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THE COVER Expanding Port Infrastructure Along the Texas Gulf Coast – story on page 10 CHANNELS ENVIRONMENTAL + SUSTAINABILITY 12 Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Charging STRUCTURES + BUILDINGS 13 A New Approach to Structural Health Monitoring 15 Precasteel Makes Maiden Voyage at LaGuardia Airport TRANSPORTATION + INFRASTRUCTURE 17 IIJA and the Need for Multimodal Traffic Transformation 18 Fiber Reinforced Polymer Meets Modern Challenges 20 Timely Preservation Improves Performance and Longevity of Concrete Overlay on Asphalt Pavement 22 Roads and Bridges: Digital Delivery For a Safe, Durable and Reliable Future
25 Paradigm-Shifting Infrastructure in Cairo 26 Updating the Memphis International Airport WATER + STORMWATER 28 A Catalyst for Development BUSINESS NEWS 31 Insights on Global Aviation Infrastructure SOFTWARE + TECH
32 Big data and AI: The Building Blocks of the Future of Engineering 33 Telematics + Transportation: How to Make Sure You are Ready for the 3G to 4G transition of your telematics devices?
departments 8 Events 38 Reader Index
Columns 5 Industry insights: A New Understanding of Infrastructure Tom Godin 6 Looking Back, Moving Forward: The Mother Road, the
Road of Flight Luke Carothers
VOLUME 8 ISSUE 8 csengineermag.com
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Industry insights I applaud the professionals who are hard at work improving our physical infrastructure – our roads and bridges, water systems, public transit, power and transmission systems, and com- munications networks. Infrastructure keeps our society moving and connected and allows our livelihoods to flourish. In our politics today, folks in that arena are starting to talk about things like affordable and ac- cessible childcare as infrastructure too. There’s a point to be made there. When I was asked to contribute to this edition of Civil + Structural Engineer, I immediately thought of a book published in 1992 and that I read (skimmed) two decades ago. Stuck in Traf- fic. Coping with Peak Hour Traffic Congestion by Anthony Downs, at the time a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution. I live in the Washington DC area where peak hour traffic congestion is notorious. And not far from my home a major infrastructure project is underway, the widen - ing and improvement of Interstate 66. Downs argued that relieving traffic congestion through infrastructure projects – adding capacity with lanes, for example – provides only temporary relief because of three shifts that occur in the behavior of drivers: temporal, modal, and spatial. Drivers who avoided peak hour by traveling early or later switch back to traveling during the busiest windows. Drivers who opted for public transportation (or bikes, or walking) switch back to cars. And drivers who avoided the highway by taking different routes go back to the highway. Downs made a case that additional measures – policy changes or economic incentives – were required to deal with peak hour congestion. The behavior shifts would otherwise lead right back to congestion. I’m not an engineer or policy maker and the point of this isn’t to argue about any of this. I am, however, a business advisor to engineering firms so I wanted to draw a connection between this book and our industry today. Engineering firms are congested with work today and are trying hard every day to add capacity in terms of engineering and technical staff. If enough capacity was available, I think three simi- lar shifts would occur. Work that is being done outside of standard core hours could be done in the typical 8 to 5 window. Work that is getting subcontracted out could be brought back in house. And work that your firms may be passing up entirely now could be pursued. All things being equal, these seem like positive shifts. When we talk about infrastructure inside engineering firms – especially considering plans to add staff capacity – we talk about the usual suspects. You need to make sure that there are enough offices, desks and chairs - computers and software licenses – sufficient bandwidth and server space. But I think in our context, firm leaders need to expand the definition of infrastructure to include policies, practices and procedures– the management operating systems of their firm broadly, and both formal and informal. Are these things capable of standing up to the complexi - ties inherent in a larger organization? Or is a firm setting itself up for disappointment – where adding capacity just leads to the same problems just now at a larger scale. If you are metaphorically Stuck in Traffic and would like to talk about your firm’s management infrastructure, please get in touch with me. If you are literally stuck in traffic, I hope at least that it is on the way to the beach or a great vacation spot, because as important as your contributions are to improving our country’s infrastructure, you deserve a little time off.
A New Understanding of Infrastructure
TOM GODIN is an advisor within Zweig Group’s Strategic Planning team. Contact him at email@example.com.
