thank you for sending the maga­ zines to me each month. I have not paid a cent for the magazines but have often wondered who is bearing the expense. I read straight through the magazine each month and often share the blessings and challenges I have received with others in my ministry. Accept my deep gratitude. Rubena Gunther, Osaka, Japan E d it o r ’ s N o t e : Through gifts of readers to the King’s Business “Free Fund” we are able to send subscriptions to various missionaries around the world. RENEWS SUBSCRIPTION Please renew our subscription for an­ other year. We' surely appreciate your magazine and have enjoyed noting its progress over the years. We appreciate Paul Bayles’ column on “The Christian Home” very much. It meets a very real need for this day in which we live in that it is extremely practical and “ down to earth.” We are in full accord with his views on “Planned Parenthood” as pre­ sented in the April issue. Christian views on this subject are very necessary, since it is such an issue for this day. We “beg to differ” however, somewhat with Dr. Suth­ erland’s views on the various new trans­

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The Confusion of Tongues

by Dr. S. H. Sutherland

appreciate STONY BROOK’S Scholarship Aid” says Glenn Jamison Tanta, Egypt The School is operated not for profit but to render service in the field of Christian edu­ cation. Because of endowment income and the annual contributions of generous friends, the School is able to maintain a tuition rate lower than that of most schools in its class. Each year a large amount of scholarship aid is granted on evidence of the character, abil­ ity and earnest purpose of the applicant, and the financial need. While this policy applies especially to sons of ministers, missionaries, and other Christian workers, it is by no means limited to such boys. Christian Education at Stony Brook has real meaning. The atmosphere is wholesome without being pious. Boys are urged to live their lives in accordance with the will of God as set forth in Scripture^ Bible Study is a major subject and is required of all students throughout the entire course. By maintaining a balance between reli­ gious, academic, and recreational activities,

Never in the history of the English-speaking peo­ ples has there been such a rash of so-called new “ translations” of the W ord of God. The average lay ­ man, instead of being helped by these translations, is becoming more and more confused. He asks, with increasing bewilderment, “ W hat does it all mean? Where w ill this end? What is the matter with the Bible I used to hear at m y mother’s knee and which I learned to read in Sunday school? Is it no longer acceptable? W h y must we obtain this or that trans­ lation to become real Bible students?” And the cry goes up: “ They have taken away m y Bible, and I know not where they have laid it!” The confusion is increased by the fact that even the so-called “ great scholars” are not agreed as to which translation is most acceptable. So great is the disagreement that there seems no longer to be any standard translation. Every man seems to be produc­ ing his own Bible as it seems good in his own sight. It all adds up to the sad fact that this generation will be known as “ the generation of confusion” so far as translations of the Bible are concerned. One looks in vain for evidence in this welter of claims for the new Bibles that anything is being accomplished for the spiritual uplift and edification o f the Christian public. Nor is there any proof that people are ob­ taining a clearer understanding of what the W ord of God actually says, much less of what it means! One unmistakably tragic fact is emerging. The translations receiving the widest publicity from pub­ lishers and from the liberal element in Protestantism are those which tend to downgrade the person and work of the Lord Jesus Christ, and raise a question as to His spotless humanity and His eternal God­ head. To the extent that these new “ translations” are able to do this, they w ill negate the influence and authority the Authorized (K ing James) Version has exercised upon the average Christian. Evidence of this deplorable trend appeared in an Associated Press dispatch, dateline London, August 1962. It contains a quotation b y Professor Godfrey R. Driver, direc­ tor of the ten-man panel now working on the Old Testament, the N ew Testament having appeared a little over a year ago bearing the title, The N ew English B ible, N ew Testam ent. Dr. Driver is reported as stating that “ time-honored words like virgin , I Jehovah and leprosy, will disappear in the new ver-

