Change Management & Ambiguity DigiBook V…

CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND AMBIGUITY

JULY 2017 | VERSION 53 D I G I B O O K

TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3 CHANGE AND AMBIGUITY........................................................................................... 3 HUMAN BELIEF SYSTEM................................................................................................ 4 CHANGE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................. 4 CHANGE FACTORS THAT INFLUNCE WORK........................................................... 5 LIFE CYCLE MODEL ........................................................................................................ 5 9 BOX MODEL OF RESPONSE TO PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ............................................................................................................................ 7 PLANNING FOR EFFECTIVE CHANGE ....................................................................... 8 CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL .............................................................................. 9 CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS ......................................................................... 10 LEWIN’S THREE STEP MODEL .................................................................................... 12 COMMUNICATION ....................................................................................................... 14 COMMUNICATING THE CHANGE ............................................................................ 15 SUGGESTIONS TO DEAL WITH CHANGE AND AMBIGUITY............................... 16 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................. 17

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INTRODUCTION

Our survival depends on our capability to adapt to the changing situations. It’s true for organizations, small businesses and even people. Change, uncertainty and ambiguity are always fundamental and inevitable part of our lives. Success and growth unavoidably bring about the need for alteration. Therefore, organizations, individuals and leaders of this age need to learn and apply ambition and strategic change concepts. Change management brings in a transition from growth to maturity in the business graph, leading to a more competitive environment. Change management techniques will successfully help people manage challenges and cope with the increasing speed of business. Incorporating change management will require logical analysis, considerate planning, and sensitive implementation to achieve the required outcomes. If change is forced, problems creep in. Thus, change needs to be understood and managed in a way that people and organizations can effectively negotiate and avoid conflicts. CHANGE AND AMBIGUITY Ambiguity is a doubt which stimulates us to inspect, expose and intensify our understanding. It is believed that as you grow in the organization and obtain higher positions, ambiguity is bound to exist. We should be able to tackle ambiguity to be successful. In uncertain situations, this ability helps us to take the right decisions and work efficiently. Ambiguity refers to uncertainty of things, events and information. For example there is confusion created when one word has two or more interpretations. The duck- rabbit picture can either be visualized as a duck or rabbit. This creates ambiguity.

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HUMAN BELIEF SYSTEM Human belief system plays a vital role in dealing with ambiguity. As you get acquainted with all the stages in the belief system, your thinking and vision is clear. Eventually you have a better understanding of all the things around you, thus can perform your tasks efficiently.

Sense of purpose

Competency

Skills

Behaviour

Attitude

Values

Belief

Environment

Human belief system is based on the environment, belief, values, attitude, behaviour, skills, competency and sense of purpose. This system is in the form of a pyramid. The lower stages are interdependent on the upper stages, as we go higher.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT Meaning

Change management is a framework which believes in developing people, groups as well as the organizations from the present scenario to a desired future condition.

If you try to force people to accept the changes made, problems may occur. Changes must be practical, attainable and quantifiable.

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CHANGE FACTORS THAT INFLUNCE WORK Various change factors that influence your work in the organization are listed below:

Merger and acquisition

Technology

Customer

Economy

Competitor

Government

Vendor

Organization

Vision

Financial aspiration

Scope

Culture

Internal communication

Organization structure

Management

Manpower planning

If an organization has a vision, and its employees have competence, then it can deal with all the change factors.

LIFE CYCLE MODEL  18 – 22 years

This age group comprises young individuals who are unmarried. There is a change in the mindset of this age group to become professionals. They are also high on decision making. Their ability to change is high.

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 22 – 30 years This age group comprises young individuals who are married. These individuals have high aspirations. They have great energy and enthusiasm. In this age group, the priorities change from self to family. They also face huge financial problems. These individuals display moderate to high ability to change.  31 – 42 years This age group comprises individuals who become parents and now have their own families to look after. In this age group, life is stable and there is a further change in terms of up gradation of status. The parents of this age group are getting older, so their parents start depending on them. They are moderately ready to change.  42 – 50 years This age group comprises people who have a family, and whose kids are grown- ups. Their children are, now in colleges, and it’s very difficult for this age group, to manage these young adults. In this age group, income is very high. However, a lot of health problems also commence in this age group. They resist change.  50 - 60 years This age group is called the empty nesters. Most of them have achieved their desires and wishes. So, there is hardly any passion left in them. They become very low on relations. They also face emotional issues. They are rigid and unwilling to change.

60+ Retired

50+ Empty nesters

42 - 50 Family college kids

31 - 42 Young family

22 - 30 Married

18 - 22 Single

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 60 years + When people reach up to this age, they retire from their professional fields. They face a lot of problems and health issues. We should also know that different people respond differently to change.