looking back, moving forward The Mother Road, the Road of Flight
Popular culture has always had a fascination with roads. From Walt Whitman to ZZ Top to Langston Hughes, art has always reflected a fascination with roads–both in what they allow us to do and how they are made. In Ameri - can culture, few roads are as ubiquitous as the U.S. Highway 66. First commissioned in 1926 and fully paved by 1938, Route 66 not only provided a road for trucking through the Southwest and linked small town to small town, it represented salvation for many Americans as they fled the ravages of the dust bowl and the destitution of the Great Depression. Now known simply as Route 66, this infrastructure project came to represent the first all-weather highway linking Chicago and Los Angeles. As cars and trucks became more and more popular at the turn of the 20th century, the need to expand American infrastructure from dirt roads to paved highways was almost immediately evident, if not always unanimously agreed as the best course of action. Route 66 was given its name in 1926, although it was labeled as U.S. High - way 60 on one map and Highway 65 on the another. Route 66’s development into a fully paved highway was not always smooth, and it took a confluence of technological development, economic circumstance, international athletics, and good old fashioned showmanship to see the project fully realized. With developments in automotive technology, owning a car was suddenly not out of the realm of possibility for many Americans and shipping goods via truck was soon a viable option for farms and businesses. These develop - ments provided the perfect setting for an advertising campaign for both Route 66 and the 1932 Summer Olym- pics in Los Angeles. Just before the games began, the U.S. Highway 66 Association, which had been formed to advocate for the route’s paving, took out a newspaper ad urging people to use Route 66 to travel to the games. This wasn't the U.S. Highway 66 Association’s first attempt at etching the road in people’s minds. A few years after Route 66 was established, the Association sponsored a footrace from Los Angeles to New York City, with the western portion through Chicago taking place on the road. Shortly after, thousands and thousands of Americans found themselves economically destitute as a result of the Great Depression. In small rural towns along Route 66, many people found themselves out of work, and had to be creative to earn the means of their survival. The new highway provided an economic opportunity for many of these people. Many families in these small communities set up restaurants, gas stations, roadside attractions, motels, and other businesses to service the flow of people and goods along the highway. In the popular consciousness, it is these “mom and pop” businesses that form much of our cultural memory of this remarkable piece of infrastructure. To this day, countless small restaurants and businesses from Missouri to California still bear this legacy in their name if not also in their origin. Another legacy of Route 66, although remembered less fondly, forms another significant piece of our cultural memory. During the 1930s, America was hit with one of the worst man made natural disasters of all time–the Dust Bowl. Without sufficient knowledge to back up advances in farming equipment technology, farmers throughout the Great Plains had overworked the region’s topsoil, killing the native grasses that held the soil in place during months of drought. The result was massive, billowing clouds of dust, sometimes referred to as “black tornadoes” or “black blizzards.” For the people living in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Arkansas, these storms and the hardship that blew in with them were too much to bear. These people fled west to California, using Route 66 as their primary means of egress to what they hoped would be the promised land. This plight was immortalized in John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath in which the Joad family is forced to move from their Oklahoma farm after they default on a bank loan. In the novel, Steinbeck refers to Route 66 as “the mother road, the road of flight.” Released in 1939, the book was subsequently adapted into a film starring Henry Fonda the following year–testifying to its cultural significance. Following the end of World War II, Route 66 had become fully entrenched in the American psyche. The fluidity and comfort afforded by this infrastructure project formed almost a new frontier, where Route 66 was now the primary means of egress to a better life. Route 66 is not the oldest, nor the longest American road, but it existed at a time when it was needed most. Although Route 66 was removed from the American Highway System in 1985, it still exists in sections, plaques, and aging roadside attractions. The time and place for Route 66 has passed, and its physical marks on the American landscape will continue to fade, but it will never be erased from the cultural memory of Americans. It can now stand as both a place of nostalgia and a lesson moving forward–that infrastruc - ture can be a place of salvation for Americans when the chips are down, and that the state of our infrastructure is indicative of our ability to serve the needs of our communities.