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sion.” He explains that virgin is eliminated from Isaiah because, “ like the corresponding Greek word, it means on ly a marriageable young w o­ man, whether virgin or not” ; he claims leprosy has changed its meaning; that Jehovah was “ merely a solecism produced in 1520” (perhaps he meant 1620 — or it could have been a typographical error!) One is stunned at the effrontery of these men, as they arrogantly cast aside words and phrases which have become a vital, sacred part of the life and convictions of generations of Christians for the more than three hundred and fifty years during which we have relied upon the Author­ ized Version. These “ translators” utterly ignore the erudition of the learned and devout men who made up the translation committees o f the Authorized Version o f 1611, the Revised Version of 1885 and the Ameri­ can Standard Version of 1901. These able and devout scholars recognized the above words as accurate translations of the original languages, of which they had an impressive knowledge. N ow the new crop of self- styled Biblical scholars, with a complete disregard for these great trans­ lations of the past three centuries, insolently undermine the very core of all that has been inviolable to the Lord’s people o f past and present generations. They are determined to foist upon today’s Christian public opinions and interpretations (not translations) which will weaken further the already apathetic views held by the vast mass o f Protestants. They ostentatiously demand that their authority and scholarship be preferred to that of these great scholars of the past which would be humorous if it were not so tragic in its effect upon the layman who is easily im ­ pressed with a show of learning. Our hearts cry out to God that He will, in a way o f His own choosing, bring a stop to this deadly tampering with the W o rd of God which is bringing the H oly Bible down to the level of human “ philosophy and vain deceit.” Of course, the revolting ultimate of all these translations is the rumored N ew Ecumenical Bible which is being readied for publication within the next five or six years. It is a Bible which reportedly w ill be satisfactory to Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and apparently to men of all faiths and no faith! It should be the translation to end all translations! (sic!) A ll of this leaves the Christian public with absolutely no Bible what­ soever that can be read in unison in public worship. Unless we can main­ tain a norm for public reading and Scripture memorization, there will be an increasing confusion of tongues whenever the Bible is read publicly and whenever adults and children engage in committing Scripture to memory. This is a call to pastors and Bible teachers everywhere to urge their congregations and classes to retain the Authorized Version for their per­ sonal and public worship. There are other translations o f real value which may be used as reference works but let us stay with the Version that has been of inestimable blessing to multiplied millions to whom it is “ the Bible” and “ the W ord o f God.” W e are satiated with new translations. God deliver us from this “ confusion of tongues” in the church which is called by H im to give His clear message of salvation to the most confused age the world has ever seen.



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By Vance Havner


S t r a n g e t h i n g s are being written and said these days even in evangelical circles. The itch to come up with new angles and novel ideas leads even Christians into wild remarks and untenable positions which cannot bear the light of calm and sober judgment. The times are so weird and fantastic that we need not be surprised when even good people are infected with the virus. Some come out with shocking overstatements just to be different or to get the ear of a fed-up generation. Basically, we are told, these men are sound but they employ such tricks to arouse interest and get attention. We doubt, however, that a man who is sound at heart will purposely utter unsound statements. “ Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.” What is down in the well will come up in the bucket. A man unsound at heart may talk the language of truth to hide his error but we do not believe that a good man will deliberately speak evil. He will not abide inwardly in what is right and abound outwardly in what is wrong. There is a tendency in some quarters to play up the virtues of sinners and the vices of saints. Unbelievers are said to be more agreeable than the Lord’s people. One would gather that the saints are a bunch of crabs while non-Christians are a gracious sort, easy to deal with in business and far more pleasant socially. There may be some exceptions that prove the rule but I prefer Christians at their worst to unbelievers at their best. I have worked with churches for almost half a century and no one can do that without learning a lot about the strange doings of some Christians. Yet I can say that most of them have treated me better than I deserved. I would dread to be left on this earth with “ sinners only” after the church has been removed. I have often experienced the misery of living in a throng of worldlings in a city hotel and what a relief it was to get to God’s house on Sunday to a fellowship that speaks my language! When I was desper­ ately ill, I did not get cards and letters from unbelievers assuring me of their prayers. The nurse who sat by my bed on a critical night praying when she was not ministering to me was no worldling. I know that Christians have many faults and sinners some virtues but I do not look forward to getting away from the company of the re­ deemed for a happy season with this untoward genera­ tion. As in the Book of Malachi, one rejoices when he gets through the “Wherein” crowd to those “ who fear the Lord and think upon His Name.” Much is being written these days about separation from the world. One can understand how some writers can be almost irritated over the clannishness of Chris­ tians. We tend to enjoy our own company so much that we fail to minister to the world outside. Like a room­ ful of lighted lamps, we out-dazzle each other while a world in darkness needs our testimony. Lights are needed in dark places. “ They that be whole need not a physi­ cian, but they that are sick.” A display of garden seeds is attractive to look at, but those seeds must get out of pretty packages into the dirty ground and disintegrate if we are to have vegetables t o .eat. There is too much packaged Christianity and not enough planted Chris­ tianity. There is also the danger of impersonal testi­ mony. People can become so busy attending meetings of the Gospel Witnessing Association that they have no time to do any Gospel witnessing. We are not too impressed these days, however, with those who think we ought to be chummy with Sodom

