MSSG Study Skills MS - Student Workbok

TWEEN PUBLISHING’S

Student Workbook

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

PRODUCT PREVIEW

This book belongs to:

_______________________________________

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

© 2012 Susan Mulcaire All rights reserved. The content of this book is protected by intellectual property laws. Tween Publishing grants permission to noncommercial users to provide instruction based on the content of this book. No part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, for any commercial or noncommercial use whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission, write to Tween Publishing LLC, P.O. Box 8677, Newport Beach, CA 92625-8677, or contact Tween by email at info@middleschoolguide.com. Tween Publishing acknowledges Zapp Illustrations: pages 2, 3, 6, 10, 11, 15, 16, 23, 26, 32, 33, 44, 45, 48, 53, 66, 67, 78, 79, 88, 89, 98, 99, 110, 111, 124, 125, 135, 144, 145, 151, 156, 157, 166, 167, 176, 177, 186, 187, 198, 199, 210, 211, 225, 238, 239, 250, 251, 264, 265, 276, 277, 288, 289, 295, 302, 303, 314, 315. PRODUCT PREVIEW

Printed in the United States of America ISBN 978-0-9785210-6-6

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 5: What’s in Style? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6: Learning Resources & Multimodal Learning . . . . . . Chapter 7: There’s More Than One Way to Be Smart! . . . . . . . Chapter 1: What are Study Skills? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: Metacognition: The Self-Aware Student . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: A Bit About Brainy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4: Mental Throwdown: Effort vs. Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Chapter 8: That’s My Routine and I’m Stick’n to It! . . . . . . . . Chapter 9: The Organized Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Syllabusted! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 11: Gettin’ Your Schema On! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Navigating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 16: Cornies & Indies & Hybrids, Oh My! . . . . . . . . . Chapter 17: The Hidden Benefits of Outlining Your Textbook . . . Chapter 12: Active Learning in a Passive Learning World . . . . . Chapter 13: Battle Plan SQ3R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14: Hey, are You Listening? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 20: Short Answer & Essay Test Tips . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 21: So Many Choices, So Little Time… . . . . . . . . . Chapter 22: How to Trick Out Your Oral Presentation . . . . . . Chapter 23: Taming Test Anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 24: So Close, Yet so Far… Distance Learning . . . . . . . Chapter 25: Ouch My Brain Hurts! Critical Thinking Skills . . . . Chapter 26: Ramp Up Your Research Skills . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 27: Good Citizens! Perfect Participants! . . . . . . . . . Chapter 28: The Benefits of Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 18: M.N.E.M.O.N.I.C.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 19: Meet the Anti-Cram: Time-Spaced Learning . . . . .

INTRODUCTION TO STUDY SKILLS & THE PROCESS OF LEARNING

10 22 33

44 52 66

LEARNING STYLES & MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

78 88 98 110

PRE-LEARNING STRATEGIES

PRODUCT PREVIEW

124 134 144

ACTION HEROES: LEARNING, READING, LISTENING

156 166 176

NOTE-TAKING AND OUTLINING SKILLS

186 198

MEMORY AND RECALL STRATEGIES

210 224 238 250 264 276 288 302 315

TEST-TAKING TIPS & STRATEGIES

WRAPPING UP FOR COLLEGE READINESS

Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

1

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

C H A P T E R 1

What are Study Skills?

PRODUCT PREVIEW

Have you ever thought about what it takes to be a winning athlete? Is talent enough? Physical ability? Stamina? What about the mentality and attitude of a winning athlete? How much do those things play a part in success? Athletic success doesn’t happen by luck. Winning athletes practice techniques and skills over and over. They focus on perfecting their skills. They set goals. They identify and correct their mistakes. They are dedicated and ambitious. Hard work and focused practice make an athlete faster, more efficient, and more effective at their sport. Being a successful student also takes practice, skills, and techniques. These are called study skills . Good study skills make you a faster, more efficient, and more effective student. The term “study” skills is a bit misleading because it implies that these skills are just for studying — like reviewing for a test or quiz. Study skills are not limited to reviewing for tests and quizzes. Study skills apply to all aspects of learning. How you learn is just as important as what you learn!

Chapter 1 Lea rni ng Goa ls:  state a simple de f i nition of lea rni ng.  recognize the broad application of study skills to a ll aspects of lea rni ng.  describe the bene f its of good study skills.