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We are pleased to announce that after our successful virtual conference in 2020 and our first ever hybrid in Bordeaux in 2021, we will return in-person to Belgrade and host it for the first time there. For the NSG2022, we’ll introduce the first of its kind or rebranded 3rd Conference on Airborne, Drone and Robotic Geophysics along with the 28th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, and the 4th Conference on Geophysics for Mineral Exploration and Mining in this attractive region of Europe. Balkans and especially Serbia is a region that our near-surface geoscience community would benefit to be present and exchange knowledge on a variety of emerging topics and societal challenges from access to the critical raw materials in this important era of energy transition and climate action to environmental issues as well as geohazards, water accessibility for agriculture, and archaeology. We have deliberately combined the newly branded conference of “robotic geophysics” with mineral exploration and mining geophysics to showcase new technologies emerging from these sectors so that the two parallel conferences would complement each other and attract new faces to our events. https://eage.eventsair.com/nsg2022/ Built for SketchUppers by SketchUppers, 3D Basecamp is where modelers of all levels come to learn and share their 3D skills. During 3D Basecamp, the best of the best share their tips, workflows and extensions. Whether you are just getting started or polishing your skills, the learning sessions at 3D Basecamp are jam-packed with knowledge that will enhance your workflow and get you modeling better in no time. Without a doubt, you'll walk away with something new. Sessions and training cover a variety of industries, topics and skill levels. We attract the best trainers and experts to be your SketchUp sherpas at 3D Basecamp. Discover what is possible when you are surrounded by people who inspire you. https://3dbasecamp.sketchup.com SketchUp 3D Basecamp 2022 september 26-30– Vancouver, BC AU 2022 is your opportunity to learn and connect with industry experts who are progressing architecture, engineering, construction, design, manufacturing, and media and entertainment. This year, we’re covering key topics to help improve your business—from driving digital transformation to building resilience through sustainability and cloud- based solutions. https://www.autodesk.com/autodesk-university/conference/overview Business of Automated Mobility Forum: Flight Path to UAM 2022 september 27-28 According to the Federal Aviation Administration, “Urban Air Mobility (UAM) envisions a safe and efficient aviation transportation system that will use highly automated aircraft that will operate and transport passengers or cargo at lower altitudes within urban and suburban areas. UAM will be composed of an ecosystem that considers the evolution and safety of the aircraft, the framework for operation, access to Autodesk University september 27-29– New Orleans, LA
Leadership Skills for AEC Professionals August 11-12 – New Orleans, la
Practical leadership skills are vital to the health and success of every company in any industry. Effective leaders motivate their teams to achieve exceptional results, inspire others to be better than they thought possible, and create an environment where their team is focused and working towards a common vision. Zweig Group’s team of management experts – who have extensive experience working with AEC firms providing solutions to the challenges facing AEC firms today – deliver practical solutions that technical professionals can put to work immediately to lead their firms to success. https://zweiggroup.com/products/leadership-skills-for-aec- professionals-2022 Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have torpedoed into earth sciences during the last couple of years. The enormous potential and freedom they give to scientists is more and more evident each day. UAVs are at the brink of being in the common "toolbox" for every scientist in the very near future. Yet few universities have UAV courses in their program, therefore it is quite hard for most of us to get a solid introduction and overview of the myriads of different UAV set-ups, sensors and associated workflows. https://uav.ut.ee/ september 2022 UAV 2022 summer school in Tartu August 22-26– Tartu, Estonia Commercial UAV Expo Americas is the definitive event for professionals integrating or operating commercial UAS. With top-notch education, thousands of attendees, and more exhibitors than any other commercial drone event, it’s the best opportunity of the year for anyone who needs to keep up with commercial UAS technology, trends, and developments. https://www.expouav.com/ The 2022 ElevateAEC Conference and Awards Gala registration is open for the annual in-person conference in Las Vegas, September 14-16. Celebrate the iconic black-tie awards gala 2022 winners of the Hot Firm list, Best Firms To Work For, Marketing Excellence, Rising Stars, Top New Ventures and the Jerry Allen Courage In Leadership Awards. Register now for the AEC industry’s top IN-PERSON learning and networking event of the year. https://zweiggroup.com/pages/annual-in-person-elevate-leadership-summit Commercial UAV expo september 6-8 – las vegas, nv ElevateAEC Conference & Awards Gala september 14-16– las vegas, nv
Near Surfave Geoscience Conference & Exhibition september 18-22– Belgrade, Serbia
airspace, infrastructure development, and community engagement.” In support of this evolution, this virtual event will equip attendees with the most current regulatory and operational updates about UAM. https://hopin.com/events/uam-2022 October 2022 Following a record-breaking UAS Summit & Expo in 2021, we are ready to build off last year’s excitement in the Sili-Drone valley,” said Dayna Bastian, program coordinator for UAS Magazine and the UAS Summit & Expo. “Drone usage is increasing rapidly, and we are looking to showcase presentations reflecting a variety of sectors including counter-drone, emergency management, agriculture, military operations, government and commercial usage and operations, research UAS Summit & Expo October 4-5 – Grand Forks, ND CMAA's Annual Conference, CMAA2022, is CMAA's flagship event which includes a comprehensive exhibit hall, plenary and breakout sessions, and the annual Industry Recognition Awards where our annual Project Achievement Awards, Person of the Year, and other individual honors are presented. Join CMAA in San Diego for three days of education, collaboration, and celebration for CMAA2022. This year’s event, a celebration of CMAA’s 40th Anniversary, will feature unmatched educational programming, solution and technology providers, invaluable connections and networking, and recognition of the projects and people that help define the construction management industry. https://www.cmaanet.org/cmaa2022 Chicago Build 2022 features 2 unmissable days of content (300+ Speakers and Workshops); an Expo; Networking; Women in Construction; Meet the Buyer and a Festival of Construction. Conference topics include: Government Contracts & Policy, Sustainability, Real Estate, Architecture, BIM & Digital Construction, Health & Safety, Future Construction, and Skills Hub, as well as AIA CES Workshops. https://www.chicagobuildexpo.com/welcome and development, and more. www.TheUASsummit.com CMAA Annual Conference October 9-11 – San Diego, Ca Chicago Build Expo October 13-14 – Chicago, IL