and mix freely with Gomorrah. Of course theirs is the old argument that the end justifies the means. Lot mixed freely with Sodom and “ sat in the gate,” but he ended in disgrace. When in Rome, Paul did not do as the Romans. He was all things to all men that he might save some, but that has been stretched to cover practices Paul never would have endorsed, as his other writings prove. Most protagonists of the Jesuit doctrine concerning means and ends would never mind eating meat offered to idols. John Bunyan described the pilgrims at Vanity Fair in a way that sounds strange to us today: “ And as they wondered at their apparel, so they did likewise at their speech; for few could understand what they said. They naturally spoke the language of Canaan; but they that kept the Fair were men of this world. So that from one end of the Fair to the other, they seemed barbarians to each other.” Modern pilgrims of the faith and pro­ prietors of the Fair would hardly seem barbarians to each other. They are too much alike. God’s people are strangers and pilgrims in this world and while we are not to live cloistered lives or move through the world in Pharisaic religious superiority, that does not mean that we must run clear off the reservation in the other direction and lose our identity as Christians in identification with this age. When the Lord’s sheep are gray, all black sheep feel more comfortable. Many proposals about fraternizing with the ungodly may be bom of good intentions but they aid and abet the trend of the times that would reduce all mankind to one faceless mass in preparation for Antichrist. The subtle pressures will increase but the true Christian is always an angular misfit in a sinful generation. The fact that our Lord ate with publicans and sinners has been made to cover all sorts of dubious practices. The Christian who hobnobs with Sodom is more likely to become a Sodomite than to convert Sodom. We should be pleasant and friendly and helpful to all men and there are areas where we can mix and mingle within the framework of our faith but such associations may easily become fellowship. For this reason, churches are not moulding communities today half so much as com­ munities are moulding churches. An out-and-out Chris­ tian will never be accepted by this age. The modern religious hail-fellow-well-met is a far cry from Bunyan’s Pilgrim. Whatever the failings of the Old School, the new variety is not making much of a dent in modem society. The concessions we make in order to be acceptable offset the good we hoped to do. The means may cost more than the end is worth. The world hated our Lord and He assured us that it would hate us too. As the Master, so shall the servant be. Modern schemes to remove the reproach of the cross and make the saints popular will not convert Sodom and may disgrace Lot. Let us be done with queer angles and odd solutions to problems of Christian conduct. In this day of con­ formity they are part of the brainwashing process by which all lines are erased in a bland togetherness of church and world. Instead of more togetherness, we need more apartness. We cannot lift others if we stand on the same level. We are to have no fellowship with the un­ fruitful works of darkness but rather expose them by the contrast of godly living. Some old-fashioned Christians managed to achieve remarkable results by being clear- cut non-conformists transformed by the renewing of their minds. We have not improved upon them lately.