2

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

BINGO, PRODUCT PREVIEW

B

3

WHAT ARE STUDY SKILLS? | chapter 1

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

Study skills apply whether you are studying for a quiz or test, in class listening to your teacher, participating in a lab or other learning activity, taking a test, reading a textbook or doing homework. Study skills are practices, strategies and techniques for all aspects of learning.

What is learning? 1. Learning is the acquisition of knowledge. What is learning? As a student, you spend much of your day trying to do it, but have you ever given any thought to what learning is and how it happens? Learning is a complex concept. There’s a large body of psychology devoted to learning and how it happens. There are many ways people learn. Some learning is automatic. For example, when you were a small child you may have learned not to touch a hot stove by touching it once. (Ouch!) That’s learning by conditioning . Other learning, like memorizing the names of the presidents, or how to find the area of a prism is not automatic. It takes time and often a great deal of effort. The end result of learning is the acquisition of knowledge. Good study skills improve your ability to acquire knowledge. 2. Learning is the retention of knowledge. Have you ever spent hours studying, were sure you knew the material, but couldn’t remember it when you needed to? Did you not learn it as well as you thought? Why did the knowledge slip away? Lots of things we learn are not meant to be remembered for a long time, so our brains quickly let go of the information. Other information, like the kind you learn in school, is meant to be remembered for a long time. If you forget information too soon after you learned it, you did not learn it successfully. Good study skills include practices and strategies for retaining information for a longer period of time. Good study skills improve your ability to retain knowledge. 3. Learning is the ability to demonstrate knowledge. Learning is measurable, and an important part of learning is being able to successfully demonstrate what you’ve learned so it can be accurately measured (graded) by your teacher. As a student, you are always being asked to demonstrate your knowledge. Tests and quizzes, class participation, reports, essays, verbal reports, group presentations—even just answering your teacher’s questions in class are all ways that your knowledge is demonstrated. You must be able PRODUCT PREVIEW Learning = the acquisition of knowledge + retention of knowledge + ability to demonstrate knowledge

4

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

to demonstrate knowledge in a variety of testing formats: essay and short answer, multiple choice, true or false, fill-in-the-blanks, oral response, etc. Good study skills improve your ability to successfully demonstrate knowledge.

What study skills will you learn in this book?

In this book you will explore study skills for all aspects of learning—not just to study for a test or quiz. The goal is to improve your ability to acquire, retain, and demonstrate knowledge, so you can be a more successful student. Besides, you won’t be a middle school student for much longer. The skills you’ll learn in this book will create a solid foundation for the skills you’ll need for success in high school and college. You will begin your journey to good study skills by learning about the process of learning in chapters 1-4. It helps to know a little about the process of learning, thinking, and how your brain works in order to be able to reflect on and improve your own thinking and learning. In chapters 5-7 you’ll expand your awareness of learning styles, multi-sensory resources, and strategies for developing your own unique abilities and compensating for your weaknesses. In chapters 8-11 you’ll examine the benefits of establishing and sticking to a pre-learning routine . In chapters 12-14 you’ll explore what it means to be an active learner . In chapters 15-17 you’ll learn how (and why) to take notes and outline your textbook chapters. In chapters 18-23 you will explore practices and strategies that enable you to recall a lot more of what you learn, and tips for success on all kinds of tests and assessments . Finally, because you will be heading off to college in just a few short years, you will explore important skills for college readiness in chapters 24-28. Do your best to complete the worksheets and activities in this book. Your teacher has the answer key in the Instructor’s Guide. If you are an independent learner, reading this book to learn study skills on your own, you can check your answers at http://www.middleschoolguide.com/products/ tips-links-and-forms/ PRODUCT PREVIEW Let’s start learning study skills!

5

WHAT ARE STUDY SKILLS? | chapter 1

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

U.B. Smart Students Study How to Study

by Jason

or discuss study skills and high school and college readiness topics. All students must _______________________________ in the discus- sions, debates and blogs. On the first day of class, students learned that learning is the ______________________________, ________________________________, and ability to ______________________ knowledge. A.J., a 7th grader said “I really need to learn these skills. Even though I study a lot, I forget what I learn. I have a hard time _____________________ what I studied. Elena wants to learn good test-taking skills so she can better demonstrate her knowledge. “There are so many ways my teachers ask me to show what I know, such as: ___________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________. Students compared the traits of successful stu- dents with the traits of successful athletes. “These people have many traits in common,” said Mr. Skillsworth,” (List five – your choice.) ___________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________. Assisting Mr. Skillsworth are Miss Loveless, Mr. Viejo, and everyone’s favorite science teacher Ms. Pell.