Integro Conference October 18-20 – Colorado Springs, CO
The INTERGEO Conference reflects the motto "Inspiration for a smarter world" in all its facets. It shows current developments in surveying: from spatial reference and positioning to 4D geodata and geospatial IoT to mobile mapping applications. Trending topics such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the diverse application possibilities of the Digital Twins , but also the current requirements for the Smart City and rural areas have their place in the conference. In the context of climate change , the digital acquisition of data via remote sensing satellites, UAV, TLS or other sensors offers opportunities and solutions for a more sustainable human interaction with nature. The focus is also on the technology trends of tomorrow and the importance of digital realities. https://www.intergeo.de/de/conference Chief Executive Summit for the Architecture, Engineering, COnsulting Industry October 25-27 – Scottsdale, AZ We anticipate a full schedule of events including a data presentation on the latest trends, opportunities, and challenges in the AEC industry, keynote speakers, and panel discussions with CEOs to discuss KPI performance, M&A, internal ownership transition, leadership, diversity, technology, ESG, and the "new normal." https://aec-advisors.regfox.com/2022-chief-executive-summit This crossover event brings together users from across infrastructure sectors, creating a rich and valuable learning environment for organizations to move their location intelligence forward with GIS. Join professionals specializing in infrastructure management from several interconnected industries—water; electric and gas; district heating and cooling; pipeline; telecom; transportation; and architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC). https://www.esri.com/en-us/about/events/imgis/overview November 2022 The Design-Build Conference & Expo comes at a critical time in our nation’s history. As Owners work to deliver infrastructure investment projects across all sectors and regions, they’re looking for qualified design-build teams. This event provides a unique opportunity for industry and Owners to come together with the shared goal of delivering the nation’s most collaborative, innovative and efficient projects. https://dbia.org/design-build-conference-expo/ Esri Infrastructure Management & GIS Conference October 31-November 2 – Palm Springs, CA DESIGN-BUILD CONFERENCE & EXPO November 2-4 – Las Vegas, NV
ACEC Fall Conference October 16-19 – Colorado Springs, CO
ACEC Fall Conferences occurs every fall across the United States, Caribbean and Canada. Over 1000 attendees attend educational sessions, major networking events, forums, roundtables and ACEC/ PAC fundraising events. https://www.acec.org/conferences/fall-conference1/
Recent supply chain delays and price increases have brought key aspects of our nation’s infrastructure into the forefront. Among these pieces of infrastructure are our ports. According to the U.S. Department of Trans - portation, water is the leading mode of transportation for international freight, providing key links between highways, pipelines, and railroads. One of the most rapidly expanding areas in terms of port infrastructure is the Texas Gulf Coast. Along the coast in Texas, ports are continually growing–servicing both public port authori- ties and private companies. Expanding Port Infrastructure Along the Texas Gulf Coast By Luke Carothers
Recently, the Port of Houston started work on Project 11, which will include a widening and deepening of the Houston Ship Channel. Be - ginning in the Gulf and running through Galveston to near downtown Houston, this channel is home to not only port authorities, but some of the largest petrochemical and industrial complexes in the world. Project 11 will take place over the course of five years, and aims to alleviate some of the congestion the area now faces. Other ports in the area, such as Freeport and Corpus Cristi, have also started work on similar projects to expand their ship channel. In both the public and private sectors, one company has established itself as synonymous with the growth of port infrastructure along the Texas Gulf Coast. McCarthy Building Companies, a general con- tractor, is a nationwide company that works in nearly every state. Founded in 1864, McCarthy services several different specialty markets, and started working in port infrastructure nearly 25 years ago. McCarthy’s Marine & Industrial business unit is headquartered in Houston, Texas. In the current day, McCarthy has an established presence in this sector, having worked with all the major public port authorities in the area and several private petrochemical owners in the Greater Houston market. McCarthy’s presence in developing port infrastructure along the Texas Gulf Coast is indicative of both their expertise and the vitality of the area to the nation’s infrastructure. For example, the Port of Houston has now been expanded to a 25-mile-long complex of nearly 200 private and public terminals. These expansions support the Port of Houston’s position as the number one port in the United States in terms of total waterborne tonnage, foreign waterborne tonnage, and number of vessels. McCarthy has been a huge part of the Port of Houston’s growth in importance. Recently, McCarthy has worked for the Port Houston Authority (PHA) on the Bayport Wharf 6 and Container Yard 3N at Barbours Cut Terminal.