. . b l a c k s h e e p f e e l m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e . ”



ogist or professional counselor with superior professional skills. Thirdly, he must be a radiant, well-adjusted person himself with ability to counsel effectively. Fourthly, he must envis­ ion the field of Christian counseling as a godly mission and not just as an­ other professional job. Q. I presume that most of your cli­ ents are from Southern California. A. Yes, however, they do come from long distances as well. For example: Pennsylvania, Oregon, Washington, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Idaho. In addition, a number of missionaries have flown home from foreign fields to receive help. Q. What kinds of problems do people bring to you? A. A great variety. However, most problems fall within certain catagor- ies: Personality, depression, marriage, pre-marriage, teen-age, vocational, educational, sex, and a variety of children’s problems. Q. As you see it, what is the rela­ tionship of salvation and Christian growth to therapy at the Christian Center? A . This is a big question and it de­ serves much discussion. However, since we are limited in both time and space, may I say this: Human beings are not only physical beings and emotional beings; they are also spiritual beings. Whenever you try to help a person without taking into consideration physical or medical as­ pects, you are certainly not being scientific. Similarly, when you at­ tempt to help a person without tak­ ing spiritual aspects into considera- Dr. Narramore has opportunity to counsel with visitor to center.


Christian Counseling Center Opens

A Photographic Interview by the Editors

Tranquility of peaceful garden 'scene greets visitors to Pasadena center. Q. Needless to say, Dr. Narramore, I am very much impressed, as I am sure everyone is, with the beautiful decor of the Christian counseling cen­ ter. W ere you and Mrs. Narramore responsible for this? For thirteen years, since I joined the staff of the Los Angeles County Su­ perintendent of Schools as a psychol­ ogist, I have been burdened with the need for such a Center. Finally, God has given us a splendid staff and adequate facilities. We now have eight psychologists and professional counselors who are able to render serv­ ice to a large number of clients.

A. No, only partially. A Christian in­ terior decorator, Mr. John Winbrey, was listening to the radio one day and heard that we were going to move our national headquarters and the Christian Counseling Center to Pasa­ dena. Wanting to do something for the Lord, he phoned me and offered his services without charge. Q. Your offices for your radio and literature ministries are all here, aren’t they? A. Yes, and we are grateful to God for making this building at 35 South Raymond, Pasadena, available. It ac­ commodates the offices for all of our radio and literature ministries as well as the Christian Counseling Center. Q. What made you decide to estab­ lish a Christian Counseling Center? A. Because the need was so great.

Q. I understand, Dr. Narramore, that you receive no salary for either your radio work or for directing the Chris­ tian Counseling Center. Is this right? A. That’s right. In fact, that’s one rea­ son why we are able to keep the fees at a minimum. Q. How do you select your staff? What qualifications must they have? A. This, of course, is a difficult job, because there are only a few licensed psychologists in America who truly love the Lord Jesus Christ and who are fine students of the Word. First of all, a counselor must be an outstanding man of God with a thorough knowledge of the Bible. Sec­ ondly, he must be a licensed psychol­



tion you are not being scientific. Therefore, it is imperative that people are saved through a personal rela­ tionship with the Lord Jesus Christ, and that they are living close to Him each day. This spiritual emphasis, however, is only part of therapy. Q. Would you explain, Dr. Narra- more, what procedures you generally follow in helping a client? A . Yes. First, the client has a friendly talk with the counselor to become ac­ quainted. Then, as the client is rea­ dy, he shares his problem or concern with the counselor. If indicated, ap­ propriate psychological tests are giv­ en. (Among our staff of eight, we are able to give almost any type of psy­ chological test.) If medical problems are ruled out, the client begins ther­ apy — that is, a series of counseling sessions. Q. Do you find that most people who come to the center are quite seriously disturbed? A . No, indeed. Many of the fine Christians who come to the Center have no problems at all. They come for evaluation and testing. Others come for a few sessions to discuss a loved one. Not long ago a lady came for in­ telligence and vocational tests. Her family was grown and she wanted to return to college to get her doctor’s degree, and she wanted to know, ac­ cording to scientific tests, in which field she should get her degree. Many parents bring their children for in­ telligence and achievement tests. Still others want to discuss future plans confidentially. Q. What about teen-agers? Do many of them come for counseling sessions? A. Yes, many high school and college students come for various reasons. In fact, I think that the thorough eval­ uation we make of young people, that is, the giving of intelligence tests, vo­ cational, tests, and aptitude tests fol­ lowed by counseling is one of the most important services we render. For just a small fee, a young per­ son can receive Christ-centered, sci­ entific guidance which can save him thousands of dollars as well as much heartache for a lifetime. I wish every young person in Southern California could come to the Center and have vocational and aptitude tests. Q. Do you have any medical doctors on your staff? A . No, but we do maintain a close liaison with Christian physicians in