9 BOX MODEL OF RESPONSE TO PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

9

8

7

Individual

Better than the manager

‘A’ graders

Contribution

‘B’ grader

No team development

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4

5

Opportunity lost

Unpredictable chaos

Initial step towards

good leadership

1

2

3

Growth stops

Survive

Self motivation

No credibility

Move up the ladder

Frustration

Low

Medium

High

Emotional intelligence

 Loser A loser is a person, who neither concentrates on his personal life, nor on his organization. His response to both is very low.  Personal life focussed Such a person focusses on personal life, but his response to organizational change is low.  Obsession to personal life Such kind of a person focusses only on personal changes. This person is obsessed with his/her personal life.  Unhappy stagnation

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Such kind of a person gives an average response to organizational change, but gives low response to personal change.  State of flux and pressure Such kind of a person gives medium response to both, personal change as well as organizational change. Hence, in efforts of giving response to both the changes, he feels pressurized.  Steady and slow growth Such kind of a person gives an average response to the organizational changes, but is high on responding to personal changes. He/She grow slow and steady.  Workaholics Workaholics are the people who love to work for long hours. They work 24/7 and enjoy working. They are extremely high in responding to organizational changes, but are extremely low on giving response to personal changes. They hardly enjoy their personal life.  Pressure of work life balance When a person tries to give response to both, personal changes as well as organizational changes, on a medium to high level, he/she experiences pressure to maintain a balance between the two.  Effective zone This is the best zone to be in. In this zone, a person gives high response to both organizational changes as well as personal changes. He equally responds to both organizational as well as personal changes. Such kind of a person, thus, manages the work life balance perfectly.

PLANNING FOR EFFECTIVE CHANGE

Change management has challenges of ambiguity which lacks the clarity on what to change and how to change. Thus, effective change management calls for extensive planning. Change needs to be effectively communicated to all team members through feedforward and feedback process.

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There are three phases of the planning structure:  Getting started – In this phase the one has to plan how change works and how can a formal change management process be implemented.  Organizational issues – Change management is a great tool for an organization but untill and unless people have competencies to apply it change management process is of little use.  Making change management work – In many organizations a cultural shift has to happen in order to effectively implement change management. A proper planning will help to make this cultural shift.

It is critical to realize that, without the commitment to change and the principles to drive change, change management tool is useless.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL This is a change model which shows, how a person behaves, when he experiences change or has to deal with it. It is a process of the different emotional stages faced by

human beings, when they undergo emotional pressure, due to change.  When a person has to face change, initially there is immobilization.

 This is followed by denial of change. In this stage, a person hesitates to accept any kind of change. This increases emotional pressure. When a person denies the change, and if this denial is not accepted, the person tends to get angry.

Anger

Acceptance

Active

Bargaining

Testing

Denial

Immobilization

Depression

Passive

Time

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 In the anger stage, emotional pressure is also very high. The stage from denial to anger consumes a lot of time.  After the anger stage, bargaining takes place. This is the stage where adjustments are made regarding the particular change. A person bargains, so that the change is minimized or zeroed. Bargaining too, consumes a lot of time.

 Bargaining is followed by depression. Here the emotional pressure drops down drastically. A person is depressed, as he has no other option, than to accept the change.  After the depression stage, testing is done related to the change. Things that affect the change, are analyzed and examined. In this stage average emotional pressure is experienced.  When testing is completed, the change is accepted. This stage also experiences a high emotional pressure. The best way to deal with change is to accept it immediately and start looking for a solution.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

The change management process is based on the pyramid below. The process indicates that when the change is visualized, it can be implemented with sheer dedication, motivation and commitment.

It is also followed by benchmarking and managing resistance towards change. The skills of people are concentrated upon, while applying change.

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Focus people skills

Change agent

Manage resistance

Accountability

Implementation of plan and benchmark

Commitment

Motivation

Vision

Change management process: The change management process indicates that when the change is visualized, it can be implemented with sheer dedication, motivation and commitment. Following steps need to be undertaken for efficiently managing changes:  Input – This is the first stage where innovative ideas are evolved to control change.  Brainstorming – In this stage the core team members sit together and think creatively to find unique solutions to stabilize change. Brainstorming helps in discussing the situation, proposed actions and general directions.  Planning – The teams need to plan comprehensively to mitigate risks. Getting the right input and making the right decisions help in leading the business in a correct direction.  Budget – It is the teams’ responsibility to present the plan to the management for the final approval. This phase will be applicable only if the input included requires budgeting.

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 Implement – Careful implementation needs to be pursued by teams for incorporating successful changes in the organization.  Control and measure – These two phases when combined together help in rightly organizing change which will further help in change measurement.

Need and idea involved

Input

Creative thinking in teamwork

Brainstorming

Enterprise risk management

Planning

Management’s responsibility in return

Budget

Your responsibility

Implement

Your responsibility

Control

Impact of ideas

Measure

Change management is followed for benchmarking and managing resistance towards change.

LEWIN’S THREE STEP MODEL Lewin’s three step model is also called as unfreeze – change – refreeze model. Lewin proposed that the way people are today, is due to the incidences they have experienced and the learning which they have obtained. He also stated that change can be experienced in three steps. In first step the old behaviour is unfreezed. Second stage comprises shifting and changing to a new phase of behaviour or situation. The

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third and the last stage is the refreeze stage, wherein the projected behaviour or situation is made permanent.