These two projects will have a significant impact on the Port’s ability to handle high flows of container shipping traffic. The firs phase of the Bayport facility, where McCarthy is currently working on the Wharf 6 project, was constructed around 20 years ago. According to Fitz O’Donnell, Sr. VP of Operations for McCarthy, these twenty years of operation have seen a gradual build out of the wharf facilities, container storage, and gate complexes. The Wharf 6 project, which extends the Bayport facility to the west, broke ground in the Sum- mer of 2021. According to O’Donnell, the project is nearing halfway completion with its scheduled end date during Summer 2023. This project involves adding 1,000 linear feet of container crane wharf. Adjacent to Wharf 5, the scope of this project included dredging, drilled shaft foundation work, earthwork, structural concrete, crane- infrastructure support, and paving. The Barbours Cut Terminal, on the other hand, is a much older facility. First constructed in the 1970s, the facility is currently undergoing a decade-long transformation to modernize the facility, and McCarthy has been a critical part of that. O’Donnell points out that the need to modernize the facility came when plans to expand the Panama Canal were realized, making cargo ships even bigger. In turn, this means that facilities have to update infrastructure–such as larger cranes–to unload these ships. In many cases this results in the need for sig- nificant expansion. When the Barbours Cut facility was constructed in the 70s, the standard rail for the cranes was 50 feet–now, according to O’Donnell, the standard is 100 feet. Since 2013, McCarthy has completed three projects at the Barbours Cut Terminal. These projects involved selectively demolishing sections of the wharf, strengthening the existing wharf, and making it wide enough for the ship-to-shore cranes to operate. McCarthy’s work is not limited to the Houston area, however, as they are currently working on several projects at other places along the Gulf. Earlier this year, McCarthy started construction on the Port of
the removal of a birm from a levee. Part of the Freeport Hurricane Flood Protection Project, a stabilization wall had to be constructed before the project began to ensure its integrity. McCarthy was hired to deliver the Levee Stabiliza - tion project, which called for a 3,800-line foot steel combina - tion wall (combi-wall) that crowned Dow Levee Road. The project was completed in less than three months, finish - ing before the start of hurri- cane season. In 2019, McCarthy was awarded the Velasco Container Terminal Expansion for Port Freeport, Texas, which is the single largest project built by a public port on the Texas Gulf Coast. This 925-foot extension of the current berth is meant to accommodate post-Panamax gantry cranes and includes the construction of Berth 8. The
Beaumont’s Main Street Terminal 1, which will increase the port’s general cargo handling capacity by more than 15 percent. The main dock for the Port of Beaumont, the original structure collapsed in 2012. This means that McCarthy has to first demolish the entire dock–which will be made difficult due to no water visibility. This demolition process is critical as any remaining portions of the dock could hinder pile driving installation. However, despite its challenges, this demolition process provides op - portunity for a complete redesign of the terminal–placing sustainability and resiliency at the forefront. This will come to fruition in the form of key building elements such as concrete piles that provide a corrosion- resistant foundation and a final concrete topping slab to be constructed with synthetic concrete reinforcing fibers. By opting for synthetic con - crete reinforcing fibers rather than traditional welded steel wire mesh, the surface will be corrosion-proof, slowing deterioration. The Main Street Terminal 1 project in Beaumont is scheduled for completion in mid-2024. Another rapidly expanding port along the Texas Gulf Coast is Port Freeport, located 60 miles from downtown Houston. In addition to constructing new facilities and container terminals, Port Freeport is currently also deepening its waterways with the $295 million Free - port Harbor Channel Improvement project. The Harbor Channel Improvement project will deepen the waterway from its previous depth of 46 feet to 56 feet. Before dredging could commence on the Harbor Channel Improvement project, levee stabilization had to be completed. The waterway’s widening and deepening called for
scope of McCarthy’s work on this project includes the demolition of the existing concrete relieving platform, excavation, combi-wall bulkhead, new wharf, wharf piling, dredging, slope protection, fend- ers, electrical, and crane rail installation. Part of this project includes dredging the berth to 56 feet, which matches the depth of the Freeport Harbor Channel Improvement project. There are understandable challenges that come with working on such a large project. It will require approximately 29,200 tons of steel piling, but the challenge is that the piles have extremely tight driving toler- ances. This will require a 20+ foot template to ensure accurate align - ment of the pilings. In addition, slope protection grout mats will be placed between the piles with extreme care being taken to not damage the new piling. The project is scheduled to be completed later this year. The expansion of ports along the Texas Gulf Coast is indicative of a trend in infrastructure investment and expansion. The size and volume of container shipping over the last few years has resulted in an increas- ing number of long term expansion projects throughout the region from both private and public entities. As these projects continue to receive funding and support, companies like McCarthy are poised to serve a critical role in what this infrastructure looks like in the future.