Dr. Narramore discusses a case with counselor M r. Jon

Every inquiry is given personal attention at the Christian Counseling Center. Dr. Narramore checks correspondence with secretary.

the area and with other specialists as well. Q. Do you have any plans for offer­ ing training to Christian leaders? A . Yes, in fact, we are offering semi­ nars of 4 weeks’ duration (Monday afternoons) throughout the year. Our conference room accommodates about 60, so we are able to enroll approxi­ mately that number for each series of seminars. Pastors who are interested may call the Center. Q. But your various staff members are available to speak at churches, are they not? A . Oh, yes. They speak to men’s and women’s groups, teachers’ groups, young people’s groups and married couples’ groups. These meetings may be single ones, or they may be in a series of three or four. Our counselors have two objectives when they come to local churches: (1) To instruct, and (2) To inspire. In most cases, before a staff member goes to a local church, he shares his plans with the staff, and the entire group of psychologists pool their ideas.

Q. I presume you welcome visitors. A . Yes, we do. We are eager that Christians visit the Center. Day or night there is someone ready to show visitors around. We have but one pur­ pose —- to serve the Lord Jesus Christ! Being open from 9:00 A.M . to 9:00 P.M . Monday through Friday the counseling schedule accommodates many.



A Christian Psychiatrist Asks . . .

by Truman G. Esau, MJD.

T h e f a s h i o n in which a person relates to and deals with persons in authority is of vital importance not only to his own life but also in his relationships to others. Despite the demands for freedom in our time, the func­ tions of authority and the administration of authority are essential if intrapsychic and social anarchy are to be avoided. The individual and the group require controls from within themselves, or the law enforcement agencies of the culture will impose them from without. Within the last century there have been widespread significant changes in attitudes toward the patterns of authority within our culture. The church has all too often been molded by these changing patterns rather than influ­ encing the pattern themselves. This article will examine some facets of this interchange of the church with its culture in respect to the issues around authority and the implications of the same issues for the individual Christian. First, a few comments are in order on the changes which have occurred in this sphere in the last century. It seems that no area of life or thought today has escaped the questioning, probing inquiry into the validity of authority. The traditional bulwarks within which people have found safety have been significantly questioned. We once thought this would set us free but now are no longer so sure of this. What was once accepted with certainty in the field of physical science is now open to question. Many of the “natural laws” which were con­ sidered inviolable have been overthrown. The very ori­ gin of our existence, its nature, and the interrelation­ ships of all living and inanimate creation are inter­ preted differently from the established “ laws” of even a generation ago. This trend seems true of all intellectual pursuits. No one would question that similar changes have arisen in the arts. The canvas, music, and dramatic