Change

Ensures that employees are ready for change

Ensures that the change becomes permanent

Execute the intended change

Unfreeze

Refreeze

 Step 1 – Unfreeze In this stage, situations are created so that people show some interest towards change. Initially people are hesitant to inculcate any change. However, the challenge lies in shifting the people to an unfrozen state wherein they are ready to accept the change.  Stage 2 – Transition In this stage, transition takes place. People are open to change and hence changes are implemented. The ultimate aim of this stage is to modify the process individual and organization.  Stage 3 - Refreeze The aim over here is to refreeze the change implemented. The change brought about in the previous stage is institutionalized, reinforced and made permanent in this stage. This model states that organizational change is a shift from one stable phase through some development, to another stable phase. It is important to consider this while attempting to change individuals.

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COMMUNICATION Communication is the exchange of thoughts, ideas, opinions, etc between two or more people. The communication process takes place between a sender and a receiver. It is effective only if the receiver understands the message of the sender clearly. It plays a vital role in dealing with ambiguity. The communication process

Medium

Barrier

Sender

Receiver

Feedback/Response

Effective communication means expressing your ideas, views unambiguously. It also states that the information which you obtain from others should be clearly conveyed to you. This will avoid creating any ambiguous situations at the work place. The communication process consists of five stages: Phase I – Encoder Encoder represents a person who conveys the message. Encoding is the process to choose and formulate the information that is to be conveyed. The proper communication of the information by an encoder depends upon the sender’s attitude and the transmitter i.e. the mode of communication.

Phase II – Message The message is denoted as the information which is being transmitted in the form of either verbal or non verbal data.

Phase III – Channel The channel as the name suggests is the path through which the message is transferred. A communication channel or a medium should be first chosen to

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communicate your message effectively. Examples of medium to convey your message could be telephone, email, mobile etc.

Phase IV – Receiver The receiver is a person to whom messages are conveyed. The effective communication depends on how well the receiver has understood the message. Communication proves to be successful only when the response of the receiver is the same as expected by the communicator. Phase V – Feedback Feedback is stated as the reaction given by the receiver to the conveyed message. This feedback may be in the internal or external form. Effective feedback allows the communicator to relook at his message and make it better. Without feedback it is difficult to understand whether the receiver has understood the meaning of the message. Feedback also shows the attitude, insight and understanding or lack of it. So, feedback is important to successfully complete the communication process and make it unambiguous. Effective communication is a critical element in the successful management of change. Effective leadership, a clear vision, sound values and commitments are crucial to delivering successful organizational change but are worthless if they are not communicated successfully. Following are the practices to communicate the change effectively:  Tell people as much as possible  Chose a personal mode of communication  Keep a record of commutations  Communicate the context of change  Communicate the consequence of change COMMUNICATING THE CHANGE

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SUGGESTIONS TO DEAL WITH CHANGE AND AMBIGUITY  Incrementalism

Incrementalism means executing the change gradually. Individuals make mistakes and take decisions to improve them progressively. Hence they are more exposed to ambiguity and can deal with it effectively.  Perfectionist Perfectionism is not necessary but many individuals are trying to achieve this quality. In order to avoid risks and make decisions in the right way, collect the essential information to build up your confidence.  See the challenge Most people are happy with what they know and can handle very well. However a very few people are motivated to face the uncertainty and confusion and take it as a challenge to solve it. You must initiate in exploring new things and also learning them sincerely.  Discipline If there arises any ambiguity, you have to take the initiative to solve it and set your priorities based on your mission. Discipline in a person is a key to his success.  Problem definition When there is an ambiguous situation, try to find out the reasons behind it. Constantly ask questions. Try to identify the root cause of every issue. This often brings clarity of solution automatically.  Visualize the problem Try and foresee the problems which are formed or yet to form. Figure out solutions as to how you can tackle such problems under uncertainty. Methods

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such as, drawing a rough diagram or pictorial chart as to how to proceed further with this problem helps a lot in solving it and having a clear vision.

 Develop a philosophical stance toward failure/criticism Most of the innovations, proposals do not work out as you had expected. It is necessary to take learning from these failures by designing frequent feedback.

 Relax When stressed out, people become angry. We may not be able to control ourselves if we are anxious, upset, frustrated and dealing with ambiguity. When you experience such things, you need to keep aside the problem for some time. Indulge yourself in things which you enjoy. When you gain sufficient control on yourself, try dealing with the problem once again.

 Finishing Dealing with ambiguity involves completing an unfinished task. Correct your mistakes and go about each task incrementally and complete them.

CONCLUSION

A change always carries the feeling of fear, as it always deals with unfamiliar situations. We all face change in our lives, so does leaders in organizations. In today’s world the most important competency for leaders is "dealing with complex challenges". The leadership skills required for this competency include change management and adaptability. Change is continual, constant and unavoidable. To survive

and sustain in life, we must be able to deal with change and ambiguity. Thus, leaders in organizations need to be masters in change management to develop resiliency. Mastering change is the ability to learn, adapt, and apply what we learned to other circumstances

References: www.odportal.com, www.wikipedia.org, www.mindtools.com

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