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
August 2022 csengineermag.com
One of the leading solutions to reducing carbon emissions is the replacing of traditional gas engine cars with electric vehicles. Par - ticularly within the United States where billions of dollars are being allocated to improving and maintaining vehicle infrastructure, electric vehicles represent a viable solution for limiting carbon emissions in some capacity. However, current limitations on electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure need to be removed to demonstrate their viability. Although many experts project a steep rise in the number of EVs on the road over the next few years, there are currently large areas of the country that have inadequate infrastructure to support this rise in EVs. Several programs, initiatives, and private entities are pushing to extend the current network of EV charging stations in the United States, mak - ing longer distance trips to any part of the country a reality for EV users. Programs such as Electrify America and the Electric Highway Coalition and companies such as Tesla are leading the push for the further development of EV charging infrastructure. The absence of a robust EV charging infrastructure network results in anxiety for EV users. Like combustion engines, EV have a limited range of travel before refueling. However, unlike gas cars, EV users don’t have the luxury of a charging station at every exit like we see with gas stations. This causes what is known as “range anxiety” where EV users are less likely to take long trips in their vehicle. Although EV charging infrastructure is becoming more widespread, there are still significant portions of the map that don’t provide easy re-charging options for EV users. Matthew Selkirk, a Project Engineer at Dew - berry, says that this lack of EV infrastructure means that EV users are often “siloed'' in their options, meaning they are forced to travel certain routes. This is especially prevalent in rural places like Western Loui - siana, Western North Carolina, or rural Texas, according to Selkirk. With current projections seeing the number of EVs on the road increase significantly over the next few decades, it's critical that infrastructure projects be undertaken that reduce the level of range anxiety and pre - vent siloing. The majority of EV users make a single trip to work and back every day, totalling less than 50 miles. For this, an at home level 2 EV charger is ideal, requiring a hard wired connection to the home's electric panel. However, as more EVs are on the road, their capacities have to expand if they are to replace gas powered cars. According to Dave Revette, a Professional Engineer at Dewberry, one of the first steps in this process is constructing adequate Level 3 EV charging sta - tions along various routes across the country. Level 3 EV charging consists of DC, fast charging ports that power the battery at a vastly quicker rate than a level 2 charger or plugging into an outlet at home. By constructing these Level 3 EV charging stations along alternative Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Charging By Luke Carothers
fuel routes, range anxiety can be reduced, and EVs will become a much more viable option for users on longer trips. Much of our current EV charging infrastructure in the United States has been in development for over a decade, and, according to Selkirk, there has been a significant amount of development during that time. Selkirk also believes that the development of these new infrastructure networks mirrors a shift in the way vehicle infrastructure is designed and developed. Much of the new EV charging infrastructure is being constructed with exclusivity, meaning it is separate from the existing fueling stations. There is a recent trend in EV charging infrastructure towards greenfield development. While this is a positive in its future effect of fueling infrastructure, this means that instead of small scale, rapid-deployment engineering projects, many of these are becoming larger in scale. By requiring “full blown site civil design”, according to Selkirk, the lead time on these greenfield EV solutions is increased from one month to three or four. The end goal of the numerous differ- ent initiatives to improve EV charging infrastructure–both public and private–is to create a robust, nation-wide network of easy-to-access stations. One of the biggest challenges of doing such a thing is inherent to its very nature. The process of creating an EV charging network that spans multiple states and jurisdictions creates opportunities in some places and challenges in others, which has partially resulted in siloing. Despite the challenges posed by working across numerous jurisdic - tions, the rate of construction for EV charging infrastructure is on the rise as a result of both public and private partnerships between dif- ferent entities. As these new networks are being built out, this is an opportunity to learn from our past infrastructure mistakes, using this as a space to build a network that is designed with traditionally under- served communities in mind. In doing so, EVs and the infrastructure necessary to support them represent fertile ground to build a future transportation network that is designed from the standpoint of sustain- ability and equality.
LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at email@example.com.
A New Approach to Structural Health Monitoring By Luke Carothers
One of the most frequent topics of conversation in the AEC industry is the collection and analysis of structural data. Engineers rely on a wide range of sensors to give them critical information about the per- formance of structures. When it comes to structural health monitoring, sensors show how forces such as strain are affecting a structure over time. The ability to collect reliable data has become critical to the work of engineers. One of the companies with a long established tradition of working towards these ends is Phase IV Engineering. Scott Dalgleish is the CEO of Phase IV Engineering, which has been a pioneer in wireless sensor design and manufacturing for the last 30 years. Dalgleish has a strong background in engineering. After graduating with his degree in Mechanical Engineering, he spent the next 35 years working in different capacities in the engineering industry. Dalgleish’s first job after graduating was on the manufacturing side, working for Procter & Gamble before moving to work for a robotics start up company. This robotics company designed and sold their own electrical and mechanical equipment. When Dalgleish joined Phase IV Engineering 13 years ago, he says their primary focus was contract engineering work in the area of wireless sens- ing. Much of this work involved doing unique wireless sensing projects then passing them off to the customer. However, Dalgleish’s background on the manufacturing side led him to the conclusion that Phase IV should be manufacturing their own products. To this end, Phase IV focused on structural and industrial health monitoring products. Part of the decision to focus on structural health monitoring comes from the difficulties inherent to wirelessly monitoring structures. Not only do Dalgleish and his team “love the challenge” of developing sensors for structural health monitoring, but there is evidently a viable market for embracing the difficulty of developing this equipment. According to Dalgleish, many companies shy away from developing these sensors because of the difficulty. By leveraging the unique skill sets of their design team and embracing the challenge of a difficult problem, Phase IV has gained a bigger and bigger place in the AEC industry. Phase IV was also spurred into structural health monitoring through interactions with customers. When Dalgleish first joined the company, he handled much of the technical and application engineering sales. This meant that he has had a lot of experience talking to customers about what they need and want in a product. One of the primary sec- tors that had needs and wants unmet was Civil and Structural Engineer- ing. One of the first responses to these industry needs was the Leap Product Line.