arts have undergone such startling changes that they suddenly seem unrecognizable. Whether these changes are desirable is not the focus of our discussion. Rather we are concerned with the motivations and the implica­ tions of alterations. Before we examine the meaning of these reactions against authority in detail, consider the evident changes in our mores. Marriage, divorce, fashion, and adolescent behavior are vastly altered in today’s patterns. Our culture is in a state of flux, un­ certain about the validity of its sociological, psychologi­ cal, and spiritual heritage. The American home has suffered in the most dire fashion. The American parent all too often awaits his child’s growth into adolescence with a kind of helpless terror. There are those families who adhere to the former standards, but in today’s world the ability of an individual or a group to isolate itself from the main stream of life is sharply curtailed. To maintain an outlook on life which markedly differs from the surrounding culture is fraught with danger of dis­ ruption within the family as the children grow to ma­ turity. Group pressures seriously hamper this kind of noncomformity. To disagree with the cultural pattern is insufficient. The kinds of interpersonal relationships required to preserve a family pattern which is at vari­ ance with the cultural pattern are increasingly difficult to maintain. This brings the church and the Christian family into focus. Would it be too much to say that the average Christian family doubts its ability to withstand these cultural pressures? The dynamic, revolutionary character of the Christian idea is sufficiently thwarted today so that many seriously consider the activity of the church of little significance in our changing ways of life. This cannot be dismissed when we see the crisis patterns which emerge in the Christian young person as he matures in adolescence.



comes for the next generation an issue in personality maturation. What may have seemed to us an intellectual question, a theological issue, becomes a far deeper prob­ lem to our children. One generation may feel that spirit­ uality is really defined by certain mores. If this genera­ tion undergoes a transition whereby it doubts the valid­ ity of these mores as an expression of spirituality but maintains the mores as a form, children of this genera­ tion pick up a double standard. They fail to feel the support which had been present in the earlier attitude. In the new overthrow of authority the next generation feels permission to rebel at the very point where the parents have placed the most emphasis and have had the least conviction. The dogmatic stress on the form implies most significant ambivalence. Implicit in our discussion thus far is the assumption of our age that, after all, things are relative. To be assured, to be convinced, is to be rigid; to conform is to be bound. This premise is perhaps one of the most My Shepherd is the Lord my God, There is no want 1 know; His flock he leads through verdant meads, Where tranquil waters flow. 2 He doth restore my fainting soul With His divine caress, And when L stray He points the way To paths of righteousness. 3 Yea, though I walk the vale of death, What evil shall I fear? Thy rod and staff are mine, O God, And thou, my Shepherd near. 4 My enemies behold the feast Which my dear Lord hath spread; And lo, my cup he filleth up, With oil anoints my head. 5 Goodness and mercy shall be mine Unto my dying day; Then shall I bide at His dear side, Forever and for aye. destructive forces in interpersonal relations. To be able to accept authority is closely akin to be able to trust. The isolation of the individual, the rarity of real shar­ ing, the heightening of an already paranoid attitude in our culture are inevitable if one cannot trust his values and thereby become decisive and find strength. It can be said that a child needs control, indeed func­ tions best within well-defined limits. This assumption has its roots in a child’s essential lawlessness. A child can­ not shape his own image nor find his own way. He gains mastery over his impulses, his fears, and hostilities by accepting and even emulating and incorporating the ex­ ternal curb on his activities. Real love is meaningful to a child only when it deals with his own inner chaos. The character traits we so admire — resourcefulness, conviction, leadership — are impossible unless love and authority are welded. When femininity equals authority, when mother controls and not father, these two images The Twenty-third Psalm by Eugene Field 1