Big news from Rm. 400. Mr. Skillsworth’s study skills class is underway. Students are learning that good study skills take time, practice and discipline, but they’re worth the effort. PRODUCT PREVIEW “As you move up to high school and college, good study skills are very

“How you learn is as important as what you learn” says Mr. Skillsworth

important to your success as a student.” said Mr. Skillsworth. “They help you be a faster, more ef- ficient and effective learner.” His students totally agree. Alison, a 7th grader, said “Good study skills take a lot of the frus- tration and ________________ out of learning. The skills, techniques, and strategies I learn in this class will be part of my study routine all the way through high school and __________________.”

Students are using The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills . They must bring it to __________________________ class. It contains the ____________________ they need for class activities and homework.

Grades are based on in-class activities, home- work completion, and consistent, everyday use of the skills learned in the class. At the end of each unit, students ____________, debate

stress every acquisition true/false test retention demonstrate oral presentation worksheets short answer test multiple choice test blog college essay test participate remembering

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

APPLICATION OF SKILLS Name: _ ________________________________________________________________________________ What are Study Skills? 1. The term study skills is misleading. Why? _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What does being a faster, more efficient and effective student mean to you? _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What are your three worst study habits ? What problems have they caused for you? _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are your most productive study habits ? How have they helped you be a more successful student? _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. “ How you learn is just as important as what you learn.” Comment: _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What’s the most frustrating and stressful part of learning for you? How does it make you feel about your abilities as a student, and your academic future in high school and college? _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What grade would you give your current study skills and habits ? A+ A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D D- F PRODUCT PREVIEW

7

WHAT ARE STUDY SKILLS? | chapter 1

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

LETTER TO PARENT

Dear Parent or Caregiver, Today I participated in my study skills class based on The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills . One of the best ways I can prepare for high school and college is to use good study skills whenever I am learning. I learned: 1. Learning is the acquisition of _____________________, which can occur in many ways. 2. Some knowledge is intended to be short-term, but most of what students learn in school is intended to be remembered for a long period of time. If you forget what you learned soon after you studied it, you did not learn ___________________. Learning includes the _____________________ of knowledge, which is the ability to remember what you learned. 3. Good study skills make students _____________________ , more __________________________ , and _____________________ learners. 4. Study skills are not limited to _____________________ for tests and quizzes; They are skills, practices and strategies for all _____________________ of learning. 5. Learning is measurable. As part of the learning process, students must be able to successfully _____________________________ their knowledge in a variety of assessment (measurement) formats. Ask me about the skills I learned today! Your support at home will help me make good study skills daily habit. Thank you for all you do for me every day. PRODUCT PREVIEW

Sincerely,

________________________________

8

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

NOTES

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ PRODUCT PREVIEW

9

WHAT ARE STUDY SKILLS? | chapter 1

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

C H A P T E R 2

metacognition: the self-aware student In Chapter 1 you considered the traits of winning athletes. Successful athletes practice long hours to perfect their skills and techniques. What goes through the mind of a good athlete when they are training? Are they thinking about what they watched on TV the night before? Are they wondering what to wear to school the next day? Do they just go through the motions of practice? Good athletes do not just “go through the motions” of practice! Successful athletes focus, laser-like, on their skills. They set goals to know what they want to achieve. They control their body movements, adjust their speed, motion, and strategy for optimal performance. They gauge their progress by timing themselves, tracking completions, and assessing their performance. A good athlete is self-aware . Self-awareness is an important trait for students too. In this chapter you’ll learn the importance of being a self-aware, metacognitive student.

PRODUCT PREVIEW

Chapter 2 Lea rni ng Goa ls:  de f i ne meta cognition.  list the tra its of a self-awa re student.  identify poor meta cognitive skills i n a series of examples.  complete a su rvey of their persona l meta cognitive skills.

10

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

PRODUCT PREVIEW

11

metacognition: the self-aware student | chapter 2

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

What is metacognition ?