The Leap is a wireless sensor system, and development began on the product around 3 years ago. There are a few reasons why the Leap system is unique, but chief among these is its modular design. Unlike other wireless sensors, almost every feature of the sensor is modular including the closure, electronics, firmware, software, user interface, and connection to their software. This system of design comes from Dalgleish’s drive to give each customer exactly what they need. Dur - ing his time talking to customers in the industrial and civil engineering sectors, products would be almost what was specified, but not quite. By building a product with a modular design, Dalgleish knew that individual components of the sensor could be switched out to make the product exactly what the customer needed for a specific project. In - stead of completely engineering a sensor to meet the customer’s needs, the Leap allows for smaller modifications that take only a few days. While the Leap Sensor certainly isn’t the only wireless sensor on the market, Dalgleish believes it has several features that set it apart and make it unique in the civil engineering market space. For example, Leap can interface with several “difficult types of sensors” such as full bridge strain sensors. Despite being one of the most widely used sen - sors in the civil engineering sector, it can still be difficult to gather valid strain data because of the relatively low output from the sensors. To account for this, the Leap is designed with a high precision strain input. However, the Leap is not just limited to strain data input. According to Dalgleish, it can be interfaced with any sensor a civil engineer would need to complete their job. It is this broad range of capabilities that set the Leap System apart from other sensors in the market. The Leap Wireless Sensor System represents a paradigm shift towards a modular and truly wireless future. The system’s unique features make it a valuable tool for not only engineers, but also for professionals working in the industrial sector. By coupling this modular design with a high-life battery system, the Leap Wireless Sensor system seems capable of help - ing tackle the many challenges of the AEC industry’s future. LUKE CAROTHERS is the Editor for Civil + Structural Engineer Media. If you want us to cover your project or want to feature your own article, he can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
August 2022 csengineermag.com
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Precasteel Makes Maiden Voyage at LaGuardia Airport
By Brian M. Fraley
Bringing a new product to market is never an easy task, especially when it is being supplied to a large joint venture working on a high- profile project like the $8-billion Central Terminal Replacement Proj - ect at New York’s LaGuardia Airport. Walsh Construction and Skanska USA, operating as the Design-Build Joint Venture of Skanska-Walsh on this project for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA - NYNJ), decided to put Stay-In-Place-Fascia-Forms (SIPFF) to work on two bridges that carry vehicular traffic between terminals. Addressing the “Rusting of America” This precast fascia form was patented by Precasteel LLC of Skillman, New Jersey. It is essentially an L-shaped piece of precast concrete de - signed to stay in place and serve as a form for the bridge deck pour and subsequent barrier pour. Precasteel is the brainchild of Gary M. Din - more, P.E. It was conceived based on a trend he noticed over the course of 20 years working on numerous New York City bridge projects with bridge bracket and conventional overhang construction issues. Dinmore recalled learning about the graying of America – caused by the aging of the Baby Boomers – during a Penn State Economics class. He didn’t recognize the significance of this trend at the time and the window of opportunity eventually closed. Despite the missed opportu - nity it left him looking for another trend, which he discovered while inspecting bridges early in his career. “Rather than the graying of America,” Dinmore recalls, “I started thinking of the rusting of America and the fact that our bridges are getting old and need to be replaced.” Recognizing that the seemingly endless inventory of bridges would eventually have to be fixed, especially those built in the post-World War II era, he set out to identify market inefficiencies. Dinmore found what he was looking for in bridge overhang brackets. During his deployment to Lebanon as a member of a Special Forces ‘A’ Detachment, he saw stone aqueducts dating back to the B.C. era with overhangs reportedly constructed in a similar manner with timber falsework for support. He believed there had to be a better way because of advancements in modern materials where concrete can nearly mimic the strength of mild steel; hence the name PRECASTEEL®. Barriers Cleared at LaGuardia Design work at LaGuardia was done in 2018, but construction unfolded in 2019. Precasteel had done research and development and built proto - types and full-scale mock-ups in the past, but this was the first actual job. “This is the first production job on a permanent structure,” says Dinmore. “It was probably the hardest project we could have asked to start with.” There could be no production mistakes on a project of this magnitude.