If we examine the main question under consideration from the point of view of the teen-ager, we see it more sharply and may be able to feel the urgency implicit in this. It may be said that the early and middle teen-ager (the high school student) and the late adolescent (the college student) have only borrowed standards, a con­ science given to them by family and church. In today’s world, where group acceptance and the mores of one’s peers are of deepest significance, the Christian young person has an especially difficult time in the identity crisis through which he must go to know himself, ascer­ tain his convictions, and become a person. Since com­ municating with this age group is somewhat unfamiliar to us, we may easily fail to grasp the magnitude of the changes in the last quarter century. This is not typically the problem of the Beatnik or the delinquent, who clearly represent a minority. This concerns a far broader group. The parents of the depression years often identify security with material acquisition. The chil­ dren of the depression now find that the message of materialism, the physical comfort and convenience which can be provided in our economy, has little meaning to today’s struggles. The attitudes of the depression and the bounty which was sought to assuage the deprivation of that time does not deal with the struggle of today’s youth. In fact, the suburbia which has arisen out of the success of this quarter century has maimed far more than economic deprivation could. The relationship, the identification between parent and child, which paradoxi­ cally often was strengthened under the threat of family disruption because of financial crises now is one of the victims of our new social-economic structure. All of this added to the removal of the “ absolutes” of another age make the struggle of becoming, the finding of meaning in life, far more difficult for the adolescent. This is not to say the absolutes have always been abandoned at an intellectual level. But when these values are not sup­ ported with a meaningful relationship, it is all too easy for the adolescent to doubt the validity of not only the then outworn cliche but the helpfulness of parents who did not support these values with conviction. This problem is most significant in the Christian family. The traditional Christian family once was able to maintain its mores because of the power of the group. Such a family is now more an island unto itself. The young person coming out of this family frequently feels that he must break with what he considers the rigidity of his parents in order to be free. All too often he thinks that a breaking with these attitudes is real freedom. He may go through a chronic period in which all efforts at control are scoffed at because he has not yet considered the possibility of conformity as well as noncomformity. Freedom, after all, implies the possibility of choosing to conform or not to conform. At the heart of the struggle there seems only one alternative to the adolescent, that of becoming a person by becoming the opposite of that with which he has grown. The real tragedy occurred in childhood when the child came to think the strength of authority to be malevolent because the parents never really felt the support and the value of authority them­ selves. This kind of conflict in which the parent adheres to the tradition without a meaningful emotional convic­ tion and without a personally rewarding relationship to authority figures prepares the way for the deeper dis­ turbance in his adolescent children. In a real sense, the struggle of the individual Chris­ tian young person parallels the historical weakening of authority in the church. In the church we have come to suspect that authority itself is somewhat of a problem. What one generation doubts intellectually usually be­

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own personal experiences. This latter god may be a convenient extension of the relationships with our par­ ents. If we see parenthood in terms of indulgence, we may see God as a grandfather. If we see parents as arbitrary, rigid, and without real understanding of our emotional struggles, we usually imprison our image of God in the same rigidity. But in either case, we do not know God. We think we passify Him by compulsive at­ tendance to His demands. All of this is a kind of grand self-atonement and not Christianity. Fear and not strength lie at the heart of such images of God. Instead we need the Jesus who had strong, oft-times violent emotions. A kind of passive Christian education whch sees Jesus as indulgent re-enforces what our fam­ ilies experience in this culture. If we can only disen­ tangle God as He is from what we fear Him to be, then we can identify with Jesus as He is. We then can be merciful and just. God’s mercy only has meaning when we see His justice. As we identify with His sense of justice and direction, we are able to be really merci­ ful. Mercy has no meaning without this proper relation­ ship to authority. We yearn for meaningfulness, whether by retention of the fervor and piety of the past or a new piety set in the midst of today’s issues. This comes not by passivity. As we find real peace with God as a benevolent authority and can trust in his control, we then can control our­ selves. Despite our fears, then we can readily discern and deal with the kind of arbitrariness, the malevolent authority, which we fear will destroy us. The pulpit is often seen as a feminine institution in our time. If it is this way, it is because the pew wants it so We seek the peacemaker, the politician, not the proph­ et. But a pulpit which dares to stir anxiety and guilty feelings in a desirable way brings with it the possibility of real help. The prophetic message is necessary to awak­ en the conscience lulled to sleep by passivity. We cry for renewal, for the Olympian courage to convey the message of hope. This will come as we break free from our authority struggles. These are both individual and group struggles. In closing, let me refer to one standard objective to the use of psychological insights in matters spiritual. This theological objection to “ knowing one’s self” is that it focuses on problems rather than on grace. Yet how can a man accept grace if he knows not those things from which he needs deliverance? Significantly the church is chronically opt of touch with the experiences of those in the pew. The church is no longer the place where these problems are shared. This could have been and can be avoided. Perhaps only in the church can res­ olution to these things come. Perhaps only as we take these conflicts, these struggles for identity, seriously and see them from a spiritual point of view can the seculari­ zation of life be impeded. Perhaps then what is now called psychological, emotional, or sociological may real­ ly be seen as spiritual. What are we to do? We can take this understanding of ourselves and yearn to be free. We can know God by the Spirit as a firm and yet compassionate authority. W ill this make us little pieces of God, “ chips off the old block” ? Am I simply to try to be like God? As we know the death in which we languish, we will know the signifi­ cance of the life to which we are called. Then we may be healed by grace. ED. NOTE: Dr. Esau is Director of the Covenant Counseling Center of North Park Theological Seminary, Foster and Kedzie Avenues, Chicago 25, 111. This article is reprinted by permis­ sion of the author and of Editor F. Burton Nelson, of The Covenant Quarterly , in which it first appeared.