Successful students are self-aware learners who consciously monitor and focus on their learning as they learn. In other words, they think about their thinking! Thinking about thinking is called metacognition , and it’s an important study skill.

What are the traits of a metacognitive student?  Focuses on a single task

Multitasking means trying to pay attention to, or work on several tasks at the same time. Neuroscientists (those are scientists who study the brain) have found that humans simply cannot focus well on more than one task at a time. Trying to focus on several matters at once creates a lot of conflict within the brain. When the brain is forced to switch back and forth between tasks and activities, it constantly struggles to focus and refocus. It is an inefficient and unproductive way to learn. Laser-like focus on a single task is a trait of a metacognitive student.  Identifies learning goals Studying is not unlike many of the other activities you engage in during the day. If you stop at the store on the way home from school, you generally know why you’re there, and what you want to get. Before starting a learning task, such as homework, reading, or studying for a test or quiz, the metacognitive student takes a minute to identify the information their brain should be retrieving from the task. Identifying specific learning goals is kind of like creating a shopping list for your brain, telling it what information to pick up as you study. Identification of specific learning goals is a trait of a metacognitive student.  Assesses learning environment Physical surroundings impact a student’s ability to meet their learning goals. A metacognitive student assesses their learning environment and makes adjustments to control and manage their learning. “Environment” can include where and when you study, with whom you study, and how you study. The metacognitive student is able to recognize a poor study environment and adjust it, or seek out a new environment which better facilitates learning. Monitoring and adjusting their learning environment to optimize learning is a trait of the metacognitive student. PRODUCT PREVIEW

12

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

 Adjusts thinking Metacognitive students are alert to changes in their thinking, such as when their mind wanders off task, or when they don’t understand something. They are aware of attitudes or thoughts that distract them from their learning goals. They adjust their thinking and refocus. If a particular learning strategy isn’t working very well, the metacognitive student adjusts to use a different strategy. Actively monitoring and controlling their thought processes as they learn is a trait of a metacognitive student.  Gauges progress The metacognitive student checks their progress toward their learning goals by testing their knowledge as they learn. They pause to check their comprehension of reading material. They restate concepts in their own words. They check whether they understand the big idea of a lesson. They check their answers for accuracy. They reflect on their learning. Metacognitive students know that it is important to test themselves before they are tested by their teacher. When a metacognitive student doesn’t understand something, they ask for help instead of ignoring it, or assuming they’ll figure it out later. The ability to gauge progress toward their learning goals is a trait of a metacognitive student. PRODUCT PREVIEW What is metacognition in action? Let’s observe metacognition in action. Read the profiles below. Which student is focused on the task of learning? Who has identified their learning goals, and has a clear understanding of what they are supposed to retrieve from their learning tasks? Which student is focused on the single task of learning, monitors and adjusts their thinking, and gauges their progress? Issa, a middle school student, is in her room doing homework. She keeps her cell phone out of her workspace because she knows she gets distracted by texting. She’s reading a chapter in her science textbook, learning about gravitational force—specifically Newton’s Laws of Motion for a quiz on Wednesday. Issa comes across a word she doesn’t understand. She pauses and thinks “Uh oh, I don’t understand that word. I will need to know what it means, or the rest of this chapter probably won’t make much sense.” She checks the definition, then rereads the sentence, inserting the definition in place of the actual word. She asks “does that make sense? Do I understand now?” When she’s sure she understands, she continues reading.

13

metacognition: the self-aware student | chapter 2

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

By contrast, here’s Chris: Chris, a middle school student, is on the sofa in the family room. He’s doing his homework—sort of. Books and papers are spread out around him. As he reads, he keeps an eye on the sports channel, eats a burger, makes a couple of calls, texts his bros’ about plans for the weekend, and throws the ball for his dog. He’s working on a chapter in his science textbook—something about gravity and Newton—maybe Einstein—he’s not sure. Anyway, it’s boring. He’s in a hurry to finish because he’s meeting friends at the movies. He notices that there’s this one word that keeps showing up all over the chapter. He doesn’t have a clue what it means. He’s gotten tripped up on that word before. He ignores it and keeps going assuming he’ll figure it out eventually. Which student are you more like? If you find yourself identifying more with Chris than with Issa, get to work on your metacognitive skills!