Precasteel had to slip form a full-scale mock-up at the Lehighton, Pa. facility of its precast supplier, J&R Slaw. It also had to clear the design review process under the scrutiny of WSP USA and HOK. LaGuardia was challenging on several levels. It was a large project requiring approximately 1,800 linear feet of SIPFF panels for two structures, each with nine 100-foot spans of varying soffit widths and two spans with curvature. It also required a deviation from the standard shape. The architect wanted a “Lazy L” shape for aesthetic reasons. The placement of light blisters also required the soffits to be bumped out from 30 to 44 inches. The fact that one bridge used prestress con - crete Bulb T Beams and the other steel girders wide flange beams also required Precasteel to modify hardware during the project to accom - modate the geometry of the two different bridge beam types. The Precasteel design allowed for a ¼-inch gap between panels to pro - vide some construction tolerances since no closure pours were allowed on the structures to avoid contrasts in color. It also helped with the camber, which is essentially the upward deflection built into the bridge beam during fabrication. The camber was necessary for the structure to lay level after the entire deadload was applied. Dinmore confirmed that the gap closed and the panels settled into position along the beams’ edge without consequence when Skanska-Walsh poured the deck. “Everything behaved the way we anticipated,” he says. “The ¼-inch gap gave them a lot of leeway in the field.” One unexpected benefit was that the gap was hidden in the shadows of the chamfered edges upon completion, which made the façade even more aesthetically pleasing. Walsh Construction and Skanska USA, operating as the Design-Build Joint Venture of Skanska-Walsh on this project for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), decided to put Stay-In-Place-Fascia-Forms (SIPFF) to work on two bridges that carry vehicular traffic between terminals.
August 2022 csengineermag.com
jut out from the edges of the bridge to provide support during deck construction. “The conventional alternative to using bridge brackets,” he continues, “is fraught with wasted money and materials.” Dinmore spent 20 years working on high-profile infrastructure proj - ects in Metropolitan New York, the last 6 years as Chief Engineer for a Fortune 500 heavy civil contractor. He saw money wasted on transportation, unnecessary tasks, and the disposal of plywood after bridge brackets were disassembled. Most contractors don’t own bridge brackets that conform to the requirements of today’s construction and those that do often spend time digging them up in the yard for the next project only to find that they have fallen into disrepair. “Every time I would find an area where we were losing money, it traced back to these bridge brackets,” Dinmore says passionately. “The money was going everywhere except into the structural deck where it belonged.” The closer spacing of these costly brackets has exacerbated the prob- lem, according to Dinmore. Contractors used to set them around 36 to 48 inches apart. “They are now putting them much closer and that gets very, very expensive,” he says. “Precasteel eliminates the need for brackets altogether.” Bridge brackets can also impact paving quality. The proximity of the bridge paver screed rail to the brackets causes them to deflect during paving and creates a wave, or a washboard effect, in the concrete deck along the barrier that often collects water and eventually scales. The damage is often discovered after the project is completed but the war - ranty has not expired, leaving the contractor with the unexpected cost of diamond grinding or deck replacement depending upon available concrete cover over the deck reinforcing steel. Precasteel is not subject to this issue since the paver screed rail is located along the centerline of the fascia beam as opposed to the panel itself. Precasting and Installing Precasteel J&R Slaw produced the panels at its Lehighton plant with Precasteel performing periodic quality inspections for quality assurance, espe- cially on the first bridge known as the Frontage Road Structure (FRS). No plant inspectors were present from PANYNJ; although the author - ity did station an inspector at the plant for ramp L29, the second of the structures. All Precasteel sections were five feet long and 1,000 pounds on average. “It was shown in the design that soffit widths varied, requiring each panel to be custom,” Dinmore recalls. “At the end of the day Slaw did a really good job, especially on the geometry, because everything fit like a glove.” There was no specification for Precasteel so guidelines from the Archi - tectural Precast Association (APA) were adopted early on. The recom - mended slender ratio dictated an increase in thickness from 2 ½ to 3 inches and a minimum concrete compression strength of 6,500 psi to avoid shrinkage and stress cracks. All Precasteel sections were palletized, stacked on a flatbed trailer, and shipped off to LaGuardia. Upon arrival, Skanska-Walsh crews
The gap also eliminated rework and scheduling issues for Skanska- Walsh. In one instance, a panel was damaged prior to installation and needed to be replaced. The crew was able to continue setting panels, butting them tightly together, and skipping over the damaged panel location until a new one could be installed. They used a flat bar to make some minor adjustments to adjacent panels and the final panel fit perfectly. “You don’t have to stop just because you don’t have one piece of the puzzle,” says Dinmore. “That ¼-inch gap helped. It gave the contractor plenty of room to drop it in without banging against the other panels.” Deviating from the Original Design Precasteel was originally designed with a 90-degree angle. The archi - tect at LaGuardia; however, was going for a different aesthetic. The vertical axis tilts back as a result, which Dinmore dubbed the “lazy L.” Aesthetics are, in fact, what drove the specification of Precasteel over conventional methods at LaGuardia. The tilted back panel would have required extra bracing, whereas precast concrete was able to be formed without additional costs. The architect discussed the use of white concrete for the facade, but Precasteel suggested that standard concrete would be a close match. They worked with its precast supplier J&R Slaw to provide samples and it was approved. The Problem with Bridge Brackets “There are inherent problems with bridge brackets,” said Dinmore. These triangular brackets, consisting of steel and heavy-duty plywood, Precasteel was originally designed with a 90-degree angle. The architect at LaGuardia wanted to achieve a different aesthetic so the vertical axis tilts back as a result.
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