(Authority Continued) come in conflict. The wisdom of one parent’s standing predominantly for mercy and the other parent pre­ dominantly for judgment again comes into focus. If the church is to take the attitude that the changing culture cannot be dealt with or that the biblical image of mas­ culinity and paternity is not really authoritative but that these matters should be culturally determined and made socially relevant, then the church becomes a simple social organization, a club. If, on the other hand, the biblical picture is normative, we can therein examine ourselves and the influences our culture has had upon us. Only then can we change. What we have said of the parent-child relationships is true of the marriage relationship as well. A woman’s essential role of receptivity and, in turn, of providing sup­ port and mercy to the children is fragmented by the cultural demand for equality in every sphere. The wom­ an who is really experiencing fulfillment yearns for dependency and the sense of being protected. If instead she must bear masculine responsibility and become an authority figure, in dealing with her own dependency needs she may indeed reject the dependency needs of her child. The primary feminine qualities of receptivity, passivity, and the desire to mother shape a woman’s emotional life. Right in this context, isn’t it significant how much suspicion has been placed on the submissive role in our culture? To be dependent and in need of support connotes weakness. The male role of aggressive­ ness and a certain degree of dominance carries with it the idea of responsibility and control. Perhaps at this point our American culture is most unhealthy. The two sexes are losing their distinctive identities. Without this sharp definition of identity, marriage is not satisfying. If one is ambiguous in what he wants from his mate and his children, he will be unable to give what the other partner needs. The overprotective and dominating mother usually reflects a marriage in which authority and submission are unsettled issues. If a woman domi­ nates and at the same time wishes to be dominated and a man brings to a marriage a desire to be mothered as well as a desire to be aggressive, little health can come out of this. The significance of these statements might well be accepted on a sociological level. So often, how­ ever, the church is blind to the fact that these conditions exist in every church and in many American families, regardless of Christian conviction and loyalty. In fact, one’s use of Christianity can be an expression of this problem. In all this struggle with authority relationships, our idea of God suffers most. Higher criticism may not be any more responsible for our relativistic outlook on Christianity than changing family patterns may be. The “ grandfather in Heaven” concept of God prevalent to­ day may be a product of our cultural changes, the evi­ dence of a senile Christianity which has been unable to deal with changing conditions. We seem less able to declare a God who can deliver us from our turmoil, let alone lead us to shape new horizons. On the other hand, in a most significant manner, we lose just as much of the reality of Christ as God when we rest in legalisms. Both extremes, the passive grandfather-God and the legal- ism-God, fail to reach us where we are. Both pervert au­ thority. We have a perverted view of God in our emo­ tions as we have a perverted view of the family in our culture. I wonder if we really consider the origin of such religious feeling! In The Self in Pilgrimage, by Earl A. Loomis Jr., M.D., there is a reference to the three gods which every man has. There is the gocj. of the group, the doctrinal god. There is God as He really is, and there is god as we have come to believe him to be because of our



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