The Metacognitive Student 1. Focuses on a single task. 2. Identifies their learning goals. 3. Assesses and adjusts their learning environment. 4. Monitors and adjusts their thinking. 5. Gauges progress toward their learning goals. PRODUCT PREVIEW

14

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

class activity WORKSHEET

Name: _ ________________________________________________________________________________ Metacognitive Muddle

Hey kids! Metacognition means thinking about thinking . Metacognitive students are self-aware students. They focus on learning as they learn. They identify their learning goals and monitor progress toward their goals. Metacognitive students assess and adjust their learning environment to keep it free from distractions. Read the profiles below and tell whether the student is a metacognitive student .

1. Is the student is focused on learning ? Are they multitasking ? (How can you tell?) 2. Has the student identified their learning goals ? (How can you tell?) 3. Does the student make adjustments to their learning environment to overcome problems? (If so what? If not, what changes do you recommend?) 4. Does he or she make adjustments to their thinking or learning strategies and optimize learning? (If so, how? It not, what do you recommend?) 5. Does the student accurately gauge their progress ? (How? If not, what do you recommend?) PRODUCT PREVIEW “Hi! I’m Ali. I usually do my math homework on the bus on the way home from school. If I rush, I can finish all the problems before we get to my stop. The bus is crowded and noisy, but I like talking to the kids around me as I work on the problems – it makes math less boring. I have a quiz tomorrow, so on the ride home today I reviewed stuff that might be on the quiz. I hope I remember! I totally never feel like I have a good grasp of what I’m supposed to know before my teacher moves on to the next chapter, but so far this semester, I’m passing the class. Awesome!” Is Alison a metacognitive student? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Alison

“Hey, I’m Max. OK, well life science is by far my worst class. For one thing, it’s super hard. My teacher gives us way too much homework. Also, it’s first period which starts at 7:45 and it’s hard for me to stay awake that early in the morning and then, you know, my mind starts wandering. I especially struggle with the labs, because I don’t get what’s going on or what the point of it is. I usually start my science homework about 9:00 at night because I have lacrosse practice from 5:00-7:00. Then I have to eat dinner and do a little gaming because a dude’s gotta have some fun, right? I study on

Max

15

metacognition: the self-aware student | chapter 2

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

my bed. I don’t get through much of the reading before my mind starts wandering again and pretty soon I’m zzzzzzz. Gotta sleep sometime, right? Is Max a metacognitive student? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ “I’m A.J. OK, overall, I’d say I’m a pretty good student. I like my teachers – they’re cool. I’m pretty good about doing my homework. I follow directions. I do the assignments and reading for all of my classes. My mind wanders a lot. I lose focus but I do my homework without complaining. I don’t even think about it – I just get through the reading and worksheets and that’s what counts, right? I study a lot before tests and quizzes. I always think I’m prepared, but it’s really weird,because my scores are low. I don’t get it. It’s kinda discouraging.” Is A.J. a metacognitive student? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ “Hello, I’m Elena. My “problem” class is literature. I totally struggle with all those long, boring “thou” and “thee” 19th century poems. I was getting low quiz scores. I decided that I needed to improve my focus and concentration to work through those difficult passages. I was doing my homework with friends, but we talked a lot. Personally, I need total quiet – no distractions. So, I started going to the library twice a week to do the reading. That really helped. The unit on literary devices was so confusing. Allegory, allusion, alliteration – OMG they all sound the same! My teacher said that we have to be able to define the device and use it in our own writing. Now I learn three devices per week, and make three examples. I show the examples to my teacher to make sure they’re right. Now I ace the quizzes.” Is Elena a metacognitive student? Why or why not? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Elena PRODUCT PREVIEW A. J.

16

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

APPLICATION OF SKILLS Name: _ ________________________________________________________________________________ Metacognitive Homework Survey

Being a self-aware, metacognitive student is about what’s going on in your head while you are learning. When you learn, don’t just go through the motions. Engage your brain and focus on one task at a time. Identify your learning goals, adjust your environment and thinking to optimize learning. Gauge your progress. Be a metacognitive student!

What time did you start your homework? ______________ What time did you finish? ______________ List the subjects you worked on for homework: _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Select one of the above subjects. Identify your homework learning goals . Be specific. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ As you worked, were you focused on a single task , or were you paying attention to other tasks or activities, such as the TV, loud music, texts, phone calls, or chatting with friends? Discuss: _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Describe your learning environment (location, noise, activity level, etc.) where you do homework. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Do you need to adjust or control your environment to optimize learning? How? Be specific. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Do you need to adjust or control your thinking process to optimize learning? How? Be specific. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ PRODUCT PREVIEW

17

metacognition: the self-aware student | chapter 2

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

Do you gauge your progress toward learning goals by restating what you learned in your own words, testing yourself, or creating examples? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ What are your metacognitive strengths ? Laser-like focus? Adjustable thinking? Your excellent learning environment? Discuss: _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ What are your metacognitive weaknesses ? Discuss: _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ List three things you will begin doing immediately to be a self-aware, metacognitive student . 1. _ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _ __________________________________________________________________________________ PRODUCT PREVIEW Pledge of the Metacognitive Student I, _______________________, Middle School Student, do hereby make this Pledge: From this day forward, I will not just go through the motions of learning. When I am learning, I will: • Focus on the single task of learning as I learn. • Identify my specific learning goals. • Adjust my learning environment to optimize learning. • Monitor and adjust my thinking to optimize learning. • Gauge progress toward my learning goals by testing myself, reflecting on my learning, restating concepts, or making examples. From this day forward, I will be a metacognitive student! Signed: _____________________________

18

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

LETTER TO PARENT

Dear Parent or Caregiver, Today I participated in my study skills class based on The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills . One of the best ways I can prepare for high school and college is to use good study skills whenever I am learning. I learned: 1. _________________________ about _________________________ is called metacognition and it’s an important trait for a self-aware student. 2. The metacognitive student does not __________________________ , which means trying to pay attention to other tasks while learning; they ___________________ on the single task of learning. 3. A metacognitive student identifies their specific ________________ goals, so their brain knows what information to retrieve as they study. 4. A metacognitive student monitors their __________________ environment and _________________ processes, and makes ____________________ to optimize learning. 5. A metacognitive student gauges _________________________ toward their learning goals by checking comprehension, self-testing, and putting concepts into their own words. A metacogntive student tests themself before their _________________tests them. Ask me about the skills I learned today! Your support at home will help me make good study skills daily habit. Thank you for all you do for me every day. PRODUCT PREVIEW

Sincerely,

________________________________

19

metacognition: the self-aware student | chapter 2

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

NOTES

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ PRODUCT PREVIEW

20

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

NOTES

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ PRODUCT PREVIEW

21

metacognition: the self-aware student | chapter 2

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

C H A P T E R 3

a bit about brainy

Most people go through their day talking, walking, learning, eating, sleeping, practicing sports or listening to music, never giving a single thought to the amazing organ that does it all for them: Their brain! Do you take your brain for granted? Have you ever wondered how all that information from the outside world works its way through your skull to become knowledge and memory? The human brain works 24/7, non-stop, ‘round the clock. It weighs only about 3 lbs. but it processes information incredibly fast. It is a very sophisticated organ. In this chapter you’ll explore how all that sensory data (that’s the stuff you see, hear, smell, and feel) finds its way from the outside world into your brain to be acquired and retained as knowledge. Knowing a bit about how your brain learns can help you understand how and why to study!

PRODUCT PREVIEW

Chapter 3 Lea rni ng Goa ls:  identify a nd label pa rts of the bra i n i nvolved i n lea rni ng.  describe the basic processes by which the bra i n converts sensory data to knowledge.

 create a pla n for

ma i nta i ni ng a hea lthy bra i n.

22

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

PRODUCT PREVIEW

23

a bit about brainy | chapter 3

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

Let’s start with basic brain structure:

Hemispheres

The brain has two halves. If you place a finger between your eyes and draw an imaginary line up through your forehead, across the top of your skull, and down to the nape of your neck, you’ll trace a rough division of the two halves of your brain. The halves are called hemispheres . Each hemisphere has four exterior lobes which generally function as follows: Frontal Lobes The lobes at the front of the brain are called the frontal lobes . They are the largest lobes. Behind those is the prefrontal cortex which is key to reasoning, problem solving, making decisions, and coordinating speech. When you’re thinking about the sequence of a math formula, or resisting the impulse to grab that donut out of your friend’s hand, your frontal lobe is at work. Quick! What’s 21 + 8? Someone with a prefrontal cortex injury or disease would find this very difficult – maybe even impossible to do. People with prefrontal cortex injuries or diseases may also be impulsive and have problems controlling their behavior. For successful learning, it’s very, very important to protect your prefrontal cortex from injury. PRODUCT PREVIEW Temporal Lobes Above your ears lay the temporal lobes . They process what you hear, like speech and music. They are also involved in forming long term memories. Parietal Lobes The parietal lobes are on the top of your exterior brain. They are involved in spatial orientation and sensory integration. The parietal lobe is constantly working to move the parts of your body where you want them to go. When you’re shooting baskets, or reaching for a glass of milk, the parietal

lobe is directing your body movements, telling it how hard to throw the ball, or exactly how far to reach for the glass, and how much effort it will take to lift it. It senses the distance and navigates the movements of your limbs. People who have sustained damage or disease to this area of the brain can find it very difficult to make even simple exact movements.

24

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

Occipital Lobes The occipital lobes are on the back of the head. They are mostly involved with vision. Right now, your occipital lobes are actively processing the words you are reading on this page!

The Interior Brain

Deep in the brain, beneath the exterior lobes is the interior brain . The Limbic System is located within the interior brain and contains structures important to learning:

Hypothalamus (hy•po• thal •a•mus) Hungry? Thirsty? Sleepy? This structure constantly monitors internal systems like body temperature, hunger and fatigue. Its function is to keep everything in balance. If your hypothalamus senses that you need to eat or sleep, or that you are too hot or too cold, it may distract you from learning, and nag you until you take care of your body. PRODUCT PREVIEW Hippocampus (hip•po• cam •pus) Ground zero for learning, memory and recall. Can you believe this tiny structure is responsible processing most of what you learn and converting sensory data (what you see, hear and feel) to memory? The conversion of information to memory is not an instantaneous process. It can take several exposures to information before a memory is formed well-enough to be recalled. Amygdala (ah• mig •dah•la) Boo! The amygdala is responsible for emotions like fear, happiness and sadness. Ever wondered why it’s easier to recall (or harder to forget) something really scary, sad or happy—even if it happened years ago? Experts believe that your amygdala may more forcefully imprint emotional memories, which enables them to store faster, longer and stronger. Neurons, Dendrites, Axons and Synapses Sensory information from the outside world moves into the limbic system structures along nerve cells called neurons . The brain is made up billions of neurons. Each neuron has thousands of branchlike extensions called dendrites and axons . These constantly receive and transmit electrical impulses to areas called synapses . Synapses enable neurons to communicate and process information. Hippocampus

25

a bit about brainy | chapter 3

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

What is Memory? The brain doesn’t actually have a memory “bank” or a specific place where knowledge and memories are all neatly stored away. Memory is actually a stored pattern of synaptic connections . When you read, study and review, your brain forms new synapses and synapse patterns, and strengthens old ones. The first time you learn something, it is unfamiliar to your brain. Your brain has to create a synaptic pattern for the information. If you study it only once, it can be difficult to recall later, because the synaptic connections are not well established. With more study and review, the synaptic patterns and connections strengthen, making recall easier. Do you know there can be up to 1,000,000,000,000,000 synaptic connections in your brain? (Souza, How the Brain Learns, 2006). No excuses! You are capable of learning a lot. PRODUCT PREVIEW Dendrites and Axons

Be good to your brain – you need it.

Even when doing a simple math calculation, hundreds of millions of your brain’s neurons, dendrites, axons and synapses are actively transmitting impulses and chemicals enabling you to come up with the correct answer. The brain truly is an amazing organ! Treat it well. Don’t take Brainy for granted.

26

The Middle School Student’s Guide to Study Skills

COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

class activity WORKSHEET

Name: _ ________________________________________________________________________________ Name the part of the brain and describe its function.

__________________ LOBE Function: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

__________________ LOBE Function: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

PRODUCT PREVIEW

__________________ LOBE Function: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

__________________ LOBE Function: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

Neuron: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

Synapse: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

Dendrites and Axons: ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

27

a bit about brainy | chapter 3

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 112 Page 113 Page 114 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 118 Page 119 Page 120 Page 121 Page 122 Page 123 Page 124 Page 125 Page 126 Page 127 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132 Page 133 Page 134 Page 135 Page 136 Page 137 Page 138 Page 139 Page 140

Made with FlippingBook - Online Brochure Maker